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Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 29(2): 519-539, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298836


OBJECTIVE: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), thrombosis of the dural sinus, cerebral veins, or both, is a rare cerebrovascular disease. Although mortality rates after CVT have declined over time, this condition can result in devastating neurologic outcomes. This article reviews the latest literature regarding CVT epidemiology, details new factors associated with the development of CVT, and describes advances in CVT treatment. It also contains a discussion of future directions in the field, including novel diagnostic imaging modalities, and potential strategies to reduce the risks associated with CVT. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: The incidence of CVT may be as high as 2 per 100,000 adults per year. It remains a difficult condition to diagnose given its variable clinical manifestations and the necessity of neuroimaging for confirmation. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed a novel CVT trigger, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), as well as an association between COVID-19 infection and CVT. Although VITT is a very rare event, timely diagnosis and treatment of CVT due to VITT likely improves patient outcomes. Direct oral anticoagulants are currently being used to treat CVT and emerging data suggest that these agents are as safe and effective as vitamin K antagonists. The role of endovascular therapy to treat CVT, despite a recent clinical trial, remains unproven. ESSENTIAL POINTS: The incidence of CVT has increased, outcomes have improved, and the use of direct oral anticoagulants to treat CVT represents an important advance in the clinical care of these patients. Rates of CVT as a complication of COVID-19 vaccines using adenoviral vectors are very low (<5 per million vaccine doses administered), with the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination far outweighing the risks.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Humans , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922