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1.
Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry ; JOUR:S19-S20, 63.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2105188
2.
Expert Syst Appl ; JOUR
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2104913

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This deadly virus has spread worldwide, leading to a global pandemic since March 2020. A recent variant of SARS-CoV-2 named Delta is intractably contagious and responsible for more than four million deaths globally. Therefore, developing an efficient self-testing service for SARS-CoV-2 at home is vital. In this study, a two-stage vision-based framework, namely Fruit-CoV, is introduced for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infections through recorded cough sounds. Specifically, audio signals are converted into Log-Mel spectrograms, and the EfficientNet-V2 network is used to extract their visual features in the first stage. In the second stage, 14 convolutional layers extracted from the large-scale Pretrained Audio Neural Networks for audio pattern recognition (PANNs) and the Wavegram-Log-Mel-CNN are employed to aggregate feature representations of the Log-Mel spectrograms and the waveform. Finally, the combined features are used to train a binary classifier. In this study, a dataset provided by the AICovidVN 115M Challenge is employed for evaluation. It includes 7,371 recorded cough sounds collected throughout Vietnam, India, and Switzerland. Experimental results indicate that the proposed model achieves an Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) score of 92.8% and ranks first on the final leaderboard of the AICovidVN 115M Challenge. Our code is publicly available.

3.
Swiss Medical Weekly ; 152:34S-35S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2040973

ABSTRACT

Background & aims: COVID19 disproportionately affects the immunosuppressed, but its epidemiology over time is incompletely characterised. We describe Australian experiences of COVID19 in a national observational study of patients with malignancy. Methods: An ongoing multisite prospective cohort study of adult COVID19 patients with active cancer was conducted. Clinical and laboratory data over 28 months (1/3/20-22/7/22) was collated from 15 hospitals. Results: There were 491 patients included. Patients were a median of 63(IQR:50-71) years with majority male (254,52%). Solid organ malignancy was most common (296,60%), followed by haematological malignancy (180,37%), then both (15,4%). Most common solid tumour was breast cancer (74/296,25%);most common haematological cancer was lymphoma (102/180,57%). Majority (275,56%) were undergoing cancer treatment at COVID19 diagnosis. From 2020-2022, patients presented less with lower respiratory tract infections (57%,36%,5%) with increasing outpatient management (26%,50%,67%). Improved mortality was seen (27%,19%,11%). Median inpatient length of stay was 8(4-11) days. Intensive care admission was low (21,4%). For patients who had repeated respiratory PCR testing, median time from first to last positive test was 17(7-25, n = 123) days. Cancer treatment modification occurred in 18(4%) and delay in 74(15%). Conclusion: Despite improvements in outcomes, COVID19 still results in morbidity with impacts on cancer treatment. This preliminary data shows that cancer patients remain a vulnerable group and should be prioritised for public health interventions.

4.
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response ; 13(3), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2033360

ABSTRACT

Objective: Differences in clinical manifestations between strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported. This retrospective descriptive study compares the clinical and demographic characteristics of all confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases admitted to the National Isolation Centre (NIC) in the first wave and at the beginning of the second wave of the pandemic in Brunei Darussalam. Methods: All COVID-19 cases admitted to the NIC between 9 March and 6 May 2020 (first wave) and 7-17 August 2021 (second wave) were included. Data were obtained from NIC databases and case characteristics compared using Student's t-tests and chi-squared tests, as appropriate. Results: Cases from the first wave were significantly older than those from the second wave (mean 37.2 vs 29.7 years, P<0.001), and a higher proportion reported comorbidities (30.5% vs 20.3%, P=0.019). Cases from the second wave were more likely to be symptomatic at admission (77.7% vs 63.1%, P<0.001), with a higher proportion reporting cough, anosmia, sore throat and ageusia/dysgeusia;however, myalgia and nausea/vomiting were more common among symptomatic first wave cases (all P<0.05). There was no difference in the mean number of reported symptoms (2.6 vs 2.4, P=0.890). Discussion: Our study showed clear differences in the profile of COVID-19 cases in Brunei Darussalam between the first and second waves, reflecting a shift in the predominating SARS-CoV-2 strain. Awareness of changes in COVID-19 disease manifestation can help guide adjustments to management policies such as duration of isolation, testing strategies, and criteria for admission and treatment.

5.
Anaesthesia ; 77:19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032358

ABSTRACT

Sedation is integral to facilitating interventions on the intensive care unit (ICU), which would otherwise be intolerable;however, in excess it may prolong intubation and lead to brain dysfunction such as delirium [1]. This is a frequently under-diagnosed problem in the ICU, shown to result in worsened neurological outcomes [2]. The Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT), Richmond Agitation- Sedation Score (RASS), Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAMICU) are validated to assess for pain, over-sedation and delirium, respectively. We explored how effectively these were used in a hospital in the Northeast of England to address over-sedation and delirium. Methods Adults intubated and ventilated on critical care were identified, and the most recent 24 h of bedside observation charts examined for completion of 4-h RASS, 4-h CPOT and 12-h CAM-ICU assessments. For those over-sedated during this time, we assessed whether sedation was appropriately titrated or held. Patients on neuromuscular blocking agents, with acute brain injury or with specific indication for deep sedation were excluded. Results Fifty-five patient-days were audited, during which sedation was utilised in 71% (n = 39). Overall, pain and RASS were monitored well, assessed at 88% and 91% of 4-h opportunities, respectively;however, CAM-ICU was recorded at only 15% of opportunities. Where documented, RASS scores were within target (-2 to 1) 45% of the time. Where out of range, this was almost exclusively due to oversedation (RASS ≤ -3). Eighty-five per cent (n = 33) of patients were over-sedated on at least one occasion in the last 24 h. Of these, 39% (n = 13) had their sedation neither titrated nor held during this time. Notably, this was the case for 55% (n = 11) of the 20 patients intubated for COVID-19, in contrast to only 15% (n = 2) of the 13 patients intubated for other reasons. Discussion Over-sedation in ICU remains prevalent despite adequate RASS surveillance. This is particularly true among COVID-19 patients. Further, infrequent CAM-ICU use may result in delirium being missed, carrying risk of adverse neurological outcomes and mortality [2]. We have implemented protocolled PAD pathways within each bed space, to empower nurses to titrate sedation and improve awareness of CAM-ICU. Additionally, we have disseminated education on the harms of over-sedation and unrecognised delirium, and we are evaluating re-audit data to ascertain if there has been a resulting improvement in PAD management for sedated patients.

6.
Biomed Eng Adv ; 4: 100054, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031157

ABSTRACT

With severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as an emergent human virus since December 2019, the world population is susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has higher transmissibility than the previous coronaviruses, associated by the ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus nature with high mutation rate, caused SARS-CoV-2 variants to arise while circulating worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies are identified as immediate and direct-acting therapeutic against COVID-19. Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), as small biomolecules with non-complex structure and intrinsic stability, can acquire antigen-binding capabilities comparable to conventional antibodies, which serve as an attractive neutralizing solution. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein attaches to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on lung epithelial cells to initiate viral infection, serves as potential therapeutic target. sdAbs have shown broad neutralization towards SARS-CoV-2 with various mutations, effectively stop and prevent infection while efficiently block mutational escape. In addition, sdAbs can be developed into multivalent antibodies or inhaled biotherapeutics against COVID-19.

7.
22nd International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications , ICCSA 2022 ; 13381 LNCS:222-235, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013917

ABSTRACT

AR games such as Pokemon Go, Jurassic World Alive and other games encourage us to venture out in the real open world to also see the beauty of it. However, tourism has come almost to a virtual stop during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and recovery is slow. We present a tile-based experience-sharing PixoMap, which incorporates some aspects of smart tourism. For user requirements gathering, we first compare factors that make popular games such as Pokemon Go, Minecraft, and the Sims popular. Findings indicate that people enjoy collecting objects, such as monsters or cards, freedom and creativity, escape and sometimes nostalgia. Our PixoMap game allows players to virtually browse an area in the map, and choose a tile. Each tile contains memories (Memors)/experiences/stories. Users can read others’ experiences and share their own experiences, play a minigame to earn in-game currency, to change his/her 2D avatar or change the tile’s color or optionally, to own the tile. Alpha user feedback confirms and refines our design. Heuristic evaluation and user experience feedback at the end of the study, are positive and encouraging. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

9.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 505-513, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994407

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an uncommon but emerging syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. While the presentation of MIS-C is generally delayed after exposure to the virus that causes coronavirus 2019, both MIS-C and Kawasaki disease (KD) share similar clinical features. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge given the lack of definitive diagnostic tests and a paucity of evidence regarding treatment modalities. We review the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluations, and management of MIS-C and compare its clinical features to those of KD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
10.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 114(1):e20-e21, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1972127

ABSTRACT

In recent years, medical student (MS) applications to U.S. and Canadian radiation oncology (RO) residency programs have declined. The Radiation Oncology Education Collaborative Study Group (ROECSG) recently formed an Undergraduate Medical Education (UGME) committee consisting of attending physicians, residents, and MSs across the globe to further UGME educational efforts. This group identified a need for outreach activities to increase exposure to and interest in RO. In collaboration with LearnOncology, an online, interactive tool to teach oncology skills to learners at all levels, the UGME subcommittee created a structure for a podcast series to highlight oncology careers. This podcast series will be hosted on LearnOncology. Together, these groups identified key topics, informally surveyed MSs, wrote a standardized script, trained interviewers on recording and editing audio content, and set goals for the future scope of the podcast. MS and resident interviewers recently completed training and have scheduled initial faculty interviews. Edited podcast episodes will be ≤20 minutes, conducted informally to spotlight both the career and personality of the interviewee. Prominent oncology specialists (e.g. radiation, surgery, medicine, interventional radiology, and physics) will be featured. Listeners will be prompted to complete a brief survey. Interviewers and interviewees will partake in a separate survey to examine the impact of project participation. Podcast analytics and survey data will guide subsequent iterations of podcast episodes. Podcasts for UGME are a cost-effective teaching method, which gained popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesize that this podcast will be a unique way to positively impact undecided MSs facing the challenge of choosing a career path and increase awareness about oncology specialties. Additionally, this may positively impact mentorship through linking MS and resident interviewers to specialist interviewees. The LearnOncologyXROECSG podcast platform, Cancer Careers, was created to address student questions, anxieties, and excitement related to choosing an oncology career. We expect that this project will increase exposure to oncology and MS interest in oncology careers, including RO. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION ; 65(6):377-385, 2022.
Article in Korean | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1969662

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid increase in the number of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients led to the operation of COVID-19 facilities for patients with mild COVID-19 in South Korea. We analyzed the correlation and effect of risk factors associated with the worsening of patients with mild COVID-19 leading to their transfer from a community treatment center to a hospital. Methods: This retrospective cohort observational study included 1,208 COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms who were admitted to the Namsan Community Treatment Center between June 2020 and January 2021. A chi-square test was performed to examine the differences in the transfer rate by age, sex, nationality, presence of symptoms at admission, and season, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of variables to the hospitalization rate. Results: Of the 1,208 patients, 212 (17.5%) were transferred to a hospital due to clinical deterioration. Increasing odds of hospital transfer were associated significantly with higher age and presentation in autumn, whereas sex and symptomatic illness at admission did not show a statistically significant association. Conclusion: The findings indicate the importance of the initial risk classification of COVID-19 patients based on thorough assessment and close monitoring, timely allocation of appropriate resources to high-risk groups that are likely to develop severe disease, and reduction of medical resource wastage and limiting of administrative force to ensure that patients receive the best treatment.

12.
JOURNAL OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ; 27:S170-S170, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1965413
13.
FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1938609

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought about an opportunity for higher education institutions (HEI) to explore modes of education delivery other than face-to-face (F2F) and remote learning via fully online mode. The HEIs faced challenges for "business to resume as usual" when not all students were able to return to campus due to being held back in their home state or countries due to different stages of lockdown at their locations. At Taylor's, a hybrid learning mode was thought of to be the solution that can cater both to students who are on-campus and those who are off-campus. A pilot project based on a very practical-oriented classroom from the School of Food Studies and Gastronomy (SFSG) and Taylor's Culinary Institute (TCI) was kick-started to ensure a seamless learning experience for the students. The "pandemic pedagogy" based on real-life needs can be an opportunity to scale up learning for borderless learning in the future. This study reports on the initial development process and challenges and the findings from the pilot studies using a design-based research (DBR) approach.

14.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i760, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with glomerulonephritis may have an increased risk of influenza infection and morbidity, but vaccine coverage remained low with little data on acceptance in glomerulonephritis. We aimed to assess influenza vaccine awareness among patients with glomerulonephritis and identify determinants of vaccine acceptance. METHOD: Single-center cross-sectional study of patients with glomerulonephritis who completed a survey in the clinic or over the telephone between June and August 2021. Sociodemographic data, health literacy measured by HLS-EU-47 questionnaire, influenza and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine awareness and determinants of vaccine acceptance according to the World Health Organization framework. RESULTS: Among 86 patients who completed the survey, influenza vaccine awareness was lower than COVID-19 vaccine awareness (75.6% versus 100%). After adjusting for the survey type, use of English language at home and at healthcare settings, higher income and professional or executive occupation were significantly associated with influenza vaccine awareness, while older age and lower education level were associated with reduced awareness. The healthcare provider was the most frequent information source and > 90% trusted that healthcare providers and the government considered the patients' best interests and gave correct information. Only half thought their medical condition and medications would affect their vaccine decision while a quarter to half did not understand how the vaccine worked and thought there were better ways to protect against infection. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers can actively identify and advocate influenza vaccines to the unaware and overcome potential barriers to reduce influenza infections and morbidity in glomerulonephritis.

15.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 176: 106234, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881967

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) have been successfully used as a platform technology for delivering nucleic acids to the liver. To broaden the application of LNPs in targeting non-hepatic tissues, we developed LNP-based RNA therapies (siRNA or mRNA) for the respiratory tract. Such optimized LNP systems could offer an early treatment strategy for viral respiratory tract infections such as COVID-19. METHODS: We generated a small library of six LNP formulations with varying helper lipid compositions and characterized their hydrodynamic diameter, size distribution and cargo entrapment properties. Next, we screened these LNP formulations for particle uptake and evaluated their potential for transfecting mRNA encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP) or SARS-CoV2 nucleocapsid-GFP fusion reporter gene in a human airway epithelial cell line in vitro. Following LNP-siGFP delivery, GFP protein knockdown efficiency was assessed by flow cytometry to determine %GFP+ cells and median fluorescence intensity (MFI) for GFP. Finally, lead LNP candidates were validated in Friend leukemia virus B (FVB) male mice via intranasal delivery of an mRNA encoding luciferase, using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. RESULTS: Dynamic light scattering revealed that all LNP formulations contained particles with an average diameter of <100 nm and a polydispersity index of <0.2. Human airway epithelial cell lines in culture internalized LNPs with differential GFP transfection efficiencies (73-97%). The lead formulation LNP6 entrapping GFP or Nuc-GFP mRNA demonstrated the highest transfection efficiency (97%). Administration of LNP-GFP siRNA resulted in a significant reduction of GFP protein expression. For in vivo studies, intranasal delivery of LNPs containing helper lipids (DSPC, DOPC, ESM or DOPS) with luciferase mRNA showed significant increase in luminescence expression in nasal cavity and lungs by at least 10 times above baseline control. CONCLUSION: LNP formulations enable the delivery of RNA payloads into human airway epithelial cells, and in the murine respiratory system; they can be delivered to nasal mucosa and lower respiratory tract via intranasal delivery. The composition of helper lipids in LNPs crucially modulates transfection efficiencies in airway epithelia, highlighting their importance in effective delivery of therapeutic products for airways diseases.

17.
Acta Medica Philippina ; 56(6):17-26, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841851

ABSTRACT

Background. Physician burnout is a growing problem worldwide. Several interventions aimed at lowering burnout rates among physicians have been implemented. To date, there is no established structured program to combat burnout in the Philippine General Hospital. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the I-CARE program, a physician resilience and wellness program which adapted the different components of the international programs for the Philippine setting. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of the I-CARE program in reducing medical residents’ burnout level. Methods. After key components of the I-CARE program were identified, the program was implemented in 2 phases. The first phase involved training of consultants to hone their facilitation skills. The second phase was a before-and-after study of the I-CARE program. The participants’ burnout level was measured before and after the program using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. The I-CARE program was implemented in the Department of Pediatrics from March to August 2020. There was no significant change in the overall burnout levels of 59 pediatric residents after the I-CARE implementation (p=0.32). This may be due to several challenges encountered during the implementation, such as time constraints, the increased workload caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the lack of physical meetings due to the restrictions of the pandemic. However, the feedback of the administrators, facilitators and residents was generally positive. All the interviewed participants recommended the continuation of the I-CARE program in the Department of Pediatrics. Conclusion. The I-CARE program shows potential in promoting mental health and emotional wellness among physicians in training. © 2022 University of the Philippines Manila. All rights reserved.

18.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335915

ABSTRACT

On November 26, 2021, the World Health Organisation classified the B.1.1.529 SARS-CoV-2 variant as the Omicron variant of concern (VOC). Reports of higher transmissibility and potential immune evasion triggered flight bans and heightened health control measures across the world to stem its distribution. Wastewater-based surveillance has demonstrated to be a useful complement for community-based tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Using design principles of our previous assays that detect VOCs (Alpha and Delta), here we report three allele-specific RT-qPCR assays that can quantitatively detect and discriminate the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants in wastewater. The first assay targets the nine-nucleotide deletion at the L24-A27S of the spike protein for detection of BA.2. The second targets the six-nucleotide deletion at 69-70 of the spike protein for detection of the Omicron BA.1 variant, and the third targets the stretch of mutations from Q493R to Q498R for simultaneous detection of both Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. This method is open-sourced, can be implemented using commercially available RT-qPCR protocols, and would be an important tool for tracking the introduction and spread of the Omicron variants BA.1 and BA.2 in communities for informed public health responses.

19.
Current Psychiatry ; 20(8), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820877
20.
Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education ; 36(2):233-256, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789815

ABSTRACT

The rapid shift to online teaching or emergency remote teaching (ERT) following the COVID-19 pandemic requires a high level of inclusiveness in teaching efforts to ensure children who are at risk for learning are not left behind. Using a mixed-method design, this small-scale study (a) explored the relationship between Malaysian private and international primary school teachers’ attitude towards inclusive teaching during ERT, teaching efficacy, TPACK mastery, and burnout, and (b) identified ERT-specific factors that are associated with the teachers’ attitudes and experiences during ERT. A total of 28 teachers participated in an online survey that comprised four established scales to measure the teachers’ inclusive attitude, teaching efficacy, TPACK, and teacher burnout. The online survey also consisted of open-ended questions about their ERT teaching experiences. Two of the teachers who completed the questionnaire were then interviewed online. Attitude towards inclusive teaching was not correlated with all other variables, but (a) teaching efficacy correlated positively with TPACK mastery, and (b) high teaching efficacy, and high TPACK correlated with low burnout. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data generated four themes that supported the correlational findings: inclusion attitude during ERT, exclusion strategies, prolonged online teaching at home, and parental involvement. Findings imply that pre-pandemic inclusive teaching practices and TPACK were insufficient to fully support inclusive teaching attitude during ERT. New inclusive practices that support prolonged online teaching and effective parental involvement are needed to prevent digital exclusion during ERT. This small-scale study challenged the accessibility of online teaching during ERT and calls for the need to modify or reinvent our understanding of effective support for students with additional needs in fully online and distance learning conditions. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2021.

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