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1.
Virus Evol ; 7(2): veab096, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746221

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a highly transmissible intestinal pathogen that causes mild to severe clinical symptoms, such as anorexia, vomiting, and watery diarrhea in pigs. By comparing the genetic sequences of the spike glycoprotein between historical and current Taiwanese PDCoV strains, we identified a novel PDCoV variant that displaced the PDCoV responsible for the 2015 epidemic. This PDCoV variant belongs to a young population within the US lineage, and infected pigs carry high concentrations of the virus. It also has several critical point mutations and an amino acid insertion at position 52 that may enhance the affinity between the B-cell epitopes located in the N-terminal domain with its complementarity regions, consequently facilitating binding or penetration between the fusion peptide and cellular membrane. Furthermore, viral protein structure prediction demonstrated that these amino acid changes may change the ability of the virus to bind to the receptor, which may consequently alter virus infectivity. Our results hence suggest the emergence of new PDCoV strains in Taiwan with the potential for greater transmission and pathogenesis.

2.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335233

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus in humans, has expanded globally over the past year. COVID-19 remains an important subject of intensive research owing to its huge impact on economic and public health globally. Based on historical archives, the first coronavirus-related disease recorded was possibly animal-related, a case of feline infectious peritonitis described as early as 1912. Despite over a century of documented coronaviruses in animals, the global animal industry still suffers from outbreaks. Knowledge and experience handling animal coronaviruses provide a valuable tool to complement our understanding of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we present an overview of coronaviruses, clinical signs, COVID-19 in animals, genome organization and recombination, immunopathogenesis, transmission, viral shedding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. By drawing parallels between COVID-19 in animals and humans, we provide perspectives on the pathophysiological mechanisms by which coronaviruses cause diseases in both animals and humans, providing a critical basis for the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics against these deadly viruses.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 215-224, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Doripenem/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ertapenem/therapeutic use , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Penicillins/pharmacology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 417-430, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826322

ABSTRACT

New variants of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) causing a highly contagious intestinal disease, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PED), have resulted in high mortality in suckling pigs across several countries since 2013. After 2015, the prevalence of the genogroup 2b (G2b) PEDVs decreased in a cyclical pattern with endemic seasonal outbreaks occasionally seen. To better understand the genetic diversity of PEDVs recently circulating in Taiwan, full-length spike (S) genes of 31 PEDV strains from 28 pig farms collected during 2016-2018 were sequenced. While the majority of S gene sequences (from 27/28 farms) were closely related to the previous G2b PEDV strains, increased genetic diversities leading to several nonsynonymous mutations scattering in the neutralizing epitopes of the S gene were detected in PEDVs recently circulating in Taiwan. Furthermore, novel recombinant variants, the PEDV TW/Yunlin550/2018 strains exhibiting recombinant events between a previously isolated Taiwan PEDV G2b strain and a wild-type PEDV G1a strain, were identified and further classified into a new genogroup, G1c. These results provide updated information about the genetic diversity of currently circulating PEDVs in the field and could help to develop more suitable strategies for controlling this disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Farms , Female , Genotype , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Taiwan/epidemiology
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