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1.
Surgeon ; 20(5): 275-283, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing numbers of female medical students, surgery remains male-dominated. PURPOSE: To highlight the principal career obstacles experienced by aspiring female surgeons. METHODS: A narrative review of literature on the position and career barriers of female surgeons has been conducted, using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. MAIN FINDINGS: Implicit and even explicit biases against female surgeons remain prevalent, negatively impacting their training performance and overall professional trajectory. Female surgeons are globally underrepresented in leadership positions and senior academic rankings, especially that of a full professor. They feel hampered by lack of effective mentorship, whose value for a successful career has been acknowledged by all medical students, surgeons and surgical leaders. Their work-life imbalance is sometimes expressed as lower likelihood than their male contemporaries of getting married or having children and may be attributed to their conventional association with the role of caretaker, their personal desire to accommodate occupational and family duties and the inadequate implementation of parental leave and childcare policies. Female surgeons' "infertility" may be further explained by direct and indirect pregnancy-related difficulties. Female surgeons are also financially undercompensated compared to their male contemporaries. Finally, specialty-specific challenges should not be overlooked. CONCLUSIONS: While encouraging steps have been made, women in surgery feel still hindered by various obstacles. The qualitative, interview-based nature of current literature requires more meticulous studies on these barriers with a more quantitative and objective approach. Attenuation of gender imbalance in surgical specialties requires further changes in mentality and more targeted modifications in relevant policies.


Subject(s)
General Surgery , Physicians, Women , Specialties, Surgical , Surgeons , Attitude of Health Personnel , Career Choice , Child , Female , General Surgery/education , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Specialties, Surgical/education
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8710, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199313

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results regarding climate and incident SARS-CoV-2 infection, and seasonality of infection rates is debated. Moreover, few studies have focused on COVD-19 deaths. We studied the association of average ambient temperature with subsequent COVID-19 mortality in the OECD countries and the individual United States (US), while accounting for other important meteorological and non-meteorological co-variates. The exposure of interest was average temperature and other weather conditions, measured at 25 days prior and 25 days after the first reported COVID-19 death was collected in the OECD countries and US states. The outcome of interest was cumulative COVID-19 mortality, assessed for each region at 25, 30, 35, and 40 days after the first reported death. Analyses were performed with negative binomial regression and adjusted for other weather conditions, particulate matter, sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, ICU beds, and social distancing. A 1 °C increase in ambient temperature was associated with 6% lower COVID-19 mortality at 30 days following the first reported death (multivariate-adjusted mortality rate ratio: 0.94, 95% CI 0.90, 0.99, p = 0.016). The results were robust for COVID-19 mortality at 25, 35 and 40 days after the first death, as well as other sensitivity analyses. The results provide consistent evidence across various models of an inverse association between higher average temperatures and subsequent COVID-19 mortality rates after accounting for other meteorological variables and predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection or death. This suggests potentially decreased viral transmission in warmer regions and during the summer season.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hot Temperature , Air Pollutants/analysis , Climate , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Models, Statistical , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
3.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1159): 321-327, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158120

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly disrupted the well-established, traditional structure of medical education. Τhe new limitations of physical presence have accelerated the development of an online learning environment, comprising both of asynchronous and synchronous distance education, and the introduction of novel ways of student assessment. At the same time, this prolonged crisis had serious implications on the lives of medical students including their psychological well-being and the impact on their academic trajectories. The new reality has, on many occasions, triggered the 'acting up' of medical students as frontline healthcare staff, which has been perceived by many of them as a positive learning and contributing experience, and has led to a variety of responses from the educational institutions. All things considered, the urgency for rapid and novel adaptations to the new circumstances has functioned as a springboard for remarkable innovations in medical education,including the promotion of a more "evidence-based" approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109946, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459294

ABSTRACT

Geriatric patients seem to be the most vulnerable group in COVID-19. These patients are usually characterized by impaired mobilization and malnutrition. In addition, obesity has been correlated with increased mortality rates after COVID-19 infection, highlighting the role of nutrition in prognosis of COVID-19 as well. In the past, several indices of nutritional status (GNRI) and functional status (ECOG performance status, Barthel Index, Handgrip Strength) have demonstrated a prognostic ability for hospitalized patients with influenza-like respiratory infections from coronavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza and rhinovirus. Our hypothesis suggests that the previously mentioned nutritional and functional status indices, combined with the pneumonia severity index (CRB-65), could be useful in prognosis of morbidity and mortality of the elderly after the novel COVID-19 infection. Our hypothesis, is the first in the literature, which suggests a prognostic association between nutritional status of patients and COVID-19 infection, offering a quick and low-cost prognostic tool for COVID-19 in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Functional Status , Nutritional Status/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Prognosis , Risk Factors
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