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1.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(7): 1548.e5-1548.e7, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To present guidance for clinicians caring for adult patients with acuteischemic stroke with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The summary was prepared after review of systematic literature reviews,reference to previously published stroke guidelines, personal files, and expert opinionby members from 18 countries. RESULTS: The document includes practice implications for evaluation of stroke patientswith caution for stroke team members to avoid COVID-19 exposure, during clinicalevaluation and conduction of imaging and laboratory procedures with specialconsiderations of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy in strokepatients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Conclusions-The summary is expected to guide clinicians caring for adult patientswith acute ischemic stroke who are suspected of, or confirmed, with COVID-19infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Disease Management , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology and progression of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) by removing the pathogenic cytokines is hypothesized to dampen CRS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes of the patients with COVID-19 having CRS being treated with TPE compared to controls on the standard of care. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective propensity score-matched analysis in a single centre from 1st April to 31st July 2020. We retrospectively analyzed data of 280 hospitalized patients developing CRS initially. PSM was used to minimize bias from non-randomized treatment assignment. Using PSM 1:1, 90 patients were selected and assigned to 2 equal groups. Forced matching was done for disease severity, routine standard care and advanced supportive care. Many other Co-variates were matched. Primary outcome was 28 days overall survival. Secondary outcomes were duration of hospitalization, CRS resolution time and timing of viral clearance on Polymerase chain reaction testing. RESULTS: After PS-matching, the selected cohort had a median age of 60 years (range 32-73 in TPE, 37-75 in controls), p = 0.325 and all were males. Median symptoms duration was 7 days (range 3-22 days' TPE and 3-20 days controls), p = 0.266. Disease severity in both groups was 6 (6.6%) moderate, 40 (44.4%) severe and 44 (49%) critical. Overall, 28-day survival was significantly superior in the TPE group (91.1%), 95% CI 78.33-97.76; as compared to PS-matched controls (61.5%), 95% CI 51.29-78.76 (log rank 0.002), p<0.001. Median duration of hospitalization was significantly reduced in the TPE treated group (10 days vs 15 days) (p< 0.01). CRS resolution time was also significantly reduced in the TPE group (6 days vs. 12 days) (p< 0.001). In 71 patients who underwent TPE, the mortality was 0 (n = 43) if TPE was done within the first 12 days of illness while it was 17.9% (deaths 5, n = 28 who received it after 12th day (p = 0.0045). CONCLUSION: An earlier use of TPE was associated with improved overall survival, early CRS resolution and time to discharge compared to SOC for COVID-19 triggered CRS in this selected cohort of PS-matched male patients from one major hospital in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Int J Stroke ; 15(5): 540-554, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: On 11 March 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 infection a pandemic. The risk of ischemic stroke may be higher in patients with COVID-19 infection similar to those with other respiratory tract infections. We present a comprehensive set of practice implications in a single document for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute ischemic stroke with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The practice implications were prepared after review of data to reach the consensus among stroke experts from 18 countries. The writers used systematic literature reviews, reference to previously published stroke guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and when appropriate, formulate practice implications. All members of the writing group had opportunities to comment in writing on the practice implications and approved the final version of this document. RESULTS: This document with consensus is divided into 18 sections. A total of 41 conclusions and practice implications have been developed. The document includes practice implications for evaluation of stroke patients with caution for stroke team members to avoid COVID-19 exposure, during clinical evaluation and performance of imaging and laboratory procedures with special considerations of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy in stroke patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: These practice implications with consensus based on the currently available evidence aim to guide clinicians caring for adult patients with acute ischemic stroke who are suspected of, or confirmed, with COVID-19 infection. Under certain circumstances, however, only limited evidence is available to support these practice implications, suggesting an urgent need for establishing procedures for the management of stroke patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cerebral Angiography , Comorbidity , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Health Personnel , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Patient Isolators , Perfusion Imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombophilia/blood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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