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1.
Chinese Journal of Hygienic Insecticides & Equipments ; JOUR(2):112-115, 28.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2100623

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the mosquito density and larvae breeding of quarantine hotels for COVID-19 medical observation in Pudong District of Shanghai in 2020, assess mosquito control effect in outdoor environment of the hotels, and provide suggestions for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases in these hotels. Methods CO2 traps were used for the investigation of mosquito density outside the quarantine hotels in the middle of every month from May to November in 2020, Breteau index and mosq-ovitrap method were adopted to monitor Aedes albopictus laval density in the middle of every month from May to October. Those investigation were also carried out in residential areas around the quarantine hotels. Mosquito control was conducted once a month in the town where the quarantine hotels located from May to November. Results The peak of mosquito density, Breteau index and mosq-ovitrap index in quarantine hotels for medical observation all appeared in June, being 1.85, 10.49 and 7.99 insects per trap per hour, respectively. The peak of mosquito density, Breteau index and mosq-ovitrap index in residential areas appeared in different month, being 2.00, 9.08 and 12.40 insects per trap per hour, respectively. The peaks of mosquito density and mosq-ovitrap index in quarantine hotels were earlier than those in residential areas. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference in the positive rate of mosq-ovitrap between quarantine hotels and residential areas (P < 0.001). The mosquito density in quarantine hotels reached the control standard, but the control effect of Aedes albopictus breeding sites was poor. Conclusion There was a risk of mosquito-borne diseases in quarantine hotels, so attention should be paid to mosquito control in such places and the construction of anti-mosquito facilities.

2.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(2):303-307, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2073974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms and strategies for operation of fever clinics of a general hospital during prevention and control of COVID-19. METHODS: The working characteristics and management modes of the fever clinic of the First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital were analyzed and summarized during the period of normalized prevention and control without cases and the period with local outbreak. RESULTS: During the period of normalized prevention and control, strict pre-job admission was carried out, the new recruits must pass the qualification test for special positions, the daily training was intensified, the treatment procedures were optimized, the step of identification of infectious diseases was moved forward to the triage;the closed-loop management of information was improved, the links such as identification of infectious diseases, treatment warning, prewarning and reporting have been achieved, and the standard prevention measures were taken. During the period of local outbreak, the application for demand of personnel and prevention supplies was put forward, fever clinic was designed and expanded, supporting personnel was trained, shifts were reasonably arranged, supervisors were added, and 24-hour logistic shifts wee also added. Zero infection of health care workers and zero case of nosocomial infection were achieved during the prevention and control of epidemic. CONCLUSION: The fever clinic is an outpost of prevention and control of infectious diseases. Combined with the characteristics, it is recommended that the construction of departments, personnel management and hardware configuration should be solidified and promoted.

3.
Biosensors & bioelectronics ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046381

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of pandemics (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 in 2019), influenza A viruses (H1N1 in 2009), etc.), and worldwide spike in the aging population have created unprecedented urgency for developing new drugs to improve disease treatment. As a result, extensive efforts have been made to design novel techniques for efficient drug monitoring and screening, which form the backbone of drug development. Compared to traditional techniques, microfluidics-based platforms have emerged as promising alternatives for high-throughput drug screening due to their inherent miniaturization characteristics, low sample consumption, integration, and compatibility with diverse analytical strategies. Moreover, the microfluidic-based models utilizing human cells to produce in-vitro biomimetics of the human body pave new ways to predict more accurate drug effects in humans. This review provides a comprehensive summary of different microfluidics-based drug sensing and screening strategies and briefly discusses their advantages. Most importantly, an in-depth outlook of the commonly used detection techniques integrated with microfluidic chips for highly sensitive drug screening is provided. Then, the influence of critical parameters such as sensing materials and microfluidic platform geometries on screening performance is summarized. This review also outlines the recent applications of microfluidic approaches for screening therapeutic and illicit drugs. Moreover, the current challenges and the future perspective of this research field is elaborately highlighted, which we believe will contribute immensely towards significant achievements in all aspects of drug development.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(18):11494, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2033113

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a serious business recession in various walks of life, particularly in the full-service hotel industry. YouTube has one billion active users and is undoubtedly a social media platform that companies use to build relationships with customers and create value for brands. Marketers should be aware of YouTubers' significant influence on complex decision-making processes. Given the above reasons, identifying a YouTuber attracts the concerns of various industries;thus, this important issue is focused on and offered the study's rationality. This study proposes an integrated hybrid MCDM model to organize the four key techniques of FDM, DEMATEL, ANP, and TOPSIS to identify YouTubers for hotels. Consequently, 12 key criteria and four core dimensions were identified to improve the decision of optimal YouTubers for promoting sustainable development and increasing the efficiency of decision-making. From the limited literature review, the proposed hybrid model was not observed regarding YouTuber identification of hotels;thus, this study provides a superior application contribution to address this important and interesting topic for academicians and practitioners.

5.
Pharmacol Res ; 184: 106424, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008027

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic remains a critical public health threat, as existing vaccines and drugs appear insufficient to halt the rapid transmission. During an outbreak from May to August 2021 in Taiwan, patients with severe COVID-19 were administered NRICM102, which was a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula developed based on its predecessor NRICM101 approved for treating mild cases. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of NRICM102 in ameliorating severe COVID-19-related embolic and fibrotic pulmonary injury. NRICM102 was found to disrupt spike protein/ACE2 interaction, 3CL protease activity, reduce activation of neutrophils, monocytes and expression of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8), chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES) and proinflammatory receptor (TLR4). NRICM102 also inhibited the spread of virus and progression to embolic and fibrotic pulmonary injury through reducing prothrombotic (vWF, PAI-1, NET) and fibrotic (c-Kit, SCF) factors, and reducing alveolar type I (AT1) and type II (AT2) cell apoptosis. NRICM102 may exhibit its protective capability via regulation of TLRs, JAK/STAT, PI3K/AKT, and NET signaling pathways. The study demonstrates the ability of NRICM102 to ameliorate severe COVID-19-related embolic and fibrotic pulmonary injury in vitro and in vivo and elucidates the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Pulmonary Embolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CCL5 , Cytokines , Fibrosis , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8 , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor
6.
Virus evolution ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998565

ABSTRACT

Phylogenetic analysis has been widely used to describe, display and infer the evolutionary patterns of viruses. The unprecedented accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 genomes has provided valuable materials for the real-time study of SARS-CoV-2 evolution. However, the large number of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences also poses great challenges for data analysis. Several methods for subsampling these large data sets have been introduced. However, current methods mainly focus on the spatiotemporal distribution of genomes without considering their genetic diversity, which might lead to postsubsampling bias. In this study, a subsampling method named covSampler was developed for the subsampling of SARS-CoV-2 genomes with consideration of both their spatiotemporal distribution and their genetic diversity. First, covSampler clusters all genomes according to their spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation into groups that we call divergent pathways. Then, based on these divergent pathways, two kinds of subsampling strategies, representative subsampling and comprehensive subsampling, were provided with adjustable parameters to meet different users’ requirements. Our performance and validation tests indicate that covSampler is efficient and stable, with an abundance of options for user customization. Overall, our work has developed an easy-to-use tool and a webserver (https://www.covsampler.net) for the subsampling of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 184: 106412, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral- and host-targeted traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae NRICM101 and NRICM102 were administered to hospitalized patients with COVID-19 during the mid-2021 outbreak in Taiwan. We report the outcomes by measuring the risks of intubation or admission to intensive care unit (ICU) for patients requiring no oxygen support, and death for those requiring oxygen therapy. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study retrieved data of 840 patients admitted to 9 hospitals between May 1 and July 26, 2021. After propensity score matching, 302 patients (151 received NRICM101 and 151 did not) and 246 patients (123 received NRICM102 and 123 did not) were included in the analysis to assess relative risks. RESULTS: During the 30-day observation period, no endpoint occurred in the patients receiving NRICM101 plus usual care while 14 (9.27%) in the group receiving only usual care were intubated or admitted to ICU. The numbers of deceased patients were 7 (5.69%) in the group receiving NRICM102 plus usual care and 27 (21.95%) in the usual care group. No patients receiving NRICM101 transitioned to a more severe status; NRICM102 users were 74.07% less likely to die than non-users (relative risk= 25.93%, 95% confidence interval 11.73%-57.29%). CONCLUSION: NRICM101 and NRICM102 were significantly associated with a lower risk of intubation/ICU admission or death among patients with mild-to-severe COVID-19. This study provides real-world evidence of adopting broad-spectrum oral therapeutics and shortening the gap between outbreak and effective response. It offers a new vision in our preparation for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 36(2):170-175, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975403

ABSTRACT

2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a new strain of coronavirus that has never been found in humans. SARS-CoV-2 is a beta coronavirus. whereas the coronaviruses infecting pet dogs and cats arise mainly from a-coronaviruses. Whether SARS-CoV-2 infects cats, dogs and other pets is an important public-health issue during this time. In the present study, respiratory-tract symptoms in 20 pet cats and 4 pet dogs (especially with obvious fever and cough symptoms) in Beijing, China, were detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of SARS-CoV-2 and established diagnostic methods. Throat swabs were collected to detect the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 using fluorescence quantitative PCR and to detect other pathogens. The nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 were not present in the 24 pets that we evaluated.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842709

ABSTRACT

IntroductionRegardless of having effective vaccines against COVID-19, containment measures such as enhanced physical distancing and good practice of personal hygiene remain the mainstay of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries across Asia have imposed these containment measures to varying extents. However, residents in different countries would have a differing degree of compliance to these containment measures potentially due to differences in the level of awareness and motivation in the early phase of pandemic.ObjectivesIn our study, we aimed to describe and correlate the level of knowledge and attitude with the level of compliance with personal hygiene and physical distancing practices among Asian countries in the early phase of pandemic.MethodsA multinational cross-sectional study was carried out using electronic surveys between May and June 2020 across 14 geographical areas. Subjects aged 21 years and above were invited to participate through social media, word of mouth and electronic mail.ResultsAmong the 2574 responses obtained, 762 (29.6%) participants were from East Asia and 1812 (70.4%) were from Southeast Asia (SEA). A greater proportion of participants from SEA will practise physical distancing as long as it takes (72.8% vs 60.6%). Having safe distancing practices such as standing more than 1 or 2 m apart (AdjOR 5.09 95% CI (1.08 to 24.01)) or more than 3 or 4 m apart (AdjOR 7.05 95% CI (1.32 to 37.67)), wearing a mask when they had influenza-like symptoms before the COVID-19 pandemic, preferring online news channels such as online news websites/applications (AdjOR 1.73 95% CI (1.21 to 2.49)) and social media (AdjOR 1.68 95% CI (1.13 to 2.50) as sources of obtaining information about COVID-19 and high psychological well-being (AdjOR 1.39 95% CI (1.04 to 1.87)) were independent factors associated with high compliance.ConclusionsWe found factors associated with high compliance behaviour against COVID-19 in the early phase of pandemic and it will be useful to consider them in risk assessment, communication and pandemic preparedness.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822465

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the most effective intervention to prevent infection and subsequent complications from SARS-CoV-2. Because of their multiple comorbidities, the elderly population experienced the highest number of deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic. Although in most countries, older people have top priority for COVID-19 vaccines, their actual willingness and attitudes regarding vaccination are still unclear. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate their willingness, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge of COVID-19 through a web-based questionnaire after the first local outbreak of COVID-19 in Taiwan. A total of 957 questionnaires were completed, and 74.9% of elderly individuals were likely to receive COVID-19 vaccines. The results from a multiple logistic regression demonstrated that older people who need to visit the outpatient department and have a high level of concern about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines are prone to having a negative willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccines. The following items related to awareness of the COVID-19 pandemic were attributed to the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines: "understanding the risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2", "understanding the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines", "willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine for protecting others", and "safety of COVID-19 vaccines is a key factor for you to accept them". Furthermore, a positive association between COVID-19 vaccination and attitudes toward accepting booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine was observed. Our results show that these factors could affect the willingness of older people to accept COVID-19 vaccines and that they are important for policymakers and medical staff to develop vaccination plans during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Neuroradiol J ; 35(2): 203-212, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817078

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies utilising diffusion tractography have suggested a common mechanism for tremor alleviation in deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: the decussating portion of the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract. We hypothesised that directional stimulation of the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract would result in greater tremor improvement compared to sham programming, as well as comparable improvement as more tedious standard-of-care programming. METHODS: A prospective, blinded crossover trial was performed to assess the feasibility, safety and outcomes of programming based solely on dentato-rubro-thalamic tract anatomy. Using magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-tractography, the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract was identified and a connectivity-based treatment setting was derived by modelling a volume of tissue activated using directional current steering oriented towards the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract centre. A sham setting was created at approximately 180° opposite the connectivity-based treatment. Standard-of-care programming at 3 months was compared to connectivity-based treatment and sham settings that were blinded to the programmer. The primary outcome measure was percentage improvement in the Fahn-Tolosa-Marín tremor rating score compared to the preoperative baseline. RESULTS: Among the six patients, tremor rating scores differed significantly among the three experimental conditions (P=0.030). The mean tremor rating score improvement was greater with the connectivity-based treatment settings (64.6% ± 14.3%) than with sham (44.8% ± 18.6%; P=0.031) and standard-of-care programming (50.7% ± 19.2%; P=0.062). The distance between the centre of the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract and the volume of tissue activated inversely correlated with the percentage improvement in the tremor rating score (R2=0.24; P=0.04). No significant adverse events were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Using a blinded, crossover trial design, we have shown the technical feasibility, safety and potential efficacy of connectivity-based stimulation settings in deep brain stimulation for treatment of essential tremor.


Subject(s)
Deep Brain Stimulation , Essential Tremor , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Essential Tremor/surgery , Essential Tremor/therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Tremor/surgery
13.
Blood Sci ; 2(3): 76-78, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784407

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was the third zoonotic coronavirus to have an outbreak in the first two decades of the 21st century. Human-to-human transmission of this virus has threatened thousands of lives around the world. SARS-CoV-2 shares 79% and 50% sequence homology with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively. Like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infection, evidence has shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection also causes acute tissue damage due to a pathological immune response, particularly in severe cases. T cells play an important role in virus clearance and prevention, and in this paper, we summarize dynamic changes in the T cell count, subsets, phenotype, and function in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients based on current clinical reports. This review may help to better understand the pathological immune response of T cells and facilitate making better therapeutic strategies for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
Taiwan Gong Gong Wei Sheng Za Zhi ; 41(1):7-15, 2022.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1753902

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has endangered human life and damaged the global economy. The development of artificial intelligence and medical technology depends on the continuous supply of high-quality health data. With the wide availability of health data, the importance of data governance cannot be understated. Health data have enabled reforms in medical diagnosis and treatment. International organizations call for strengthened health data governance to achieve data security and privacy protection. This paper, which is an excerpt from an international statistical survey in OECD Health Working Paper No. 127, provides an international governance-based overview of the integration, governance, privacy, and sharing of international health data. This study revealed that the governments of most countries understand the importance of health data governance but face many related challenges. Only a few countries have outstanding performance in health data governance, and they have not achieved the democratization of health data. Finally, this paper provides an overview of Taiwan's health data development and introduces current mainstream data governance solutions.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315183

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the diagnostic value of three different examination methods of chest radiography (CXR), digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and Computed tomography (CT) scan on the diagnosis of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods: A retrospective analysis of three examination methods of chest: CXR, DTS, and CT scan of COVID-19 pneumonia patients diagnosed in our hospital from January, 23, 2020 to February, 29, 2020. And we compared three different imaging methods to COVID-19 display ability of pneumonia intrapulmonary lesions. Results: A total of 37 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 by nucleic acid testing were included. The CXR group (10/37) and DTS group (21/28) of 37 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia showed significant differences in intrapulmonary ground glass opacities ( P <0.05);DTS group (21/28) and CT group (25/27) showed no statistically significant differences in intrapulmonary ground glass opacities ( P > 0.05). Conclusion: Comparison of the three imaging methods of COVID-19 pneumonia, the diagnostic efficiency of CXR is low, which is easy to be false negative and miss lesions;diagnostic resolutions of DTS are higher than CXR, which can improve the ability to display the fine structure of intrapulmonary lesions;CT scan shows the intrapulmonary of COVID-19 pneumonia low-density ground glass opacities and internal structures have equal capacity compared with DTS. Therefore, DTS and CT are the best choices for the image diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315130

ABSTRACT

Does the structure of the financial system influence the economy’s resilience to adverse shocks? Using high-frequency, U.S. county-level data on employment, small business revenue, and COVID-19 cases, we discover that employment, especially the employment of low-income workers, and the revenues of small firms fall by less in response to local COVID-19 cases in counties with a larger proportion of small banks. Furthermore, small banks increase lending to small businesses more than large banks in response to the pandemic. Evidence suggests that small banks provide countercyclical funding to small firms following an adverse shock, with positive repercussions on employment.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314749

ABSTRACT

We study the relationship between banks' IT capabilities and their ability to serve customers during the demand shock for digital banking services generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Amid mobility restrictions, banks with better IT experience larger reductions in physical branch visits and larger increases in website traffic, implying a larger shift to digital banking. They also exhibit shorter reaction times in mentioning COVID-19 on their websites. Banks with better IT originate more PPP loans, especially in areas with more severe COVID-19 outbreaks, higher levels of internet use, and higher bank competition. They also attract more deposits during the pandemic. Firms more exposed to COVID-19 are more likely to switch to higher-IT banks, while banks more exposed to it are more likely to upgrade their IT.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312749

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and generally have higher mortality rate. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG is an important consideration for the patients in this COVID-19 pandemic. Recent researches suggested the rapid decay of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the general population, but the decline rate of the antibodies in cancer patients was unknown. In this observational study, we reported the clinical features of the 53 cancer patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 from two hospitals in Wuhan, China and tracked the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the patients for more than 12 months. We found the duration (days) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the patients was significant longer in chemotherapy (mean: 175;range: 75 to 315) and radiotherapy groups (mean: 168;range: 85 to 265) than in non-chemo- or radio-therapy group (mean: 58;range:21 to 123) after their recovery from COVID-19. We also used single-cell RNA sequencing to track the immunologic changes in a representative patient infected by COVID-19 for more than one year, and found that CD8 + effective T cells, memory B cells and plasma cells were persistently activated in the patient undergoing chemotherapy. Together, our findings show that chemotherapy and radiotherapy might be beneficial to extend the duration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309533

ABSTRACT

We evaluate the connection between corporate characteristics and the reaction of stock returns to COVID-19 cases using data on over 6,700 firms across 61 economies. The pandemic-induced drop in stock returns was milder among firms with (a) stronger pre-2020 finances (more cash and undrawn credit, less total and short-term debt, and larger profits), (b) less exposure to COVID-19 through global supply chains and customer locations, (c) more CSR activities, and (d) less entrenched executives. Furthermore, the stock returns of firms controlled by families (especially through direct holdings and with non-family managers), large corporations, and governments performed better, and those with greater ownership by hedge funds and other asset management companies performed worse. Stock markets positively price small amounts of managerial ownership but negatively price high-levels of managerial ownership during the pandemic.

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