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EBioMedicine ; 81: 104095, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914309


BACKGROUND: Remdesivir was the first prodrug approved to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has the potential to be used during pregnancy. However, it is not known whether remdesivir and its main metabolite, GS-441524 have the potential to cross the blood-placental barrier. We hypothesize that remdesivir and predominant metabolite GS-441524may cross the blood-placental barrier to reach the embryo tissues. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) coupled with multisite microdialysis was used to monitor the levels of remdesivir and the nucleoside analogue GS-441524 in the maternal blood, fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. The transplacental transfer was evaluated using the pharmacokinetic parameters of AUC and mother-to-fetus transfer ratio (AUCfetus/AUCmother). FINDINGS: Our in-vivo results show that remdesivir is rapidly biotransformed into GS-441524 in the maternal blood, which then readily crossed the placenta with a mother-to-fetus transfer ratio of 0.51 ± 0.18. The Cmax and AUClast values of GS-441524 followed the order: maternal blood > amniotic fluid > fetus > placenta in rats. INTERPRETATION: While remdesivir does not directly cross into the fetus, however, its main metabolite, GS-441524 readily crosses the placenta and can reside there for at least 4 hours as shown in the pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat model. These findings suggest that careful consideration should be taken for the use of remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19 in pregnancy. FUNDING: Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan.

COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biotransformation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Fetus/metabolism , Furans/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pyrroles/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine ; : 100024, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1560714


Background : SARS-CoV-2 has led to a sharp increase in the number of hospitalizations and deaths from pneumonia and multiorgan disease worldwide;therefore, SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health problem. Supportive therapies remain the mainstay treatments against COVID-19, such as oxygen inhalation, antiviral drugs, and antibiotics. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been shown clinically to relieve the symptoms of COVID-19 infection, and TCMs can affect the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Jing Si Herbal Drink (JSHD), an eight herb formula jointly developed by Tzu Chi University and Tzu Chi Hospital, has shown potential as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 infection. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of JSHD as an adjuvant treatment in patients with COVID-19 infection is underway Objectives : This article aims to explore the efficacy of the herbs in JSHD against COVID-19 infection from a mechanistic standpoint and provide a reference for the rational utilization of JSHD in the treatment of COVID-19. Method : We compiled evidence of the herbs in JSHD to treat COVID-19 in vivo and in vitro. Results : We described the efficacy and mechanism of action of the active ingredients in JSHD to treat COVID-19 based on experimental evidence. JSHD includes 5 antiviral herbs, 7 antioxidant herbs, and 7 anti-inflammatory herbs. In addition, 2 herbs inhibit the overactive immune system, 1 herb reduces cell apoptosis, and 1 herb possesses antithrombotic ability. Conclusion : Although experimental data have confirmed that the ingredients in JSHD are effective against COVID-19, more rigorously designed studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of JSHD as a COVID-19 treatment.

ATS Sch ; 2(2): 236-248, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365983


Background: The impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic extends beyond the realms of patient care and healthcare resource use to include medical education; however, the repercussions of COVID-19 on the quality of training and trainee perceptions have yet to be explored. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of interventional pulmonology (IP) fellows' involvement in the care of COVID-19 and its impact on fellows' clinical education, procedure skills, and postgraduation employment search. Methods: An internet-based survey was validated and distributed among IP fellows in North American fellowship training programs. Results: Of 40 eligible fellows, 38 (95%) completed the survey. A majority of fellows (76%) reported involvement in the care of patients with COVID-19. Fellows training in the Northeast United States reported involvement in the care of a higher number of patients with COVID-19 than in other regions (median, 30 [interquartile range, 20-50] vs. 10 [5-13], respectively; P < 0.01). Fifty-two percent of fellows reported redeployment outside IP during COVID-19, mostly into intensive care units. IP procedure volume decreased by 21% during COVID-19 compared with pre-COVID-19 volume. This decrease was mainly accounted for by a reduction in bronchoscopies. A majority of fellows (82%) reported retainment of outpatient clinics during COVID-19 with the transition from face-to-face to telehealth-predominant format. Continuation of academic and research activities during COVID-19 was reported by 86% and 82% of fellows, respectively. After graduation, all fellows reported having secured employment positions. Conclusion: Although IP fellows were extensively involved in the care of patients with COVID-19, most IP programs retained educational activities through the COVID-19 outbreak. The impact of the decrease in procedure volume on trainee competency would be best addressed individually within each training program. These data may assist in focusing efforts regarding the education of medical trainees during the current and future healthcare crises.