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1.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; : 99228211065898, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571541

ABSTRACT

To better understand the impact of prenatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on infants, this study sought to compare the risk of hospital visits and of postnatal SARS-CoV-2 infection between infants born to mothers with and without prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this retrospective observational cohort study of 6871 mothers and their infants, overall rates of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions in the first 90 days of life were similar for infants born to mothers with and without prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Infants born to negative mothers were more likely than infants of positive mothers to be hospitalized after ED visit (relative risk: 3.76; 95% confidence interval: 1.27-11.13, P = .003). Five infants tested positive; all were born to negative mothers, suggesting that maternal prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection may protect infants from postnatal infection. The lower acuity ED visits for infants born to mothers with prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection may reflect a heightened level of concern among these mothers.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(18)2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533156

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is high, but breakthrough infections still occur. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 genomes of 76 breakthrough cases after full vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), or JNJ-78436735 (Janssen) to unvaccinated controls (February-April 2021) in metropolitan New York, including their phylogenetic relationship, distribution of variants, and full spike mutation profiles. The median age of patients in the study was 48 years; 7 required hospitalization and 1 died. Most breakthrough infections (57/76) occurred with B.1.1.7 (Alpha) or B.1.526 (Iota). Among the 7 hospitalized cases, 4 were infected with B.1.1.7, including 1 death. Both unmatched and matched statistical analyses considering age, sex, vaccine type, and study month as covariates supported the null hypothesis of equal variant distributions between vaccinated and unvaccinated in χ2 and McNemar tests (P > 0.1), highlighting a high vaccine efficacy against B.1.1.7 and B.1.526. There was no clear association among breakthroughs between type of vaccine received and variant. In the vaccinated group, spike mutations in the N-terminal domain and receptor-binding domain that have been associated with immune evasion were overrepresented. The evolving dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 variants requires broad genomic analyses of breakthrough infections to provide real-life information on immune escape mediated by circulating variants and their spike mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
J Pediatr ; 229: 33-40, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the similarities and differences in the evaluation and treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at hospitals in the US. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 16 to July 16, 2020, of US children's hospitals regarding protocols for management of patients with MIS-C. Elements included characteristics of the hospital, clinical definition of MIS-C, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up. We summarized key findings and compared results from centers in which >5 patients had been treated vs those in which ≤5 patients had been treated. RESULTS: In all, 40 centers of varying size and experience with MIS-C participated in this protocol survey. Overall, 21 of 40 centers required only 1 day of fever for MIS-C to be considered. In the evaluation of patients, there was often a tiered approach. Intravenous immunoglobulin was the most widely recommended medication to treat MIS-C (98% of centers). Corticosteroids were listed in 93% of protocols primarily for moderate or severe cases. Aspirin was commonly recommended for mild cases, whereas heparin or low molecular weight heparin were to be used primarily in severe cases. In severe cases, anakinra and vasopressors frequently were recommended; 39 of 40 centers recommended follow-up with cardiology. There were similar findings between centers in which >5 patients vs ≤5 patients had been managed. Supplemental materials containing hospital protocols are provided. CONCLUSIONS: There are many similarities yet key differences between hospital protocols for MIS-C. These findings can help healthcare providers learn from others regarding options for managing MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(6): 100464, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women are at increased risk for morbidity owing to infection with the COVID-19 virus.1 Vaccination presents an important strategy to mitigate illness in this population. However, there is a paucity of data on vaccination safety and pregnancy outcomes because pregnant women were excluded from the initial phase III clinical trials. Our objective was to describe the maternal, neonatal, and obstetrical outcomes of women who received a messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination while pregnant during the first 4 months of vaccine availability. STUDY DESIGN: This was an institutional review board-approved descriptive study of pregnant women at New York University Langone Health who received at least 1 dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccination approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) from the time of the FDA Emergency Use Authorization to April 22, 2021. Eligible women were identified via search of the electronic medical record (EMR) system. Vaccine administration was ascertained via immunization records from the New York State Department of Health. Women were excluded if they were vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Charts were reviewed for maternal demographics and pregnancy outcomes. Descriptive analyses were performed using the R software version 4.0.2 (The R Foundation, Boston, MA). RESULTS: We identified 424 pregnant women who received an mRNA vaccination. Of those, 348 (82.1%) received both doses and 76 (17.9%) received only 1 dose. The maternal characteristics and vaccination information are shown in Table 1. Of the included women, 4.9% had a history of a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis before vaccination. After vaccination, no patient in our cohort was diagnosed with COVID-19. In terms of the pregnancy outcomes, 9 women had spontaneous abortions, 3 terminated their pregnancies, and 327 have ongoing pregnancies. Of the women included, 85 delivered liveborn infants. There were no stillbirths in our population. Of the 9 spontaneous abortions, 8 occurred during the first trimester at a range of 6 to 13 weeks' gestation. There was 1 second trimester loss. The rate of spontaneous abortion among women vaccinated in the first trimester was 6.5%. The 327 women with ongoing pregnancies have been followed for a median of 4.6 weeks (range, 0-17 weeks) following their most recent dose. A total of 113 (34.6%) women, initiated vaccination during the first trimester, 178 (54.4%) initiated vaccination during the second trimester, and 36 (11.0%) during the third trimester. Following the vaccination, 2 fetuses (0.6%) developed intrauterine growth restriction, whereas 5 (1.5%) were diagnosed with anomalies. Outcomes for the 85 women who delivered are shown in Table 2. Of the women who delivered, 18.8% were diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The rate of preterm birth was 5.9%. One preterm delivery was medically indicated, whereas the remaining 3 were spontaneous. A total of 15.3% of neonates required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Of the NICU admissions, 61.5% were because of hypoglycemia or an evaluation for sepsis. Other reasons for admission included prematurity, hypothermia, and transient tachypnea of the newborn. Of all the neonates, 12.2% were small for gestational age (SGA) per the World Health Organization standards. CONCLUSION: This series describes our experience with women who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy. In line with other published findings,2 we observed no concerning trends. There were no stillbirths. Our 6.5% rate of spontaneous abortion is within the expected rate of 10%,3 and our preterm birth rate of 5.9% is below the national average of 9.5%.4 Our rate of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders is higher than our baseline institutional rate of 9.5%, however, this may be because of the underlying characteristics of our study population or skewing of our small sample size. Our 12.2% rate of SGA neonates is near the expected value based on the definition that 10% of neonates will be SGA at birth. The NICU admission rate is at par with our institutional rate of 12%. To date, most women in this series have had uncomplicated pregnancies and have delivered at-term. Strengths of this study include using the EMR system to identify subjects and gather data. We did not rely on self-enrollment and self-report, thereby reducing selection and recall bias. By performing manual chart reviews, we obtained detailed and reliable information about individual patients. One limitation of this study is the lack of a matched control group consisting of unvaccinated pregnant women and therefore direct conclusions could not be drawn about the relative risks of complications. In addition, our cohort is small and may not be generalizable. Finally, many women included are healthcare workers who had early access to vaccinations. As more pregnant women become eligible for the COVID-19 vaccinations, there is an urgent need to report on the maternal, neonatal, and obstetrical outcomes of COVID-19 vaccinations during pregnancy. The results of this study can be used to counsel and reassure pregnant patients facing this decision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in infants hospitalized for a serious bacterial infection (SBI) evaluation and clinically characterize young infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on infants <90 days of age hospitalized for an SBI evaluation. The study was conducted at 4 inpatient facilities in New York City from March 15, 2020, to December 15, 2020. RESULTS: We identified 148 SBI evaluation infants who met inclusion criteria. A total of 22 infants (15%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; 31% of infants admitted during periods of high community SARS-CoV-2 circulation tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared with 3% when community SARS-CoV-2 circulation was low (P < .001). The mean age of infants with SARS-CoV-2 was higher than that of SARS-CoV-2-negative infants (33 [SD: 17] days vs 23 [SD: 23] days, respectively; P = .03), although no age difference was observed when analysis was limited only to febrile infants. An isolated fever was the most common presentation of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 13; 59%). Admitted infants with SARS-CoV-2 were less likely to have positive urine culture results (n = 1 [5%] versus n = 25 [20%], respectively; P = .002), positive cerebrospinal culture results (n = 0 [0%] versus n = 5 [4%], respectively; P = .02), or be admitted to intensive care (n = 2 [9%] versus n = 47 [37%]; P < .001), compared with infants without SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 was common among young infants hospitalized for an SBI evaluation during periods of high but not low community SARS-CoV-2 circulation in New York City, although most infants did not require intensive care admission.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Age of Onset , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Comorbidity , Female , Fever/microbiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220030

ABSTRACT

New York City quickly became an epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic. An ability to triage patients was needed due to a sudden and massive increase in patients during the COVID-19 pandemic as healthcare providers incurred an exponential increase in workload,which created a strain on the staff and limited resources. Further, methods to better understand and characterise the predictors of morbidity and mortality was needed. METHODS: We developed a prediction model to predict patients at risk for mortality using only laboratory, vital and demographic information readily available in the electronic health record on more than 3395 hospital admissions with COVID-19. Multiple methods were applied, and final model was selected based on performance. A variable importance algorithm was used for interpretability, and understanding of performance and predictors was applied to the best model. We built a model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 83-97 to identify predictors and patients with high risk of mortality due to COVID-19. Oximetry, respirations, blood urea nitrogen, lymphocyte per cent, calcium, troponin and neutrophil percentage were important features, and key ranges were identified that contributed to a 50% increase in patients' mortality prediction score. With an increasing negative predictive value starting 0.90 after the second day of admission suggests we might be able to more confidently identify likely survivors DISCUSSION: This study serves as a use case of a machine learning methods with visualisations to aide clinicians with a better understanding of the model and predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: As we continue to understand COVID-19, computer assisted algorithms might be able to improve the care of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Machine Learning , Algorithms , Forecasting/methods , Humans , New York City , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2243-2245, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153147

ABSTRACT

We report 2 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) in infants presenting with fever in the absence of respiratory distress who required hospitalization for evaluation of possible invasive bacterial infections. The diagnoses resulted from routine isolation and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-based testing for SARS-CoV-2 for febrile infants in an outbreak setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Dyspnea/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Neurol Sci ; 421: 117316, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to review the literature on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in patients with COVID-19 for evidence of viral neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of Medline and Embase between December 1, 2019 and November 18, 2020 to identify case reports or series of patients who had COVID-19 diagnosed based on positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serologic testing and had CSF testing due to a neurologic symptom. RESULTS: We identified 242 relevant documents which included 430 patients with COVID-19 who had acute neurological symptoms prompting CSF testing. Of those, 321 (75%) patients had symptoms that localized to the central nervous system (CNS). Of 304 patients whose CSF was tested for SARS-CoV-2 PCR, there were 17 (6%) whose test was positive, all of whom had symptoms that localized to the central nervous system (CNS). The majority (13/17, 76%) of these patients were admitted to the hospital because of neurological symptoms. Of 58 patients whose CSF was tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibody, 7 (12%) had positive antibodies with evidence of intrathecal synthesis, all of whom had symptoms that localized to the CNS. Of 132 patients who had oligoclonal bands evaluated, 3 (2%) had evidence of intrathecal antibody synthesis. Of 77 patients tested for autoimmune antibodies in the CSF, 4 (5%) had positive findings. CONCLUSION: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in CSF via PCR or evaluation for intrathecal antibody synthesis appears to be rare. Most neurological complications associated with SARS- CoV-2 are unlikely to be related to direct viral neuroinvasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(1): 71-78, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in New York City metropolitan area. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study at 4 hospitals comprising 82 hospitalized children (0-21 years) who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 after symptoms and risk screening between March 1 and May 10, 2020. We subdivided patients on the basis of their admission to acute or critical care units and by age groups. Further subanalyses were performed between patients requiring respiratory support or no respiratory support. RESULTS: Twenty-three (28%) patients required critical care. Twenty-nine (35%) patients requiring respiratory support, with 9% needing mechanical ventilation, and 1 required extracorporeal support. All patients survived to discharge. Children with any comorbidity were more likely to require critical care (70% vs 37%, P = .008), with obesity as the most common risk factor for critical care (63% vs 28%, P = .02). Children with asthma were more likely to receive respiratory support (28% vs 8%, P = .02), with no difference in need for critical care (P = .26). Children admitted to critical care had higher rates of renal dysfunction at presentation (43% vs 10%, P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Children with comorbidities (obesity and asthma in particular) were at increased risk for critical care admission and/or need for respiratory support. Children with renal dysfunction at presentation were more likely to require critical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , New York City , Retrospective Studies
12.
Epilepsia ; 61(10): e135-e139, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780863

ABSTRACT

There have been multiple descriptions of seizures during the acute infectious period in patients with COVID-19. However, there have been no reports of status epilepticus after recovery from COVID-19 infection. Herein, we discuss a patient with refractory status epilepticus 6 weeks after initial infection with COVID-19. Extensive workup demonstrated elevated inflammatory markers, recurrence of a positive nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction, and hippocampal atrophy. Postinfectious inflammation may have triggered refractory status epilepticus in a manner similar to the multisystemic inflammatory syndrome observed in children after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/virology , Status Epilepticus/virology , Aged , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/virology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
13.
J Pediatr ; 226: 64-70, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765222

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of separation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive mother-newborn dyads on breastfeeding outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This observational longitudinal cohort study of mothers with SARS-CoV-2 PCR-and their infants at 3 NYU Langone Health hospitals was conducted between March 25, 2020, and May 30, 2020. Mothers were surveyed by telephone regarding predelivery feeding plans, in-hospital feeding, and home feeding of their neonates. Any change prompted an additional question to determine whether this change was due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Of the 160 mother-newborn dyads, 103 mothers were reached by telephone, and 85 consented to participate. There was no significant difference in the predelivery feeding plan between the separated and unseparated dyads (P = .268). Higher rates of breastfeeding were observed in the unseparated dyads compared with the separated dyads both in the hospital (P < .001) and at home (P = .012). Only 2 mothers in each group reported expressed breast milk as the hospital feeding source (5.6% of unseparated vs 4.1% of separated). COVID-19 was more commonly cited as the reason for change in the separated group (49.0% vs 16.7%; P < .001). When the dyads were further stratified by symptom status into 4 groups-asymptomatic separated, asymptomatic unseparated, symptomatic separated, and symptomatic unseparated-the results remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of COVID-19, separation of mother-newborn dyads impacts breastfeeding outcomes, with lower rates of breastfeeding both during hospitalization and at home following discharge compared with unseparated mothers and infants. No evidence of vertical transmission was observed; 1 case of postnatal transmission occurred from an unmasked symptomatic mother who held her infant at birth.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infant Care/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Maternal Behavior , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant Care/psychology , Infant Care/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infection with a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. There are limited data describing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnant mothers and their newborns. The objective of this study is to describe characteristics and outcomes of maternal-newborn dyads with confirmed maternal SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, descriptive cohort study with data collection from charts of maternal-newborn dyads who delivered at 4 major New York City metropolitan area hospitals between March 1 and May 10, 2020, with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: There were a total of 149 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 149 newborns analyzed (3 sets of twins; 3 stillbirths). Forty percent of these mothers were asymptomatic. Approximately 15% of symptomatic mothers required some form of respiratory support, and 8% required intubation. Eighteen newborns (12%) were admitted to the ICU. Fifteen (10%) were born preterm, and 5 (3%) required mechanical ventilation. Symptomatic mothers had more premature deliveries (16% vs 3%, P = .02), and their newborns were more likely to require intensive care (19% vs 2%, P = .001) than asymptomatic mothers. One newborn tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, which was considered a case of horizontal postnatal transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was no distinct evidence of vertical transmission from mothers with SARS-CoV-2 to their newborns, we did observe perinatal morbidities among both mothers and newborns. Symptomatic mothers were more likely to experience premature delivery and their newborns to require intensive care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(6): ofaa207, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436525
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(12): 3248-3249, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381729

ABSTRACT

Pediatric patients are excluded from most coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapeutic trials. We outline a rationale for the inclusion of children in COVID-19 therapeutic trials, which enabled us to include children of all ages in a therapeutic COVID-19 trial at our institution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Adolescent , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care ; 50(4): 100795, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260604

ABSTRACT

In January 2020, China reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia associated with a novel pathogenic coronavirus provisionally named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). Since then, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in more than 180 countries with approximately 6.5 million known infections and more than 380,000 deaths attributed to this disease as of June 3rd , 2020 (Johns Hopkins University COVID map; https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html) The majority of confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported in adults, especially older individuals with co-morbidities. Children have had a relatively lower rate and a less serious course of infection as reported in the literature to date. One of the most vulnerable pediatric patient populations is cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit. There is limited data on the effect of COVID-19 in fetal life, and among neonates after birth. Therefore there is an urgent need for proactive preparation, and planning to combat COVID-19, as well as to safeguard patients, their families, and healthcare personnel. This review article is based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) current recommendations for COVID-19 and its adaptation to our local resources. The aim of this article is to provide basic consolidated guidance and checklists to clinicians in the neonatal intensive care units in key aspects of preparation needed to counter exposure or infection with COVID-19. We anticipate that CDC will continue to update their guidelines regarding COVID-19 as the situation evolves, and we recommend monitoring CDC's updates for the most current information.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/organization & administration , Maternal-Child Health Services , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Breast Feeding , Breast Milk Expression , COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery Rooms , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Interdisciplinary Communication , Maternal-Child Health Services/organization & administration , New York City/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Visitors to Patients
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