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1.
Socioeconomic Inclusion During an Era of Online Education ; : 177-203, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024524

ABSTRACT

The long-term worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented disruptions to regular school operations around the world, and online education has become the temporary solution from primary to higher education. Since 2020, researchers have learned that this situation has instigated various challenges to teachers, who have been on the front line fighting to continue education. However, there is not yet a global investigation from which to derive generalizable solutions that could contribute to ensuring educational continuity during school closures. Consequently, this chapter investigated the challenges teachers have faced during the pandemic by analyzing research studies from around the world. Using the method of literature review and the framework of thematic analysis, the authors identified practical solutions based on firsthand insights from 15,054 teachers. The chapter summarized eight types of major challenges to teachers in three broad categories and presented three recommendations for a more crisis-prepared education community. © 2022, IGI Global. All rights reserved.

2.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000908

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected patients with kidney disease, causing significant challenges in disease management, kidney research and trainee education. For patients, increased infection risk and disease severity, often complicated by acute kidney injury, have contributed to high mortality. Clinicians were faced with high clinical demands, resource shortages and novel ethical dilemmas in providing patient care. In this review, we address the impact of COVID-19 on the entire spectrum of kidney care, including acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, dialysis and transplantation, trainee education, disparities in health care, changes in health care policies, moral distress and the patient perspective. Based on current evidence, we provide a framework for the management and support of patients with kidney disease, infection mitigation strategies, resource allocation and support systems for the nephrology workforce.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-685, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967364

ABSTRACT

Background With the COVID-19 pandemic there was an acute drop in procedural volume for trainees, highlighting the need and potential of simulation-based training (SBT). Prior to the pandemic, the uptake of simulation was poorly categorized and inconsistent across programs despite the variety of endoscopic simulators available. We aimed to evaluate the current state of endoscopy training internationally in the wake of the pandemic as perceived by trainees. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized a survey composed of 21 questions eliciting demographic data, COVID-19-related training experiences, and experience with SBT. This survey was distributed internationally (USA, Canada, EU, Philippines, Singapore) to gastroenterology trainees between August 2021 to October 2021. Results The questionnaire was completed by 182 fellows, with 55 (30.2%) from the USA and 127 (69.8%) from other countries. Of the respondents, 79.1% were fellows during the first year of the pandemic. A majority (69.2%) found endoscopy training in general to be negatively impacted. Of those who reported a negative impact from the pandemic, 75.0% attributed it to a decline in endoscopic volume, 40.0% to institutional/regional guidelines, 25.0% to a shortage of personal protective equipment. Overall, 47.2% of respondents believed COVID-19 will negatively affect their endoscopic proficiency upon fellowship completion. A total of 71 respondents (39.0%) had experienced SBT before or during fellowship, with 27 from the USA (49.1% of respondents from USA) and 44 from other countries (34.6% of respondents from other countries). In the USA, 63.0% had used virtual reality (VR), 37.0% mechanical models, and 37.0% animal models compared to 47.7% VR, 68.2% mechanical models, and 27.3% animal models in other countries. Respondents agreed that SBT was most helpful with developing technical skills such as ergonomic handling, torque steering, and fine tip control. A majority (52.1%) found SBT appropriate to their level of training. Respondents believed increased access to SBT (43.7%) and mentored training (54.9%) would improve the experience. Conclusion While current data supports the use of SBT early in training, the cumulative uptake of SBT across programs before and during the COVID-19 pandemic remained low. In the USA and abroad, fellows perceive a negative impact of COVID-19 on their training and proficiency upon graduation. Compared to other countries, the USA had higher utilization of VR and lower utilization of mechanical models. Decrease in endoscopic volume was reported as the main factor negatively impacting endoscopic training. This survey highlights the potential benefit of SBT with low case volumes and further prospective evaluation of SBT in achieving endoscopic competence. (Table Presented)

4.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; 142(8, Supplement):S27, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936801
5.
Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture ; 2022(7):592-607, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1903954

ABSTRACT

The paper explores the potentials and challenges of integrating 3D digital technologies and platforms into landscape design studios to serve as the central medium for design communication and assessment. The paper qualitatively evaluates the efficacy of a technology-embedded design studio through 3 different points of views – learner, educator and expert centric – using questionnaires and structured observational studies. These findings will form a guideline to reinvigorate the teaching and learning experience in landscape architecture through the inclusion of such 3D technologies and plat-forms, especially in the post-COVID era, as well as increase our relevance with the practice. © Wichmann Verlag, VDE VERLAG GMBH · Berlin · Offenbach.

6.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism ; 19(2):53-71, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897966

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has shaken travellers' confidence in air travel. This paper seeks to measure how confident air travellers are in air travel under the shadow of COVID-19, and to analyse how air travel resilience post lifting of travel restrictions is associated with the confidence in air travel. A survey of 409 responses were collected. Confidence in personal overseas air travel is found correlated with travel resilience, which is reflected in terms of travel intention, travel frequency, and air travel resumption. Travellers with stronger confident are found to be unlikely to change their travel intention and travel frequency and will resume air travel faster. A model is constructed to illustrate the correlations between confidence in air travel and resilience of personal overseas air travel. However, the same associations cannot be concluded in the case of overseas air travel for work. Overseas travel for work is considered a duty, which is not an individual's choice based on the traveller's confidence, rather companies' decisions based on corporate travel policy. Though the research result suggested that overseas travel for work will resume faster than personal overseas travel, some business overseas traffic may be lost to virtual meeting platforms after travel restrictions are lifted.

7.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333523

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Case series without control groups suggest that Covid-19 may cause ischemic stroke, but whether Covid-19 is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke than would be expected from a viral respiratory infection is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of ischemic stroke between patients with Covid-19 and patients with influenza, a respiratory viral illness previously linked to stroke. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two academic hospitals in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: We included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19 from March 4, 2020 through May 2, 2020. Our comparison cohort included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with influenza A or B from January 1, 2016 through May 31, 2018 (calendar years spanning moderate and severe influenza seasons). Exposures: Covid-19 infection confirmed by evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the nasopharynx by polymerase chain reaction, and laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B. Main Outcomes and Measures: A panel of neurologists adjudicated the primary outcome of acute ischemic stroke and its clinical characteristics, etiological mechanisms, and outcomes. We used logistic regression to compare the proportion of Covid-19 patients with ischemic stroke versus the proportion among patients with influenza. RESULTS: Among 2,132 patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19, 31 patients (1.5%;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-2.1%) had an acute ischemic stroke. The median age of patients with stroke was 69 years (interquartile range, 66-78) and 58% were men. Stroke was the reason for hospital presentation in 8 (26%) cases. For our comparison cohort, we identified 1,516 patients with influenza, of whom 0.2% (95% CI, 0.0-0.6%) had an acute ischemic stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, and race, the likelihood of stroke was significantly higher with Covid-19 than with influenza infection (odds ratio, 7.5;95% CI, 2.3-24.9). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Approximately 1.5% of patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19 experienced ischemic stroke, a rate 7.5-fold higher than in patients with influenza. Future studies should investigate the thrombotic mechanisms in Covid-19 in order to determine optimal strategies to prevent disabling complications like ischemic stroke.

8.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 66(5): 399-412, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the functional, cognitive and communication impairments associated with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD), adaptations to service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic may impact people with IDD differently than others. For community and hospital-based services, this study describes the proportion of adults with and without IDD who used health care in the year pre-COVID-19 and the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used linked health administrative databases to identify adults aged 18-105 years with and without IDD using unique encoded identifiers. Counts and proportions of adults who used health care services were reported for the pre-COVID-19 year (16 March 2019 to 14 March 2020) and the first COVID-19 year (15 March 2020 to 15 March 2021). RESULTS: Across services, the proportion of adults who used services was lower during the first COVID-19 year compared with the year prior, except for virtual physician visits that increased markedly for people with and without IDD. While the proportion of adults who used services was higher for those with IDD compared with those without IDD for both years, differences were greatest for mental health emergency visits and hospitalisations; adults with IDD were 6.3 to 10.9 times more likely to use these services than others with no IDD during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: During the first COVID-19 year in Ontario, Canada, service use decreased for all service types, except for virtual physician visits. In both years, adults with IDD remained more likely to use services than other adults, with the largest differences in use of mental health hospitalisations and mental health emergency department visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Developmental Disabilities/complications , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Intellectual Disability/complications , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/therapy , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
9.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0259886, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666744

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has exposed stark inequalities between resource-rich and resource-poor countries. International UN- and WHO-led efforts, such as COVAX, have provided SARS-CoV-2 vaccines but half of African countries have less than 2% vaccinated in their population, and only 15 have reached 10% by October 2021, further disadvantaging local economic recovery. Key for this implementation and preventing further mutation and spread is the frequency of voluntary [asymptomatic] testing. It is limited by expensive PCR and LAMP tests, uncomfortable probes deep in the throat or nose, and the availability of hardware to administer in remote locations. There is an urgent need for an inexpensive "end-to-end" system to deliver sensitive and reliable, non-invasive tests in resource-poor and field-test conditions. We introduce a non-invasive saliva-based LAMP colorimetric test kit and a $51 lab-in-a-backpack system that detects as few as 4 viral RNA copies per µL. It consists of eight chemicals, a thermometer, a thermos bottle, two micropipettes and a 1000-4000 rcf electronically operated centrifuge made from recycled computer hard drives (CentriDrive). The centrifuge includes a 3D-printed rotor and a 12 V rechargeable Li-ion battery, and its 12 V standard also allows wiring directly to automobile batteries, to enable field-use of this and other tests in low infrastructure settings. The test takes 90 minutes to process 6 samples and has reagent costs of $3.5 per sample. The non-invasive nature of saliva testing would allow higher penetration of testing and wider adoption of the test across cultures and settings (including refugee camps and disaster zones). The attached graphical procedure would make the test suitable for self-testing at home, performing it in the field, or in mobile testing centers by minimally trained staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Colorimetry , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology
10.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; : 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1629828

ABSTRACT

Exhaled respiratory droplets and aerosols can carry infectious viruses and are an important mode of transmission for COVID-19. Recent studies have been successful in detecting airborne SARS-CoV-2 RNA in indoor settings using active sampling methods. The cost, size, and maintenance of these samplers, however, limit their long-term monitoring ability in high-risk transmission areas. As an alternative, passive samplers can be small, lightweight, and inexpensive and do not require electrical power or maintenance for continual operation. Integration of passive samplers into wearable designs can be used to better understand personal exposure to the respiratory virus. This study evaluated the use of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based passive sampler to assess personal exposure to aerosol and droplet SARS-CoV-2. The rate of uptake of virus-laden aerosol on PDMS was determined in lab-based rotating drum experiments to estimate time-weighted averaged airborne viral concentrations from passive sampler viral loading. The passive sampler was then embedded in a wearable clip design and distributed to community members across Connecticut to surveil personal SARS-CoV-2 exposure. The virus was detected on clips worn by five of the 62 participants (8%) with personal exposure ranging from 4 to 112 copies of SARS-CoV-2 RNA/m(3), predominantly in indoor restaurant settings. Our findings demonstrate that PDMS-based passive samplers may serve as a useful exposure assessment tool for airborne viral exposure in real-world high-risk settings and provide avenues for early detection of potential cases and guidance on site-specific infection control protocols that preempt community transmission.

11.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 21(8):17, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1359350

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first broke out at the end of 2019. Despite rapidly spreading around the world during the first half of 2020, it remained well controlled in Taiwan without the implementation of a nationwide lockdown. This study aimed to evaluate the PM2.5 concentrations in this country during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic and compare them with those during the corresponding period from 2019. We obtained measurements (taken every minute or every 3 minutes) from approximately 1,500 PM2.5 sensors deployed in industrial areas of northern and southern Taiwan for the first quarters (January-March) of both years. Our big data analysis revealed that the median hourly PM2.5 levels decreased by 3.70% (from 16.3 to 15.7 mu g m(-3)) and 10.6% (from 32.4 to 29.3 mu g m(-3)) in the north and south, respectively, between these periods owing to lower domestic emissions of PM2.5 precursors (viz., nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and, to a lesser degree, smaller transported emissions of PM2.5, e.g., from China. Additionally, the spatial patterns of the PM2.5 in both northern and southern Taiwan during 2020 resembled those from the previous year. Finally, controlling local PM2.5 emission sources critically contributes to reducing the number of COVID-19 cases.

12.
Fertility and Sterility ; 116(1):E38-E38, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1350802
13.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(3): E12, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229151
15.
Pediatrics ; 147(3):954-956, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1177796

ABSTRACT

Background/Purpose: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread worldwide, children may account foronly 2.16% of conrmed cases. Previous studies may underestimate the true incidence of COVID-19 in childrenas they are more likely to be asymptomatic, and thereby less likely to be tested. We aimed to determine theincidence of COVID-19 in pediatric patients presenting for surgery. Methods: After universal preoperativescreening for COVID-19 was instituted at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Seattle Children's, and TexasChildren's Hospital, children <19 years age without known COVID-19 were tested using a reverse-transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Patient characteristics wereevaluated to determine factors associated with positive testing. Results: 1,295 pediatric surgical patients werescreened (mean age 7.35 years). The overall incidence of COVID-19 was 0.93% (12/1,295), but ranged from0.22% to 2.65% across hospitals (p=0.001). At one institution, 5/9 positive patients presented from a singletownship with a positive risk rate of 55.6% vs. 1.51% in all other patients (p=0.001). 50% of COVID-19 patients presented with preoperative symptoms vs.12.24% in negative patients (p=0.002) (Table 1). Fever (25.0% vs. 6.7%, p=0.044), rhinorrhea (16.7% vs. 2.8%, p=0.005), and known COVID-19 exposure (20.0% vs. 1.7%, p=0.014) were more common in COVID-19 patients. After multivariate regression, age (OR 1.10, p=0.048) and ASA emergent classication (OR 5.66, p=0.001) were associated with COVID-19. Conclusion: The overall incidence of COVID-19 in children undergoing preoperative universal screening was <1%. However, this varied greatly between the regions represented by our hospitals, and even by township within the catchment area of a single hospital. The value of universal COVID-19 screening appears greatest in areas with higher prevalence. As elective surgery resumes, it will be important to consider universal testing in the context of regional prevalence, local testing capability, and availability of personal protective equipment.

16.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(11): 2001-2008, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A large spectrum of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Our aim was to investigate the yield of neuroimaging in patients with COVID-19 undergoing CT or MR imaging of the brain and to describe associated imaging findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 2054 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 presenting to 2 hospitals in New York City between March 4 and May 9, 2020, of whom 278 (14%) underwent either CT or MR imaging of the brain. All images initially received a formal interpretation from a neuroradiologist within the institution and were subsequently reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists in consensus, with disputes resolved by a third neuroradiologist. RESULTS: The median age of these patients was 64 years (interquartile range, 50-75 years), and 43% were women. Among imaged patients, 58 (21%) demonstrated acute or subacute neuroimaging findings, the most common including cerebral infarctions (11%), parenchymal hematomas (3.6%), and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (1.1%). Among the 51 patients with MR imaging examinations, 26 (51%) demonstrated acute or subacute findings; notable findings included 6 cases of cranial nerve abnormalities (including 4 patients with olfactory bulb abnormalities) and 3 patients with a microhemorrhage pattern compatible with critical illness-associated microbleeds. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience confirms the wide range of neurologic imaging findings in patients with COVID-19 and suggests the need for further studies to optimize management for these patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(7): 1184-1186, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-427849

ABSTRACT

Miller Fisher syndrome, also known as Miller Fisher variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome, is an acute peripheral neuropathy that can develop after exposure to various viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. It is characterized by a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. Miller Fisher syndrome has recently been described in the clinical setting of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) without accompanying imaging. In this case, we report the first presumptive case of COVID-19-associated Miller Fisher syndrome with MR imaging findings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Miller Fisher Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Ophthalmoplegia/diagnostic imaging , Ophthalmoplegia/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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