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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457746


Various pathogens, such as Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2, are threatening human health worldwide. The natural hosts of these pathogens are thought to be bats. The rousette bat, a megabat, is thought to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Additionally, the rousette bat showed a transient infection in the experimental inoculation of SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, we established and characterized intestinal organoids from Leschenault's rousette, Rousettus leschenaultii. The established organoids successfully recapitulated the characteristics of intestinal epithelial structure and morphology, and the appropriate supplements necessary for long-term stable culture were identified. The organoid showed susceptibility to Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) but not to SARS-CoV-2 in experimental inoculation. This is the first report of the establishment of an expandable organoid culture system of the rousette bat intestinal organoid and its sensitivity to bat-associated viruses, PRV and SARS-CoV-2. This organoid is a useful tool for the elucidation of tolerance mechanisms of the emerging rousette bat-associated viruses such as Ebola and Marburg virus.

COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Organoids/virology , Orthoreovirus/physiology , Reoviridae Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Chiroptera/physiology , Humans , Intestines/cytology , Intestines/virology , Organoids/cytology , Reoviridae Infections/veterinary
J Infect Chemother ; 27(9): 1350-1356, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267752


INTRODUCTION: Several clinical studies have reported the efficacy of favipiravir in reducing viral load and shortening the duration of symptoms. However, the viability of SARS-CoV-2 in the context of favipiravir therapy and the potential for resistance development is unclear. METHODS: We sequenced SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal specimens collected from patients who participated in a randomized clinical trial of favipiravir at hospitals across Japan between March and May 2020. Paired genomes were sequenced from those who remained RT-PCR-positive 5-8 days into favipiravir therapy. Daily nasopharyngeal specimens from 69 patients who were RT-PCR-positive at randomization were examined for a cytopathic effect (CPE). RESULTS: Some strains early in the trial belonged to clade 19 B, whereas the majority belonged to clade 20 B. The median time from the disease onset to negative CPE was 9 days. CPE was strongly correlated with the time from disease onset, viral load, age, and male sex. Among 23 patients for whom paired genomes were available, all except one had identical genomes. Two mutations were observed in one patient who received favipiravir, neither in the RdRp gene. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 genome distribution in this clinical trial conducted in Japan reflected the early influx of strains from China followed by replacement by strains from Europe. CPE was significantly associated with age, male sex, and viral loads but not with favipiravir therapy. There was no evidence of resistance development during favipiravir therapy.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Europe , Genomics , Humans , Japan , Male , Pyrazines , Treatment Outcome
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841


Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).

Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome