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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106121, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the safety of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in patients with stroke and COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter study included consecutive stroke patients with and without COVID-19 treated with IV-tPA between February 18, 2019, to December 31, 2020, at 9 centers participating in the CASCADE initiative. Clinical outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, in-hospital mortality, the rate of hemorrhagic transformation. Using Bayesian multiple regression and after adjusting for variables with significant value in univariable analysis, we reported the posterior adjusted odds ratio (OR, with 95% Credible Intervals [CrI]) of the main outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 545 stroke patients, including 101 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. Patients with COVID-19 had a more severe stroke at admission. In the study cohort, 85 (15.9%) patients had a hemorrhagic transformation, and 72 (13.1%) died in the hospital. After adjustment for confounding variables, discharge mRS score ≥2 (OR: 0.73, 95% CrI: 0.16, 3.05), in-hospital mortality (OR: 2.06, 95% CrI: 0.76, 5.53), and hemorrhagic transformation (OR: 1.514, 95% CrI: 0.66, 3.31) were similar in COVID-19 and non COVID-19 patients. High-sensitivity C reactive protein level was a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation in all cases (OR:1.01, 95%CI: 1.0026, 1.018), including those with COVID-19 (OR:1.024, 95%CI:1.002, 1.054). CONCLUSION: IV-tPA treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was not associated with an increased risk of disability, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation compared to those without COVID-19. IV-tPA should continue to be considered as the standard of care in patients with hyper acute stroke and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Disability Evaluation , Europe , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Iran , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
Neurol Res ; 43(10): 823-830, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347977

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke in China is unknown. This study was aimed to verify the volume change of EVT for acute ischemic stroke affected by COVID-19 and its potential factors.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted via an online questionnaire survey in China. The questionnaire was mainly composed of descriptive information, volume change of EVT for acute ischemic stroke, and the protection status of medical staff.Results: A total of 103 stroke physicians in 28 provinces across China completed the survey questionnaire. A volume decline in EVT for acute stroke occurred in 93 (90.3%) hospitals after lockdown (23 January 2020). Nearly half of the hospitals (51/103, 49.5%) experienced a volume decline of EVT case more than 50% and 14 (13.6%) hospitals completely ceased offering EVT. Hospitals with decline >50% of EVT case had higher proportion of hospitals with a designated area for COVID-19 screening in the emergency room (44/51, 86.3% vs 34/52, 65.4%, p= 0.01) and medical staff in quarantine (19/51, 37.3% vs 7/52, 13.5%, p< 0.01), with lower proportion of hospitals with personal protective equipment protocol (41/51, 80.4% vs 49/52, 94.2%, p= 0.03) than hospitals with decline ≤50%.Conclusions: The volume of EVT for acute ischemic stroke severely declined after lockdown in China. Designating a specific area for COVID-19 screening, insufficient personal protection and understaffing may exacerbate the volume decline of EVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
J Neurol ; 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333064

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We have demonstrated in a multicenter cohort that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) among stroke patients. Whether this delay contributes to meaningful short-term outcome differences in these patients warranted further exploration. METHODS: We conducted a nested observational cohort study of adult acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IVT from 9 comprehensive stroke centers across 7 U.S states. Patients admitted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (1/1/2019-02/29/2020) were compared to patients admitted during the early pandemic (3/1/2020-7/31/2020). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of IVT delay on discharge to hospice or death, with treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 included as an interaction term. RESULTS: Of the 676 thrombolysed patients, the median age was 70 (IQR 58-81) years, 313 were female (46.3%), and the median NIHSS was 8 (IQR 4-16). Longer treatment delays were observed during COVID-19 (median 46 vs 38 min, p = 0.01) and were associated with higher in-hospital death/hospice discharge irrespective of admission period (OR per hour 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, p = 0.03). This effect was strengthened after multivariable adjustment (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.24, p < 0.001). There was no interaction of treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 (pinteraction = 0.65). Every one-hour delay in IVT was also associated with 7% lower odds of being discharged to home or acute inpatient rehabilitation facility (aOR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Treatment delays observed during the COVID-19 pandemic led to greater early mortality and hospice care, with a lower probability of discharge to home/rehabilitation facility. There was no effect modification of treatment delay on admission during the pandemic, indicating that treatment delay at any time contributes similarly to these short-term outcomes.

4.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(6): 707-714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of COVID-19 on acute cerebrovascular disease care across 9 comprehensive stroke centers throughout Los Angeles County (LAC). METHODS: Volume of emergency stroke code activations, patient characteristics, stroke severity, reperfusion rates, treatment times, and outcomes from February 1 to April 30, 2020, were compared against the same time period in 2019. Demographic data were provided by each participating institution. RESULTS: There was a 17.3% decrease in stroke code activations across LAC in 2020 compared to 2019 (1,786 vs. 2,159, respectively, χ2 goodness of fit test p < 0.0001) across 9 participating comprehensive stroke centers. Patients who did not receive any reperfusion therapy decreased by 16.6% in 2020 (1,527) compared to 2019 (1,832). Patients who received only intravenous thrombolytic (IVT) therapy decreased by 31.8% (107 vs. 157). Patients who received only mechanical thrombectomy (MT) increased by 3% (102 vs. 99). Patients who received both IVT and MT decreased by 31.8% (45 vs. 66). Recanalization treatment times in 2020 were comparable to 2019. CSCs serving a higher proportion of Latinx populations in the eastern parts of LAC experienced a higher incidence of MT in 2020 compared to 2019. Mild increase in stroke severity was seen in 2020 compared to 2019 (8.95 vs. 8.23, p = 0.046). A higher percentage of patients were discharged home in 2020 compared to 2019 (59.5 vs. 56.1%, p = 0.034), a lower percentage of patients were discharged to skilled nursing facility (16.1 vs. 20.7%, p = 0.0004), and a higher percentage of patients expired (8.6 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: LAC saw a decrease in overall stroke code activations in 2020 compared to 2019. Reperfusion treatment times remained comparable to prepandemic metrics. There has been an increase in severe stroke incidence and higher volume of thrombectomy treatments in Latinx communities within LAC during the pandemic of 2020. More patients were discharged home, less patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities, and more patients expired in 2020, compared to the same time frame in 2019.

5.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 245-261, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed a tremendous strain on healthcare services. This study, prepared by a large international panel of stroke experts, assesses the rapidly growing research and personal experience with COVID-19 stroke and offers recommendations for stroke management in this challenging new setting: modifications needed for prehospital emergency rescue and hyperacute care; inpatient intensive or stroke units; posthospitalization rehabilitation; follow-up including at-risk family and community; and multispecialty departmental developments in the allied professions. SUMMARY: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 uses spike proteins binding to tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptors, most often through the respiratory system by virus inhalation and thence to other susceptible organ systems, leading to COVID-19. Clinicians facing the many etiologies for stroke have been sobered by the unusual incidence of combined etiologies and presentations, prominent among them are vasculitis, cardiomyopathy, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial dysfunction. International standards of acute stroke management remain in force, but COVID-19 adds the burdens of personal protections for the patient, rescue, and hospital staff and for some even into the postdischarge phase. For pending COVID-19 determination and also for those shown to be COVID-19 affected, strict infection control is needed at all times to reduce spread of infection and to protect healthcare staff, using the wealth of well-described methods. For COVID-19 patients with stroke, thrombolysis and thrombectomy should be continued, and the usual early management of hypertension applies, save that recent work suggests continuing ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Prothrombotic states, some acute and severe, encourage prophylactic LMWH unless bleeding risk is high. COVID-19-related cardiomyopathy adds risk of cardioembolic stroke, where heparin or warfarin may be preferable, with experience accumulating with DOACs. As ever, arteritis can prove a difficult diagnosis, especially if not obvious on the acute angiogram done for clot extraction. This field is under rapid development and may generate management recommendations which are as yet unsettled, even undiscovered. Beyond the acute management phase, COVID-19-related stroke also forces rehabilitation services to use protective precautions. As with all stroke patients, health workers should be aware of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and/or distress developing in their patients and caregivers. Postdischarge outpatient care currently includes continued secondary prevention measures. Although hoping a COVID-19 stroke patient can be considered cured of the virus, those concerned for contact safety can take comfort in the increasing use of telemedicine, which is itself a growing source of patient-physician contacts. Many online resources are available to patients and physicians. Like prior challenges, stroke care teams will also overcome this one. Key Messages: Evidence-based stroke management should continue to be provided throughout the patient care journey, while strict infection control measures are enforced.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Stroke/diagnosis
6.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unprecedented workflow shifts during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have contributed to delays in acute care delivery, but whether it adversely affected endovascular thrombectomy metrics in acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of observational data from 14 comprehensive stroke centers in nine US states with acute LVO. EVT metrics were compared between March to July 2019 against March to July 2020 (primary analysis), and between state-specific pre-peak and peak COVID-19 months (secondary analysis), with multivariable adjustment. RESULTS: Of the 1364 patients included in the primary analysis (51% female, median NIHSS 14 [IQR 7-21], and 74% of whom underwent EVT), there was no difference in the primary outcome of door-to-puncture (DTP) time between the 2019 control period and the COVID-19 period (median 71 vs 67 min, P=0.10). After adjustment for variables associated with faster DTP, and clustering by site, there remained a trend toward shorter DTP during the pandemic (ßadj=-73.2, 95% CI -153.8-7.4, Pp=0.07). There was no difference in DTP times according to local COVID-19 peaks vs pre-peak months in unadjusted or adjusted multivariable regression (ßadj=-3.85, 95% CI -36.9-29.2, P=0.80). In this final multivariable model (secondary analysis), faster DTP times were significantly associated with transfer from an outside institution (ßadj=-46.44, 95% CI -62.8 to - -30.0, P<0.01) and higher NIHSS (ßadj=-2.15, 95% CI -4.2to - -0.1, P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-center study, there was no delay in EVT among patients treated for intracranial occlusion during the COVID-19 era compared with the pre-COVID era.

7.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 41(6): 1179-1192, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061015

ABSTRACT

Cerebrovascular events have emerged as a central feature of the clinical syndrome associated with Sars-CoV-2 infection. This increase in infection-related strokes is marked by atypical presentations including stroke in younger patients and a high rate of hemorrhagic transformation after ischemia. A variety of pathogenic mechanisms may underlie this connection. Efforts to identify synergism in the pathophysiology underlying stroke and Sars-CoV-2 infection can inform the understanding of both conditions in novel ways. In this review, the molecular cascades connected to Sars-CoV-2 infection are placed in the context of the cerebral vasculature and in relationship to pathways known to be associated with stroke. Cytokine-mediated promotion of systemic hypercoagulability is suggested while direct Sars-CoV-2 infection of cerebral endothelial cells may also contribute. Endotheliopathy resulting from direct Sars-CoV-2 infection of the cerebral vasculature can modulate ACE2/AT1R/MasR signaling pathways, trigger direct viral activation of the complement cascade, and activate feed-forward cytokine cascades that impact the blood-brain barrier. All of these pathways are already implicated as independent mechanisms driving stroke and cerebrovascular injury irrespective of Sars-CoV-2. Recognizing the overlap of molecular pathways triggered by Sars-CoV-2 infection with those implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke provides an opportunity to identify future therapeutics targeting both Sars-CoV-2 and stroke thereby reducing the impact of the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/metabolism , Complement Activation , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Stroke/metabolism , Virus Internalization
8.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 201: 106436, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate overall ischemic stroke volumes and rates, specific subtypes, and clinical presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic in a multicenter observational study from eight states across US. METHODS: We compared all ischemic strokes admitted between January 2019 and May 2020, grouped as; March-May 2020 (COVID-19 period) and March-May 2019 (seasonal pre-COVID-19 period). Primary outcome was stroke severity at admission measured by NIHSS stratified as mild (0-7), moderate [8-14], and severe (>14). Secondary outcomes were volume of large vessel occlusions (LVOs), stroke etiology, IV-tPA rates, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Of the 7969 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke during the study period, 933 (12 %) presented in the COVID-19 period while 1319 (17 %) presented in the seasonal pre-COVID-19 period. Significant decline was observed in the mean weekly volumes of newly diagnosed ischemic strokes (98 ± 3 vs 50 ± 20,p = 0.003), LVOs (16.5 ± 3.8 vs 8.3 ± 5.9,p = 0.008), and IV-tPA (10.9 ± 3.4 vs 5.3 ± 2.9,p = 0.0047), whereas the mean weekly proportion of LVOs (18 % ±5 vs 16 % ±7,p = 0.24) and IV-tPA (10.4 % ±4.5 vs. 9.9 % ±2.4,p = 0.66) remained the same, when compared to the seasonal pre-COVID-19 period. Additionally, an increased proportion of patients presented with a severe disease (NIHSS > 14) during the COVID-19 period (29.7 % vs 24.5 %,p < 0.025). The odds of being discharged to home were 26 % greater in the COVID-19 period when compared to seasonal pre-COVID-19 period (OR:1.26, 95 % CI:1.07-1.49,p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 period there was a decrease in volume of newly diagnosed ischemic stroke cases and IV-tPA administration. Patients admitted to the hospital had severe neurological clinical presentation and were more likely to discharge home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurology/trends , Societies, Medical/trends , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology
9.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a small but clinically significant risk of stroke, the cause of which is frequently cryptogenic. In a large multinational cohort of consecutive COVID-19 patients with stroke, we evaluated clinical predictors of cryptogenic stroke, short-term functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality among patients according to stroke etiology. METHODS: We explored clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of consecutively evaluated patients 18 years of age or older with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 31 hospitals in 4 countries (3/1/20-6/16/20). RESULTS: Of the 14.483 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19, 156 (1.1%) were diagnosed with AIS. Sixty-one (39.4%) were female, 84 (67.2%) white, and 88 (61.5%) were between 60 and 79 years of age. The most frequently reported etiology of AIS was cryptogenic (55/129, 42.6%), which was associated with significantly higher white blood cell count, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels than non-cryptogenic AIS patients (p

Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke , United States/epidemiology
10.
Stroke ; 52(1): 40-47, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to an unprecedented paradigm shift in medical care. We sought to evaluate whether the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to delays in acute stroke management at comprehensive stroke centers. METHODS: Pooled clinical data of consecutive adult stroke patients from 14 US comprehensive stroke centers (January 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020) were queried. The rate of thrombolysis for nontransferred patients within the Target: Stroke goal of 60 minutes was compared between patients admitted from March 1, 2019, and July 31, 2019 (pre-COVID-19), and March 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020 (COVID-19). The time from arrival to imaging and treatment with thrombolysis or thrombectomy, as continuous variables, were also assessed. RESULTS: Of the 2955 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1491 were admitted during the pre-COVID-19 period and 1464 were admitted during COVID-19, 15% of whom underwent intravenous thrombolysis. Patients treated during COVID-19 were at lower odds of receiving thrombolysis within 60 minutes of arrival (odds ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.38-0.98]; P=0.04), with a median delay in door-to-needle time of 4 minutes (P=0.03). The lower odds of achieving treatment in the Target: Stroke goal persisted after adjustment for all variables associated with earlier treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.35-0.85]; P<0.01). The delay in thrombolysis appeared driven by the longer delay from imaging to bolus (median, 29 [interquartile range, 18-41] versus 22 [interquartile range, 13-37] minutes; P=0.02). There was no significant delay in door-to-groin puncture for patients who underwent thrombectomy (median, 83 [interquartile range, 63-133] versus 90 [interquartile range, 73-129] minutes; P=0.30). Delays in thrombolysis were observed in the months of June and July. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation for acute ischemic stroke during the COVID-19 period was associated with a small but significant delay in intravenous thrombolysis but no significant delay in thrombectomy time metrics. Taking steps to reduce delays from imaging to bolus time has the potential to attenuate this collateral effect of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
11.
Stroke ; 52(1): 260-270, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased rate of cerebrovascular events including ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. The mechanisms underlying cerebral endothelial susceptibility and response to SARS-CoV-2 are unknown yet critical to understanding the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with cerebrovascular events. METHODS: Endothelial cells were isolated from human brain and analyzed by RNA sequencing. Human umbilical vein and human brain microvascular cells were used in both monolayer culture and endothelialized within a 3-dimensional printed vascular model of the middle cerebral artery. Gene expression levels were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and direct RNA hybridization. Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S protein and S protein-containing liposomes were used to measure endothelial binding by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2) mRNA levels were low in human brain and monolayer endothelial cell culture. Within the 3-dimensional printed vascular model, ACE2 gene expression and protein levels were progressively increased by vessel size and flow rates. SARS-CoV-2 S protein-containing liposomes were detected in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human brain microvascular endothelial cells in 3-dimensional middle cerebral artery models but not in monolayer culture consistent with flow dependency of ACE2 expression. Binding of SARS-CoV-2 S protein triggered 83 unique genes in human brain endothelial cells including upregulation of complement component C3. CONCLUSIONS: Brain endothelial cells are susceptible to direct SARS-CoV-2 infection through flow-dependent expression of ACE2. Viral S protein binding triggers a unique gene expression profile in brain endothelia that may explain the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with cerebrovascular events.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transcriptome , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Models, Anatomic , Stress, Mechanical
12.
Curr Treat Options Neurol ; 22(11): 39, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-848464

ABSTRACT

Objective: To characterize my experience in the inpatient stroke service in an amusing fashion. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic broke out during my time as a stroke fellow. It was a unique experience. Methods: A non-exhaustive review of my memories as a stroke fellow during the COVID-19 pandemic was performed. I sat down and wrote the article. Then, I illustrated the figure. Results: All results are not statistically significant unless otherwise noted. Conclusions: Zoom conferences are a promising technology for stroke services. Further studies are needed to further elucidate their benefits and drawbacks.

13.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 437-447, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significant risk of thrombotic events in critically ill patients. AIM: To summarize the findings of a multinational observational cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort of consecutive adults evaluated in the emergency department and/or admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across 31 hospitals in four countries (1 February 2020-16 June 2020). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of cerebrovascular events, inclusive of acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhages (ICH), and cortical vein and/or sinus thrombosis (CVST). RESULTS: Of the 14,483 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, 172 were diagnosed with an acute cerebrovascular event (1.13% of cohort; 1130/100,000 patients, 95%CI 970-1320/100,000), 68/171 (40.5%) were female and 96/172 (55.8%) were between the ages 60 and 79 years. Of these, 156 had acute ischemic stroke (1.08%; 1080/100,000 95%CI 920-1260/100,000), 28 ICH (0.19%; 190/100,000 95%CI 130-280/100,000), and 3 with CVST (0.02%; 20/100,000, 95%CI 4-60/100,000). The in-hospital mortality rate for SARS-CoV-2-associated stroke was 38.1% and for ICH 58.3%. After adjusting for clustering by site and age, baseline stroke severity, and all predictors of in-hospital mortality found in univariate regression (p < 0.1: male sex, tobacco use, arrival by emergency medical services, lower platelet and lymphocyte counts, and intracranial occlusion), cryptogenic stroke mechanism (aOR 5.01, 95%CI 1.63-15.44, p < 0.01), older age (aOR 1.78, 95%CI 1.07-2.94, p = 0.03), and lower lymphocyte count on admission (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.34-0.98, p = 0.04) were the only independent predictors of mortality among patients with stroke and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with a small but significant risk of clinically relevant cerebrovascular events, particularly ischemic stroke. The mortality rate is high for COVID-19-associated cerebrovascular complications; therefore, aggressive monitoring and early intervention should be pursued to mitigate poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thrombosis/etiology , Tobacco Use , Young Adult
14.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(10): 927-931, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is currently known about the effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on neurointerventional (NI) procedural volumes or its toll on physician wellness. METHODS: A 37-question online survey was designed and distributed to physician members of three NI physician organizations. RESULTS: A total of 151 individual survey responses were obtained. Reduced mechanical thrombectomy procedures compared with pre-pandemic were observed with 32% reporting a greater than 50% reduction in thrombectomy volumes. In concert with most (76%) reporting at least a 25% reduction in non-mechanical thrombectomy urgent NI procedures and a nearly unanimous (96%) cessation of non-urgent elective cases, 68% of physicians reported dramatic reductions (>50%) in overall NI procedural volume compared with pre-pandemic. Increased door-to-puncture times were reported by 79%. COVID-19-positive infections occurred in 1% of physician respondents: an additional 8% quarantined for suspected infection. Sixty-six percent of respondents reported increased career stress, 56% increased personal life/family stress, and 35% increased career burnout. Stress was significantly increased in physicians with COVID-positive family members (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study designed to understand the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on NI physician practices, case volumes, compensation, personal/family stresses, and work-related burnout. Future studies examining these factors following the resumption of elective cases and relaxing of social distancing measures will be necessary to better understand these phenomena.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physician's Role , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
16.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(8): 726-730, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This survey was focused on the provision of neurointerventional services, the current practices of managing patients under COVID-19 conditions, and the expectations for the future. METHODS: Invitations for this survey were sent out as a collaborative effort of the European Society of Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT), the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS), the Sociedad Iberolatinoamericana de Neuroradiologia Diagnostica y Terapeutica (SILAN), the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN), and the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology (WFITN). RESULTS: Overall, 475 participants from 61 countries responded (six from Africa (1%), 81 from Asia (17%), 156 from Europe (33%), 53 from Latin America (11%), and 172 from North America (11%)). The majority of participants (96%) reported being able to provide emergency services, though 26% of these reported limited resources. A decrease in emergency procedures was reported by 69% of participants (52% in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, 11% ischemic, and 6% hemorrhagic stroke alone). Only 4% reported an increase in emergency cases. The emerging need for social distancing and the rapid adoption of remote communication was reflected in the interest in establishing case discussion forums (43%), general online forums (37%), and access to angio video streaming for live mentoring and support (33%). CONCLUSION: Neurointerventional emergency services are available in almost all centers, while the number of emergency patients is markedly decreased. Half of the participants have abandoned neurointerventions in non-emergent situations. There are considerable variations in the management of neurointerventions and in the expectations for the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 104938, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-210006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), now named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may change the risk of stroke through an enhanced systemic inflammatory response, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial damage in the cerebrovascular system. Moreover, due to the current pandemic, some countries have prioritized health resources towards COVID-19 management, making it more challenging to appropriately care for other potentially disabling and fatal diseases such as stroke. The aim of this study is to identify and describe changes in stroke epidemiological trends before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, hospital-based study on stroke incidence and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We will describe patterns in stroke management, stroke hospitalization rate, and stroke severity, subtype (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (including in-hospital mortality) in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic, comparing them with the corresponding data from 2018 and 2019, and subsequently 2021. We will also use an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to assess the change in stroke hospitalization rates before, during, and after COVID-19, in each participating center. CONCLUSION: The proposed study will potentially enable us to better understand the changes in stroke care protocols, differential hospitalization rate, and severity of stroke, as it pertains to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately, this will help guide clinical-based policies surrounding COVID-19 and other similar global pandemics to ensure that management of cerebrovascular comorbidity is appropriately prioritized during the global crisis. It will also guide public health guidelines for at-risk populations to reduce risks of complications from such comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Neurology ; 95(3): 124-133, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209566

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires drastic changes in allocation of resources, which can affect the delivery of stroke care, and many providers are seeking guidance. As caregivers, we are guided by 3 distinct principles that will occasionally conflict during the pandemic: (1) we must ensure the best care for those stricken with COVID-19, (2) we must provide excellent care and advocacy for patients with cerebrovascular disease and their families, and (3) we must advocate for the safety of health care personnel managing patients with stroke, with particular attention to those most vulnerable, including trainees. This descriptive review by a diverse group of experts in stroke care aims to provide advice by specifically addressing the potential impact of this pandemic on (1) the quality of the stroke care delivered, (2) ethical considerations in stroke care, (3) safety and logistic issues for providers of patients with stroke, and (4) stroke research. Our recommendations on these issues represent our best opinions given the available information, but are subject to revision as the situation related to the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve. We expect that ongoing emergent research will offer additional insights that will provide evidence that could prompt the modification or removal of some of these recommendations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services Needs and Demand , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Ethics, Medical , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Health Resources , Health Services Accessibility , Hospital Bed Capacity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Neurology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
19.
Front Neurol ; 11: 353, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-201814

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has posed a significant challenge to global healthcare. Acute stroke care requires rapid bedside attendance, imaging, and intervention. However, for acute stroke patients who have a diagnosis of or are under investigation for COVID-19, the concern for nosocomial transmission moderates operational procedures for acute stroke care. We present our experience with an in-hospital stroke code called on a COVID-19-positive patient with a left middle cerebral artery syndrome and the challenges faced for timely examination, imaging, and decision to intervene. The outlook for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic necessitates the development of protocols to sustain timely and effective acute stroke care while mitigating healthcare-associated transmission.

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