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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444334

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cats/virology , Cattle/virology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Dogs/virology , Livestock/virology , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology
2.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803471

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented global public health and economic crisis. The origin and emergence of its causal agent, SARS-CoV-2, in the human population remains mysterious, although bat and pangolin were proposed to be the natural reservoirs. Strikingly, unlike the SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses (CoVs) identified in bats and pangolins, SARS-CoV-2 harbors a polybasic furin cleavage site in its spike (S) glycoprotein. SARS-CoV-2 uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor to infect cells. Receptor recognition by the S protein is the major determinant of host range, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. In an effort to search for the potential intermediate or amplifying animal hosts of SARS-CoV-2, we examined receptor activity of ACE2 from 14 mammal species and found that ACE2s from multiple species can support the infectious entry of lentiviral particles pseudotyped with the wild-type or furin cleavage site-deficient S protein of SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 of human/rhesus monkey and rat/mouse exhibited the highest and lowest receptor activities, respectively. Among the remaining species, ACE2s from rabbit and pangolin strongly bound to the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and efficiently supported the pseudotyped virus infection. These findings have important implications for understanding potential natural reservoirs, zoonotic transmission, human-to-animal transmission, and use of animal models.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 uses human ACE2 as a primary receptor for host cell entry. Viral entry mediated by the interaction of ACE2 with spike protein largely determines host range and is the major constraint to interspecies transmission. We examined the receptor activity of 14 ACE2 orthologs and found that wild-type and mutant SARS-CoV-2 lacking the furin cleavage site in S protein could utilize ACE2 from a broad range of animal species to enter host cells. These results have important implications in the natural hosts, interspecies transmission, animal models, and molecular basis of receptor binding for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/metabolism , Animal Diseases/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Pandemics/veterinary , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Host Specificity , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Proteolysis , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1567-1579, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707709

ABSTRACT

Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have been identified from bats and other animal species. Like SARS-CoV, some bat SL-CoVs, such as WIV1, also use angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from human and bat as entry receptor. However, whether these viruses can also use the ACE2 of other animal species as their receptor remains to be determined. We report herein that WIV1 has a broader tropism to ACE2 orthologs than SARS-CoV isolate Tor2. Among the 9 ACE2 orthologs examined, human ACE2 exhibited the highest efficiency to mediate the infection of WIV1 pseudotyped virus. Our findings thus imply that WIV1 has the potential to infect a wide range of wild animals and may directly jump to humans. We also showed that cell entry of WIV1 could be restricted by interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs). However, WIV1 could exploit the airway protease TMPRSS2 to partially evade the IFITM3 restriction. Interestingly, we also found that amphotericin B could enhance the infectious entry of SARS-CoVs and SL-CoVs by evading IFITM3-mediated restriction. Collectively, our findings further underscore the risk of exposure to animal SL-CoVs and highlight the vulnerability of patients who take amphotericin B to infection by SL-CoVs, including the most recently emerging (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chiroptera/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Rats , Receptors, Coronavirus , SARS Virus/physiology , Viverridae
4.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639615

ABSTRACT

C3A is a subclone of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cell line with strong contact inhibition of growth. We fortuitously found that C3A was more susceptible to human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 infection than HepG2, which was attributed to the increased efficiency of virus entry into C3A cells. In an effort to search for the host cellular protein(s) mediating the differential susceptibility of the two cell lines to HCoV-OC43 infection, we found that ArfGAP with dual pleckstrin homology (PH) domains 2 (ADAP2), gamma-interferon-inducible lysosome/endosome-localized thiolreductase (GILT), and lymphocyte antigen 6 family member E (LY6E), the three cellular proteins identified to function in interference with virus entry, were expressed at significantly higher levels in HepG2 cells. Functional analyses revealed that ectopic expression of LY6E, but not GILT or ADAP2, in HEK 293 cells inhibited the entry of HCoV-O43. While overexpression of LY6E in C3A and A549 cells efficiently inhibited the infection of HCoV-OC43, knockdown of LY6E expression in HepG2 significantly increased its susceptibility to HCoV-OC43 infection. Moreover, we found that LY6E also efficiently restricted the entry mediated by the envelope spike proteins of other human coronaviruses, including the currently pandemic SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, overexpression of serine protease TMPRSS2 or amphotericin treatment significantly neutralized the IFN-inducible transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) restriction of human coronavirus (CoV) entry, but did not compromise the effect of LY6E on the entry of human coronaviruses. The work reported herein thus demonstrates that LY6E is a critical antiviral immune effector that controls CoV infection and pathogenesis via a mechanism distinct from other factors that modulate CoV entry.IMPORTANCE Virus entry into host cells is one of the key determinants of host range and cell tropism and is subjected to the control of host innate and adaptive immune responses. In the last decade, several interferon-inducible cellular proteins, including IFITMs, GILT, ADAP2, 25CH, and LY6E, had been identified to modulate the infectious entry of a variety of viruses. Particularly, LY6E was recently identified as a host factor that facilitates the entry of several human-pathogenic viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, influenza A virus, and yellow fever virus. Identification of LY6E as a potent restriction factor of coronaviruses expands the biological function of LY6E and sheds new light on the immunopathogenesis of human coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Surface/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Internalization , Amino Acid Sequence , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Evolution, Molecular , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protein Sorting Signals , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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