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Social Media and Crisis Communication, Second Edition ; : 318-328, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066941


In this chapter, we investigated how internal stakeholders (i.e., NFL/NCAA athletes) employed their personal social media accounts to influence organizational decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed two cases that featured athlete-led social media campaigns: 1) NFL Athletes’ #WeWantToPlay campaign, and 2) NCAA Athletes’ #WeAreUnited and #WeWantToPlay campaigns. In both instances, internal stakeholders (i.e., athletes) formulated a coordinated social media campaign to spur responses from external stakeholders (i.e., fans) that would, jointly, influence organizational decisions pertaining to COVID-19 safety protocols and the playing of the 2020 professional and collegiate football seasons. Implications for internal stakeholders, crisis communication management, crisis communication scholarship were discussed. © 2022 Taylor and Francis.

Rhinology ; 59(5): 460-469, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318441


BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor targeted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is highly expressed in the nasal mucosa. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) shows diverse endotypes and is aggravated by viral infection. Whether viral stimulation and CRS endotype influence ACE2 expression remains unclear. We investigated the expression of ACE2 and the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which mediate the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells, and assessed polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C])-induced changes based on CRS endotype. METHODOLOGY: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression was evaluated based on CRS phenotype, endotype, and tissue type. Correlations between ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression and inflammatory mediators in nasal polyps (NP) were examined. Air-liquid interface culture experiments were performed to assess the effects of major cytokines or poly(I:C) stimulation on ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression in primary epithelial cells from healthy nasal mucosa, eosinophilic NP (ENP), and non-eosinophilic NP (NENP). RESULTS: In primary nasal epithelial cells, interleukin (IL)-13 decreased ACE2 expression but increased TMPRSS2. Eosinophilic CRS showed lower ACE2 expression than non-eosinophilic CRS, regardless of CRS phenotype. CRS endotype was an independent factor associated with ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression in NP. Serum and tissue eosinophilic marker levels were inversely correlated with ACE2 expression, whereas tissue neutrophilic marker levels and ACE2 expression were positively correlated in NP. ACE2 expression was suppressed in ENP tissues; however, a combination of poly(I:C) and IL-13 induced ACE2/TMPRSS2 upregulation in ENP. CONCLUSIONS: ENP tissues have lower ACE2 expression than NENP; however, viral stimulation promotes ACE2/TMPRSS2 upregulation in ENP.

COVID-19 , Sinusitis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
Anaesthesia ; 75(8): 1022-1027, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751832


The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the demand for disposable N95 respirators. Re-usable elastomeric respirators may provide a suitable alternative. Proprietary elastomeric respirator filters may become depleted as demand increases. An alternative may be the virus/bacterial filters used in anaesthesia circuits, if they can be adequately fitted onto the elastomeric respirators. In addition, many re-usable elastomeric respirators do not filter exhaled breaths. If used for sterile procedures, this would also require modification. We designed a 3D-printed adaptor that permits elastomeric respirators to interface with anaesthesia circuit filters and created a simple modification to divert exhaled breaths through the filter. We conducted a feasibility study evaluating the performance of our modified elastomeric respirators. A convenience sample of eight volunteers was recruited. Quantitative fit testing, respiratory rate and end-tidal carbon dioxide were recorded during fit testing exercises and after 1 h of wear. All eight volunteers obtained excellent quantitative fit testing throughout the trial. The mean (SD) end-tidal carbon dioxide was 4.5 (0.5) kPa and 4.6 (0.4) kPa at baseline and after 1 h of wear (p = 0.148). The mean (SD) respiratory rate was 17 (4) breaths.min-1 and 17 (3) breaths.min-1 at baseline and after 1 h of wear (p = 0.435). Four out of eight subjects self-reported discomfort; two reported facial pressure, one reported exhalation resistance and one reported transient dizziness on exertion. Re-usable elastomeric respirators to utilise anaesthesia circuit filters through a 3D-printed adaptor may be a potential alternative to disposable N95 respirators during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Filtration/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical , Adult , COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elastomers , Equipment Design , Equipment Reuse , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Materials Testing/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution