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1.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(38): 7878-7908, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373457

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their global spread pose a great threat to human health. The 2019 World Health Organization report predicted that infection-related mortality will be similar to cancer mortality by 2050. Particularly, the global cumulative numbers of the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have reached 110.7 million cases and over 2.4 million deaths as of February 23, 2021. Moreover, the crisis of these infectious diseases exposes the many problems of traditional diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, such as time-consuming and unselective detection methods, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, serious side effects, and poor drug delivery. There is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnosis as well as high efficacy and low toxicity treatments. The emergence of nanomedicine has provided a promising strategy to greatly enhance detection methods and drug treatment efficacy. Owing to their unique optical, magnetic, and electrical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for the fast and selective detection of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. NPs exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity by releasing reactive oxygen species and metal ions, exerting photothermal effects, and causing destruction of the cell membrane. Nano-based delivery systems can further improve drug permeability, reduce the side effects of drugs, and prolong systemic circulation time and drug half-life. Moreover, effective drugs against COVID-19 are still lacking. Recently, nanomedicine has shown great potential to accelerate the development of safe and novel anti-COVID-19 drugs. This article reviews the fundamental mechanisms and the latest developments in the treatment and diagnosis of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and discusses the challenges and perspectives in the application of nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Nanomedicine , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Nano Res ; : 1-23, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033043

ABSTRACT

Lung diseases, including COVID-19 and lung cancers, is a huge threat to human health. However, for the treatment and diagnosis of various lung diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma, cancer, and pulmonary tuberculosis, are becoming increasingly challenging. Currently, several types of treatments and/or diagnostic methods are used to treat lung diseases; however, the occurrence of adverse reactions to chemotherapy, drug-resistant bacteria, side effects that can be significantly toxic, and poor drug delivery necessitates the development of more promising treatments. Nanotechnology, as an emerging technology, has been extensively studied in medicine. Several studies have shown that nano-delivery systems can significantly enhance the targeting of drug delivery. When compared to traditional delivery methods, several nanoparticle delivery strategies are used to improve the detection methods and drug treatment efficacy. Transporting nanoparticles to the lungs, loading appropriate therapeutic drugs, and the incorporation of intelligent functions to overcome various lung barriers have broad prospects as they can aid in locating target tissues and can enhance the therapeutic effect while minimizing systemic side effects. In addition, as a new and highly contagious respiratory infection disease, COVID-19 is spreading worldwide. However, there is no specific drug for COVID-19. Clinical trials are being conducted in several countries to develop antiviral drugs or vaccines. In recent years, nanotechnology has provided a feasible platform for improving the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, nanotechnology-based strategies may have broad prospects in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. This article reviews the latest developments in nanotechnology drug delivery strategies in the lungs in recent years and studies the clinical application value of nanomedicine in the drug delivery strategy pertaining to the lung.

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