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1.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245369

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Serum electrolyte imbalances are highly prevalent in COVID-19 patients. However, their associations with COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent, and of unknown prognostic value. We aim to systematically clarify the associations and prognostic accuracy of electrolyte imbalances (sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, chloride and phosphate) in predicting poor COVID-19 clinical outcome. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched. Odds of poor clinical outcome (a composite of mortality, intensive-care unit (ICU) admission, need for respiratory support and acute respiratory distress syndrome) were pooled using mixed-effects models. The associated prognostic sensitivity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR + , LR-) and predictive values (PPV, NPV; assuming 25% pre-test probability), and area under the curve (AUC) were computed. RESULTS: We included 28 observational studies from 953 records with low to moderate risk-of-bias. Hyponatremia (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.48-2.94, I2 = 93%, N = 8), hypernatremia (OR = 4.32, 95% CI = 3.17-5.88, I2 = 45%, N = 7) and hypocalcemia (OR = 3.31, 95% CI = 2.24-4.88, I2 = 25%, N = 6) were associated with poor COVID-19 outcome. These associations remained significant on adjustment for covariates such as demographics and comorbidities. Hypernatremia was 97% specific in predicting poor outcome (LR + 4.0, PPV = 55%, AUC = 0.80) despite no differences in CRP and IL-6 levels between hypernatremic and normonatremic patients. Hypocalcemia was 76% sensitive in predicting poor outcome (LR- 0.44, NPV = 87%, AUC = 0.71). Overall quality of evidence ranged from very low to moderate. CONCLUSION: Hyponatremia, hypernatremia and hypocalcemia are associated with poor COVID-19 clinical outcome. Hypernatremia is 97% specific for a poor outcome, and the association is independent of inflammatory marker levels. Further studies should evaluate if correcting these imbalances help improve clinical outcome.

2.
Research in Mathematics Education ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960772

ABSTRACT

Current global crises (e.g. COVID-19 pandemic and climate change) necessitate changes to mathematics curricula, especially related to using mathematics to solve real-world problems. We begin with the Programme for International Student Assessment's (PISA) framework for mathematical literacy (FML), since it functions as a global guide for curriculum. We demonstrate its inadequacy to solve current crises and to mediate the precarity of girls and women. Then we reenvision the FML by integrating concepts of critical mathematics education with intersectional feminism. We reenvision how to think about mathematical literacies. In particular, we add practices of feeling, acting, and reimagining to the conventional construct of mathematical reasoning. We reenvision ways to think about or classify real-world problem contexts by exploring three potential themes for real-world problem contexts. © 2022 British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics.

3.
Meditsinskiy Sovet ; 2021(12):72-88, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1449407

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that has been identified as the cause of the 2019 coronavirus infection (COVID-19), which originated at Wuhan city of PRC in late 2019 and widespread worldwide. As the number of patients recovering from COVID-19 continue to grow, it’s very important to understand what health issues they may keep experiencing. COVID-19 is now recognized as an infectious disease that can cause multiple organ diseases of various localization. It is against this background that a new term was introduced: post-acute post-COVID-19 syndrome characterized by several persistent symptoms inherent in the acute phase of the disease, as well as the occurrence of delayed and (or) long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of the disease. The work reflected in this article revealed a portrait of a patient with post-COVID-19 syndrome, the most common complications of this period, as well as the mechanisms of their development and the resulting metabolic, cellular, tissue disorders leading to the tissue and organ dysfunctions. A comprehensive biochemical and immunological screening was carried out using the example of three clinical cases to identify the most significant disorders in these patients and to correlate with their clinical status over time. In point of fact, such patients were diagnosed with vascular dysfunction factors (development of endothelial dysfunction), metabolic dysfunction factors (metabolic acidosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, carbohydrate metabolism dis-order, insulin resistance, altered branched-chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism), neurological disorder factors (neurotoxic-ity of the resulting metabolites), immunological disorder factors (decreased efficiency of detoxification systems, secondary immunodeficiency, risk of secondary bacterial infection). © 2021, Remedium Group Ltd. All rights reserved.

4.
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1208844

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive documentation of the ecological and economic importance of Old World fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) and the many threats they face from humans, negative attitudes towards pteropodids have persisted, fuelled by perceptions of bats as being pests and undesirable neighbours. Such long-term negativity towards bats is now further exacerbated by more recent disease-related concerns, particularly associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic. There remains an urgent need to investigate and highlight the positive and beneficial aspects of bats across the Old World. While previous reviews have summarised these extensively, numerous new studies conducted over the last 36 years have provided further valuable data and insights which warrant an updated review. Here we synthesise research on pteropodid-plant interactions, comprising diet, ecological roles, and ecosystem services, conducted during 1985-2020. We uncovered a total of 311 studies covering 75 out of the known 201 pteropodid species (37%), conducted in 47 countries. The majority of studies documented diet (52% of all studies;67 pteropodid species), followed by foraging movement (49%;50 pteropodid species), with fewer studies directly investigating the roles played by pteropodids in seed dispersal (24%;41 pteropodid species), pollination (14%;19 pteropodid species), and conflict with fruit growers (12%;11 pteropodid species). Pteropodids were recorded feeding on 1072 plant species from 493 genera and 148 families, with fruits comprising the majority of plant parts consumed, followed by flowers/nectar/pollen, leaves, and other miscellaneous parts. Sixteen pteropodid species have been confirmed to act as pollinators for a total of 21 plant species, and 29 pteropodid species have been confirmed to act as seed dispersers for a total of 311 plant species. Anthropogenic threats disrupting bat-plant interactions in the Old World include hunting, direct persecution, habitat loss/disturbance, invasive species, and climate change, leading to ecosystem-level repercussions. We identify notable research gaps and important research priorities to support conservation action for pteropodids. © Copyright © 2021 Aziz, McConkey, Tanalgo, Sritongchuay, Low, Yong, Mildenstein, Nuevo-Diego, Lim and Racey.

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