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J Virol ; 96(8): e0016922, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765080


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 are highly pathogenic to humans and have caused pandemics in 2003 and 2019, respectively. Genetically diverse SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been detected or isolated from bats, and some of these viruses have been demonstrated to utilize human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor and to have the potential to spill over to humans. A pan-sarbecovirus vaccine that provides protection against SARSr-CoV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against recombinant SARSr-CoVs carrying two different spike proteins (named rWIV1 and rRsSHC014S, respectively). Although serum neutralizing assays showed limited cross-reactivity between the three viruses, the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provided full protection against SARS-CoV-2 and rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice. Passive transfer of SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated mouse sera provided low protection for rWIV1 but not for rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 mice. A specific cellular immune response induced by WIV1 membrane protein peptides was detected in the vaccinated animals, which may explain the cross-protection of the inactivated vaccine. This study shows the possibility of developing a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine against SARSr-CoVs for future preparedness. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity of SARSr-CoVs in wildlife and their potential risk of cross-species infection highlight the necessity of developing wide-spectrum vaccines against infection of various SARSr-CoVs. In this study, we tested the protective efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (IAV) against two SARSr-CoVs with different spike proteins in human ACE2 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 IAV provides full protection against rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S. The T-cell response stimulated by the M protein may account for the cross protection against heterogeneous SARSr-CoVs. Our findings suggest the feasibility of the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines, which can be a strategy of preparedness for future outbreaks caused by novel SARSr-CoVs from wildlife.

COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Protection , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Inactivated , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1507-1514, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310873


Severe respiratory disease coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been the most devastating disease COVID-19 in the century. One of the unsolved scientific questions of SARS-CoV-2 is the animal origin of this virus. Bats and pangolins are recognized as the most probable reservoir hosts that harbour highly similar SARS-CoV-2 related viruses (SARSr-CoV-2). This study identified a novel lineage of SARSr-CoVs, including RaTG15 and seven other viruses, from bats at the same location where we found RaTG13 in 2015. Although RaTG15 and the related viruses share 97.2% amino acid sequence identities with SARS-CoV-2 in the conserved ORF1b region, it only shows less than 77.6% nucleotide identity to all known SARSr-CoVs at the genome level, thus forming a distinct lineage in the Sarbecovirus phylogenetic tree. We found that the RaTG15 receptor-binding domain (RBD) can bind to ACE2 from Rhinolophus affinis, Malayan pangolin, and use it as an entry receptor, except for ACE2 from humans. However, it contains a short deletion and has different key residues responsible for ACE2 binding. In addition, we showed that none of the known viruses in bat SARSr-CoV-2 lineage discovered uses human ACE2 as efficiently as the pangolin-derived SARSr-CoV-2 or some viruses in the SARSr-CoV-1 lineage. Therefore, further systematic and longitudinal studies in bats are needed to prevent future spillover events caused by SARSr-CoVs or to understand the origin of SARS-CoV-2 better.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Cell Lineage , Chiroptera/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Animals , Host Specificity , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/classification