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Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1821-1830, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278363


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019, and the outbreak rapidly evolved into the current coronavirus disease pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus that causes symptoms similar to those caused by influenza A and B viruses. On July 2, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization for in vitro diagnostic use of the Influenza SARS-CoV-2 Multiplex Assay. This assay detects influenza A virus at 102.0, influenza B virus at 102.2, and SARS-CoV-2 at 100.3 50% tissue culture or egg infectious dose, or as few as 5 RNA copies/reaction. The simultaneous detection and differentiation of these 3 major pathogens increases overall testing capacity, conserves resources, identifies co-infections, and enables efficient surveillance of influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1380-1392, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202277


Co-infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other viruses has been reported. We evaluated cell lines commonly used to isolate viruses and diagnose related diseases for their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Although multiple kidney cell lines from monkeys were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, we found many cell types derived from humans, dogs, minks, cats, mice, and chicken were not. We analyzed MDCK cells, which are most commonly used for surveillance and study of influenza viruses, and found that they were not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. The low expression level of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor and lower receptor affinity to SARS-CoV-2 spike, which could be overcome by overexpression of canine angiotensin converting enzyme 2 in trans, strengthened the cellular barrier to productive infection. Moreover, a D614G mutation in the spike protein did not appear to affect SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism. Our findings should help avert inadvertent propagation of SARS-CoV-2 from diagnostic cell lines.

COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Animals , Cats , Cell Line , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics