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Mult Scler ; 28(13): 2106-2111, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079315


BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with anti-CD20 or fingolimod showed a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in pwMS on different disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). METHODS: Data on the number of vaccinated patients and the number of patients with a breakthrough infection were retrospectively collected in 27 Italian MS centers. We estimated the rate of breakthrough infections and of infection requiring hospitalization per DMT. RESULTS: 19,641 vaccinated pwMS were included in the database. After a median follow-up of 8 months, we observed 137 breakthrough infections. Compared with other DMTs, the rate of breakthrough infections was significantly higher on ocrelizumab (0.57% vs 2.00%, risk ratio (RR) = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.74-4.58, p < 0.001) and fingolimod (0.58% vs 1.62%, RR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.75-4.00, p < 0.001), while there were no significant differences in any other DMT group. In the ocrelizumab group the hospitalization rate was 16.7% versus 19.4% in the pre-vaccination era (RR = 0.86, p = 0.74) and it was 3.9% in all the other DMT groups versus 11.9% in the pre-vaccination period (RR = 0.33, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is higher in patients treated with ocrelizumab and fingolimod, and the rate of severe infections was significantly reduced in all the DMTs excluding ocrelizumab.

COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104042, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819477


BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with MS (pwMS) under different DMTs and to identify correlates of reduced protection. METHODS: This is a prospective Italian multicenter cohort study, long-term clinical follow-up of the CovaXiMS (Covid-19 vaccine in Multiple Sclerosis) study. 1855 pwMS scheduled for SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination were enrolled and followed up to a mean time of 10 months. The cumulative incidence of breakthrough Covid-19 cases in pwMS was calculated before and after December 2021, to separate the Delta from the Omicron waves and to account for the advent of the third vaccine dose. FINDINGS: 1705 pwMS received 2 m-RNA vaccine doses, 21/28 days apart. Of them, 1508 (88.5%) had blood assessment 4 weeks after the second vaccine dose and 1154/1266 (92%) received the third dose after a mean interval of 210 days (range 90-342 days) after the second dose. During follow-up, 131 breakthrough Covid-19 infections (33 during the Delta and 98 during the Omicron wave) were observed. The probability to be infected during the Delta wave was associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured after 4 weeks from the second vaccine dose (HR=0.57, p < 0.001); the protective role of antibodies was preserved over the whole follow up (HR=0.57, 95%CI=0.43-0.75, p < 0.001), with a significant reduction (HR=1.40, 95%CI=1.01-1.94, p=0.04) for the Omicron cases. The third dose significantly reduced the risk of infection (HR=0.44, 95%CI=0.21-0.90,p=0.025) during the Omicron wave. INTERPRETATION: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is mainly associated with reduced levels of the virus-specific humoral immune response. FUNDING: Supported by FISM - Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla - cod. 2021/Special-Multi/001 and financed or co-financed with the '5 per mille' public funding.

COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103581, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433160


BACKGROUND: In patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) affects immune response to antigens. Therefore, post-vaccination serological assessments are needed to evaluate the effect of the vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. METHODS: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study enrolling pwMS who were scheduled for SARS-Cov-2 vaccination with mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech,Inc or mRNA-1273, Moderna Tx,Inc). A blood collection before the first vaccine dose and 4 weeks after the second dose was planned, with a centralized serological assessment (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA, Roche-Diagnostics). The log-transform of the antibody levels was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. FINDINGS: 780 pwMS (76% BNT162b2 and 24% mRNA-1273) had pre- and 4-week post-vaccination blood assessments. 87 (11·2%) were untreated, 154 (19·7%) on ocrelizumab, 25 (3·2%) on rituximab, 85 (10·9%) on fingolimod, 25 (3·2%) on cladribine and 404 (51·7%) on other DMTs. 677 patients (86·8%) had detectable post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. At multivariable analysis, the antibody levels of patients on ocrelizumab (201-fold decrease (95%CI=128-317), p < 0·001), fingolimod (26-fold decrease (95%CI=16-42), p < 0·001) and rituximab (20-fold decrease (95%CI=10-43), p < 0·001) were significantly reduced as compared to untreated patients. Vaccination with mRNA-1273 resulted in a systematically 3·25-fold higher antibody level (95%CI=2·46-4·27) than with the BNT162b2 vaccine (p < 0·001). The antibody levels on anti-CD20 therapies correlated to the time since last infusion, and rituximab had longer intervals (mean=386 days) than ocrelizumab patients (mean=129 days). INTERPRETATION: In pwMS, anti-CD20 treatment and fingolimod led to a reduced humoral response to mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. As mRNA-1273 elicits 3·25-higher antibody levels than BNT162b2, this vaccine may be preferentially considered for patients under anti-CD20 treatment or fingolimod. Combining our data with those on the cellular immune response to vaccines, and including clinical follow-up, will contribute to better define the most appropriate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strategies in the context of DMTs and MS. FUNDING: FISM[2021/Special-Multi/001]; Italian Ministry of Health'Progetto Z844A 5 × 1000'.

Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , Cladribine/adverse effects , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/adverse effects , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome