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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was granted emergency use authorization (EUA) on December 18, 2020. Some patients experienced a transient, pruritic rash at the injection site, which was referred to as "COVID arm". It is considered a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and occurs mostly in individuals after vaccination with the Moderna vaccine but rarely with other mRNA vaccines. CASE SUMMARY: A healthy 33-year-old woman with no history of disease or long-term medication presented with fever and rash on the left upper arm three days after her first vaccination with the mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna). RESULTS: After treatment with antihistamines, all lesions gradually resolved over the following 4 to 5 days. CONCLUSION: We report a case of "COVID arm": a localized erythematous rash surrounding the injection site that arose three days after the first dose of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. Delayed injection site reactions occurred in approximately 0.8% of vaccinated people after the first dose and in approximately 0.2% after the second dose. The lesions persisted for several days and then resolved without treatment. Health care providers were not prepared to address these delayed local reactions to the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Given the scale-up of mass vaccination campaigns worldwide, these skin reactions may likely generate concerns among patients and requests for evaluation. Although these skin reactions have not been consistently recognized, guidance regarding the second dose of the vaccine has varied, and many patients have unnecessarily received antibiotic agents.

4.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125723

ABSTRACT

The major groups of antioxidant compounds (isoflavonoids, xanthones, hydroxycinnamic acids) in the rhizome methanol extracts of four Ukrainian Iris sp. (Iris pallida, Iris hungarica, Iris sibirica, and Iris variegata) were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, mangiferin, tectoridin, irigenin, iristectorigenin B, irisolidone, 5,6-dihydroxy-7,8,3',5'-tetramethoxyisoflavone, irisolidone-7-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, germanaism B, and nigricin were recognized by comparing their UV/MS spectra, chromatographic retention time (tR) with those of standard reference compounds. I. hungarica and I. variegata showed the highest total amount of phenolic compounds. Germanaism B was the most abundant component in the rhizomes of I. variegata (7.089 ± 0.032 mg/g) and I. hungarica (6.285 ± 0.030 mg/g). The compound analyses showed good calibration curve linearity (r2 > 0.999) and low detection and quantifications limit. These results validated the method for its use in the simultaneous quantitative evaluation of phenolic compounds in the studied Iris sp. I. hungarica and I. variegata rhizomes exhibited antioxidant activity, as demonstrated by the HPLC-ABTS system and NRF2 expression assay and anti-inflammatory activity on respiratory burst in human neutrophils. Moreover, the extracts showed anti-allergic and cytotoxic effects against cancer cells. Anti-coronavirus 229E and lipid formation activities were also evaluated. In summary, potent antioxidant marker compounds were identified in the examined Iris sp.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Iris Plant/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
5.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(3): 522-526, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056931

ABSTRACT

To determine clinical performance of the single-target SARS-CoV-2 orf 1 ab reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay, the positive percentage agreement between this assay and a laboratory real-time RT-PCR assay was 96.8% (30 of 31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 90.5%-100%) and the negative percentage agreement was 97.1% (67 of 69; 95% CI, 93.1%-100%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
6.
Biomed J ; 44(3): 293-303, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection presents with mild or no symptoms in most cases, a significant number of patients become critically ill. Remdesivir has been approved for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in several countries, but its use as monotherapy has not substantially lowered mortality rates. Because agents from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have been successfully utilized to treat pandemic and endemic diseases, we designed the current study to identify novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents from TCM. METHODS: We initially used an antivirus-induced cell death assay to screen a panel of herbal extracts. The inhibition of the viral infection step was investigated through a time-of-drug-addition assay, whereas a plaque reduction assay was carried out to validate the antiviral activity. Direct interaction of the candidate TCM compound with viral particles was assessed using a viral inactivation assay. Finally, the potential synergistic efficacy of remdesivir and the TCM compound was examined with a combination assay. RESULTS: The herbal medicine Perilla leaf extract (PLE, approval number 022427 issued by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan) had EC50 of 0.12 ± 0.06 mg/mL against SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells - with a selectivity index of 40.65. Non-cytotoxic PLE concentrations were capable of blocking viral RNA and protein synthesis. In addition, they significantly decreased virus-induced cytokine release and viral protein/RNA levels in the human lung epithelial cell line Calu-3. PLE inhibited viral replication by inactivating the virion and showed additive-to-synergistic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 when used in combination with remdesivir. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate for the first time that PLE is capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication by inactivating the virion. Our data may prompt additional investigation on the clinical usefulness of PLE for preventing or treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Perilla frutescens , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Perilla frutescens/chemistry
7.
RSC Adv ; 10(62): 38128-38141, 2020 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899990

ABSTRACT

On Wednesday 11th March, 2020, the world health organization (WHO) announced novel coronavirus (COVID-19, also called SARS-CoV-2) as a pandemic. Due to time shortage and lack of either a vaccine and/or an effective treatment, many trials focused on testing natural products to find out potential lead candidates. In this field, an edible and folk medicinal Jordanian plant Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) was selected for this study. Phytochemical investigation of its enriched polyphenolic extract afforded four eudesmane sesquiterpenes (1-4) together with (6S,9R)-roseoside (5) and five different methylated flavonols (6-10). Structure elucidation of isolated compounds was unambiguously determined based on HRESIMS, X-ray crystallography, and exhaustive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. All isolated compounds were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and in silico COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) inhibitory activities. Among the tested compounds, compounds 5-10 revealed potent anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and COVID-19 protease inhibitory activities. Chrysosplenetin (10) is considered as a promising anti-inflammatory and antiallergic lead structure adding to the phytotherapeutic pipeline. Moreover, its inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, supported by docking and molecular dynamic studies, strengthens its potential as a lead structure paving the way toward finding out a natural remedy to treat and/or to control the current COVID-19 pandemic.

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