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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323579

ABSTRACT

Background: The initial mechanism of COVID-19 is the binding of the virus to ACE2. Since the heart and the vessels also express ACE2, they both could become targets of the virus. However, cardiac performance of patients in ICU and general ward may be different, requested individualized treatment. The aim of this study is to explore the global and segmental myocardial performance of the severe and mild COVID-19 patients. Methods: : 45 patients, including 25 mild and 20 severe patients in intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 infection were included in this study. The clinical history, laboratory test and standard and strain echocardiography were performed at admission. Of them, 13 severe patients received serial echocardiography, especially, 10 patients received echocardiographic examinations more than 7 times. Results: : 1. Both mild and severe COVID-19 infected patients showed reduced cardiac diastolic function;2. Severe patients in ICU exhibited exacerbated right ventricular systolic function;3. Both mild and severe patients with COVID-19 showed impaired left ventricular strain, worse strain in severe patient. 4. The apical longitudinal strain of mild patients was higher than basal and middle segment. No difference among apical, middle and basal segments in severe patients. 5. There was a negative correlation between LV GLS and log TnT-hs, as well as NT-pro BNP. 6. The EF value and strain of left atrium of mild and severe patients decreased;7. LV GLS, LV GCS and LA GLS area under the ROC curve to predict the disease severity were 0.698, 0.758 and 0.782 respectively. 8. In the follow-up of severe patients, left atrial and ventricular strain showed an increased trend. Conclusions: : These findings suggested that left ventricular performance was subclinically impaired during COVID-9 infection irrespective of infection severity and the strain of LV and LA may predict the disease severity. The cardiac function had an increasing trend for severe patients treated in ICU.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322503

ABSTRACT

Background: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally now. However, the clinical presentation that predict prognosis of the patients are still largely unknow. Methods: We enrolled 393 patients infected with COVID-19 and 30 patients with common pulmonary bulla and reviewed their clinical features to evaluate the potential prognostic value of pulmonary vesicles, especially in the patients with severe symptoms. One COVID-19 patient with vesicles was treated by bullectomy for last resort, and its characteristics of the patient’s perioperative laboratory tests was analyzed. The pathological findings of bullectomy were described and compared with those of common bulla cases. Results: Patients infected with COVID-19 showed more dependence on ventilator, occurrence of super resistant bacteria, and prone to vesicle formation than common bulla (p<0.05). Disease severity is associated with age, sex, and usage of ventilator, ECMO and antibiotics, super resistance bacteria and vesicle formation (p<0.05). The average mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was 4.10% (25.4% in severe patients, 0.00% in mild patients). Interestingly, the mortality rate further increased in severe patients with pulmonary vesicles than those without pulmonary vesicles (35.7% vs 22.4%, p=0.0442). One COVID-19 patient with vesicles underwent bullectomy and had a poor prognosis, who showed diffuse alveolar damage and extensive necrosis in bullectomy specimen. Conclusions: Patients infected with COVID-19 are more prone to form pulmonary vesicles showed on chest CT scans, as an important poor prognosis factor, especially in the severe patients.

3.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(12): 12280-12290, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to carry out a retrospective analysis of the progression of electrocardiographic (ECG) findings over time, based on biomarkers for myocardial injuries in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Also, the ECG observations were assessed for possible prognostic use. METHODS: Diagnostic criteria provided by the Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Program of the Chinese National Health Commission were used. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 31 COVID-19 cases diagnosed as positive by high-throughput sequencing of nasopharyngeal nucleic acid test and admitted to Sichuan Province Public Health Clinical Medical Center, Sichuan Province, China. Based on changes in biomarkers, the 31 participants were divided into a non-myocardial injury group (A) and a myocardial injury group (B). Our study observed the dynamic changes and new abnormal changes of the ECG during the hospitalization of patients. RESULTS: The results summarized in the 4 following points: (I) the time sequence changes for ST and T indicated that the absolute ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion values in group B were larger. (II) The heart rate (HR) and RV5 values in group B were higher, the QTC value for group B was lower. (III) The sensitivity of ST-segment depression for the diagnosis of myocardial injury was 32.60% and the specificity was 90.50%. The sensitivity of T-wave inversion was 41.30% and the specificity was 85.10%. (IV) Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a major factor affecting patient's death. CONCLUSIONS: If abnormal ST-T, increased heart rate, shortened QTC interval, and high ventricular voltage are observed in a COVID-19 patient, it may infer that myocardial damage has occurred. Using ECG as a point of reference for change can compensate for the time limitation of myocardial enzyme index. Regardless of the stage of disease development, ECG can reflect myocardial damage. Particularly in the 8-12 days after hospitalization, almost all myocardial enzymes cannot be applied. The ST-depression and T-wave inversion had diagnostic significance with relatively high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial injury. Assessment of LDH and biomarkers in combination with ECG can more accurately reflect myocardial injury, and facilitate prompt clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 719758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572318

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global challenge, and although vaccines have been developed, it is expected that mild to moderate patients will control their symptoms, especially in developing countries. Licorice, not only a food additive, but also a common traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has several pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammation, detoxification, antibacterial, antitussive, and immunomodulatory effects, especially in respiratory diseases. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizin diamine and glycyrrhizin extract have been widely studied and used in COVID-19 clinical trials. Therefore, it is a very interesting topic to explore the material basis, pharmacological characteristics and molecular mechanism of licorice in adjuvant treatment of COVID-19. In this paper, the material basis of licorice for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is deeply analyzed, and there are significant differences among different components in different pharmacological mechanisms. Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory factors and inflammatory mediators by blocking the binding of ACE 2 to virus spike protein, and exert antiviral and antibacterial effects. Immune cells are stimulated by multiple targets and pathways to interfere with the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Liquiritin can prevent and cure COVID-19 by simulating type I interferon. It is suggested that licorice can exert its therapeutic advantage through multi-components and multi-targets. To sum up, licorice has the potential to adjuvant prevent and treat COVID-19. It not only plays a significant role in anti-inflammation and anti-ACE-2, but also significantly improves the clinical symptoms of fever, dry cough and shortness of breath, suggesting that licorice is expected to be a candidate drug for adjuvant treatment of patients with early / mild COVID-19.

7.
BMJ ; 369: m1849, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care compared with standard of care alone in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 16 government designated covid-19 treatment centres in China, 11 to 29 February 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 150 patients admitted to hospital with laboratory confirmed covid-19 were included in the intention to treat analysis (75 patients assigned to hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care, 75 to standard of care alone). INTERVENTIONS: Hydroxychloroquine administrated at a loading dose of 1200 mg daily for three days followed by a maintenance dose of 800 mg daily (total treatment duration: two or three weeks for patients with mild to moderate or severe disease, respectively). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Negative conversion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by 28 days, analysed according to the intention to treat principle. Adverse events were analysed in the safety population in which hydroxychloroquine recipients were participants who received at least one dose of hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine non-recipients were those managed with standard of care alone. RESULTS: Of 150 patients, 148 had mild to moderate disease and two had severe disease. The mean duration from symptom onset to randomisation was 16.6 (SD 10.5; range 3-41) days. A total of 109 (73%) patients (56 standard of care; 53 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) had negative conversion well before 28 days, and the remaining 41 (27%) patients (19 standard of care; 22 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) were censored as they did not reach negative conversion of virus. The probability of negative conversion by 28 days in the standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine group was 85.4% (95% confidence interval 73.8% to 93.8%), similar to that in the standard of care group (81.3%, 71.2% to 89.6%). The difference between groups was 4.1% (95% confidence interval -10.3% to 18.5%). In the safety population, adverse events were recorded in 7/80 (9%) hydroxychloroquine non-recipients and in 21/70 (30%) hydroxychloroquine recipients. The most common adverse event in the hydroxychloroquine recipients was diarrhoea, reported in 7/70 (10%) patients. Two hydroxychloroquine recipients reported serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of hydroxychloroquine did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion than standard of care alone in patients admitted to hospital with mainly persistent mild to moderate covid-19. Adverse events were higher in hydroxychloroquine recipients than in non-recipients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000029868.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e043790, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As early prediction of severe illness and death for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important, we aim to explore the clinical value of laboratory indicators in evaluating the progression and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital-based study in China. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with COVID-19 from December 15, 2019 to March 15, 2020. END POINT: Disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Clinical data of 638 patients with COVID-19 were collected and compared between severe and non-severe groups. The predictive ability of laboratory indicators in disease progression and prognosis of COVID-19 was analysed using the receiver operating characteristic curve. The survival differences of COVID-19 patients with different levels of laboratory indicators were analysed utilising Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: 29.8% (190/638) of patients with COVID-19 progressed to severe. Compared with patients with no adverse events, C reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and D-dimer were significantly higher in severe patients with adverse events, such as acute myocardial injury, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and death (all p<0.05). The multivariate logistic analysis suggested that CRP, NLR and D-dimer were independent risk factors for the disease progression of COVID-19 (all p<0.05). The model combining all of them owned the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) predicting disease progression and death of COVID-19, with AUC of 0.894 (95% CI 0.857 to 0.931) and 0.918 (95% CI 0.873 to 0.962), respectively. Survival analysis suggested that the patients with a high level of CRP, NLR or D-dimer performed shorter overall survival time (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of CRP, NLR and D-dimer could be an effective predictor for the aggravation and death in patients with COVID-19. The abnormal expression of these indicators might suggest a strong inflammatory response and multiple adverse events in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laboratories , Adult , Disease Progression , Humans , Neutrophils , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113857, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446593

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which poses a major threat to human life and health. Given its continued development, limiting the spread of COVID-19 in the population remains a challenging task. Currently, multiple therapies are being tried around the world to deal with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a variety of studies have shown that natural products have a significant effect on COVID-19 patients. The combination of SARS-CoV-2 S protein with Angiotensin converting enzyme II(ACE2) of host cell to promote membrane fusion is an initial critical step for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, screening natural products that inhibit the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and ACE2 also provides a feasible strategy for the treatment of COVID-19. Establishment of high throughput screening model is an important basis and key technology for screening S protein-ACE2 blockers. Based on this, the molecular structures of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 and their processes in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 and host cell infection were firstly reviewed in this paper, with emphasis on the methods and techniques of screening S protein-ACE2 blockers, including Virtual Screening (VS), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), Biochromatography, Biotin-avidin with Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay and Gene Chip Technology. Furthermore, the technical principle, advantages and disadvantages and application scope were further elaborated. Combined with the application of the above screening technologies in S protein-ACE2 blockers, a variety of natural products, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, alkaloids, were summarized, which could be used as S protein-ACE2 blockers, in order to provide ideas for the efficient discovery of S protein-ACE2 blockers from natural sources and contribute to the development of broad-spectrum anti coronavirus drugs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109793, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415261

ABSTRACT

The mortality risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been linked to the cytokine storm caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the inflammatory responses shared between COVID-19 and other infectious diseases that feature cytokine storms may therefore help in developing improved therapeutic strategies. Here, we use integrative analysis of single-cell transcriptomes to characterize the inflammatory signatures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COVID-19, sepsis, and HIV infection. We identify ten hyperinflammatory cell subtypes in which monocytes are the main contributors to the transcriptional differences in these infections. Monocytes from COVID-19 patients share hyperinflammatory signatures with HIV infection and immunosuppressive signatures with sepsis. Finally, we construct a "three-stage" model of heterogeneity among COVID-19 patients, related to the hyperinflammatory and immunosuppressive signatures in monocytes. Our study thus reveals cellular and molecular insights about inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and provides therapeutic guidance to improve treatments for subsets of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/blood , Transcriptome , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Data Analysis , Datasets as Topic , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 256, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351932

ABSTRACT

We collected blood from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals and investigated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity in these discharged patients. Follow-up analysis in a cohort of 171 patients at 4-11 months after the onset revealed high levels of IgG antibodies. A total of 78.1% (164/210) of the specimens tested positive for neutralizing antibody (NAb). SARS-CoV-2 antigen peptide pools-stimulated-IL-2 and -IFN-γ response can distinguish COVID-19 convalescent individuals from healthy donors. Interestingly, NAb survival was significantly affected by the antigen peptide pools-stimulated-IL-2 response, -IL-8 response, and -IFN-γ response. The antigen peptide pools-activated CD8+ T cell counts were correlated with NAb. The antigen peptide pools-activated natural killer (NK) cell counts in convalescent individuals were correlated with NAb and disease severity. Our data suggested that the development of NAb is associated with the activation of T cells and NK cells. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of the protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and for understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19. It also has implications for the development of an effective vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Convalescence , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
Eval Program Plann ; 89: 101961, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275313

ABSTRACT

Taiwan's night markets are the most popular and unique characteristics of domestic and foreign tourists' night life and have great potential value for tourism development. However, development of the night market is vulnerable to the negative impact of COVID-19. To discover the potential value and evaluation of the night market, we interviewed 46 experts from several industries and occupations in Taiwan to investigate the relationships between brand equity, benefits, motivations of and satisfaction with night market tourism and development. The results show that travel motivation has both direct and indirect effects on brand equity, benefits and satisfaction. Furthermore, customer satisfaction is the most critical performance attribute of night market tourism, which may be influenced by brand equity, benefit, and motivation. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , Humans , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan
15.
Echocardiography ; 38(8): 1245-1253, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of remote consultation over bedside transthoracic echocardiography (RC-B-TTE) for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Five frontline echocardiographers performed and interpreted B-TTE for 30 patients with COVID-19 in the isolation wards, and the on-site B-TTE reports (OSR) were generated. Then remote consultation over the 30 B-TTE studies was conducted by two experienced echocardiographic consultants while blinded to the OSR, and the corresponding remote consultation reports (RCR) were generated. Subsequently, the five frontline echocardiographers were convened together to discuss the difference between the OSR and RCR, and to confirm the correct interpretation and the misdiagnosis using a "majority-vote" consensus as the diagnostic "gold standard". Afterwards the reasons for the misdiagnosis were given by the frontline echocardiographers themselves. The inter-rater agreement between the OSR and the "gold standard" was assessed using Kappa coefficient and percent agreement. RESULTS: Complete correctness of the 30 copies of the RCR were determined by the 5 frontline echocardiographers. The reliability of the OSR in the findings of cardiac chamber dilation, left ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary hypertension were weak (Kappa <0.6). The reliability of the OSR in the recognition of major cardiac abnormalities was very weak (Kappa =0.304, percent agreement =63.3%). Misdiagnosis of major abnormalities was found in 11 copies of OSR (11/30, 36.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The protocol of RC-B-TTE has shown noticeable superiority in ameliorating diagnostic accuracy of echocardiography, which should be generalized to clinical practice during the COVID-19 or similar pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Echocardiography , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
17.
China Tropical Medicine ; 21(2):128-133, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1190666

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the follow-up results of COVID-19 patients half a year after discharge in Chengdu.

18.
Allergy ; 76(2): 533-550, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, with 10%-20% of severe cases and over 508 000 deaths worldwide. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to address the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 patients and the mortality of severe patients. METHODS: 289 hospitalized laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this study. Electronic medical records, including patient demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory tests results, and radiological materials, were collected and analyzed. According to the severity and outcomes of the patients, they were divided into three groups: nonsurvived (n = 49), survived severe (n = 78), and nonsevere (n = 162) groups. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were compared among these groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality and visualize the patients on a low-dimensional space. Correlations between clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters were investigated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to determine the risk factors associated with mortality in severe patients. Longitudinal changes of laboratory findings of survived severe cases and nonsurvived cases during hospital stay were also collected. RESULTS: Of the 289 patients, the median age was 57 years (range, 22-88) and 155 (53.4%) patients were male. As of the final follow-up date of this study, 240 (83.0%) patients were discharged from the hospital and 49 (17.0%) patients died. Elder age, underlying comorbidities, and increased laboratory variables, such as leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on admission, were found in survived severe cases compared to nonsevere cases. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, elder age, a higher number of affected lobes, elevated CRP levels on admission, increased prevalence of chest tightness/dyspnea, and smoking history were independent risk factors for death of severe patients. A trajectory in PCA was observed from "nonsevere" toward "nonsurvived" via "severe and survived" patients. Strong correlations between the age of patients, the affected lobe numbers, and laboratory variables were identified. Dynamic changes of laboratory findings of survived severe cases and nonsurvived cases during hospital stay showed that continuing increase of leukocytes and neutrophil count, sustained lymphopenia and eosinopenia, progressing decrease in platelet count, as well as high levels of NLR, CRP, PCT, AST, BUN, and serum creatinine were associated with in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Survived severe and nonsurvived COVID-19 patients had distinct clinical and laboratory characteristics, which were separated by principle component analysis. Elder age, increased number of affected lobes, higher levels of serum CRP, chest tightness/dyspnea, and smoking history were risk factors for mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. Longitudinal changes of laboratory findings may be helpful in predicting disease progression and clinical outcome of severe patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Cancer Sci ; 112(6): 2522-2532, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138103

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus has spread rapidly around the world. Cancer patients seem to be more susceptible to infection and disease deterioration, but the factors affecting the deterioration remain unclear. We aimed to develop an individualized model for prediction of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) deterioration in cancer patients. The clinical data of 276 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in 33 designated hospitals of Hubei, China from December 21, 2019 to March 18, 2020, were collected and randomly divided into a training and a validation cohort by a ratio of 2:1. Cox stepwise regression analysis was carried out to select prognostic factors. The prediction model was developed in the training cohort. The predictive accuracy of the model was quantified by C-index and time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (t-AUC). Internal validation was assessed by the validation cohort. Risk stratification based on the model was carried out. Decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the model. We found age, cancer type, computed tomography baseline image features (ground glass opacity and consolidation), laboratory findings (lymphocyte count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, urea, and d-dimer) were significantly associated with symptomatic deterioration. The C-index of the model was 0.755 in the training cohort and 0.779 in the validation cohort. The t-AUC values were above 0.7 within 8 weeks both in the training and validation cohorts. Patients were divided into two risk groups based on the nomogram: low-risk (total points ≤ 9.98) and high-risk (total points > 9.98) group. The Kaplan-Meier deterioration-free survival of COVID-19 curves presented significant discrimination between the two risk groups in both training and validation cohorts. The model indicated good clinical applicability by DCA curves. This study presents an individualized nomogram model to individually predict the possibility of symptomatic deterioration of COVID-19 in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/virology , Nomograms , Aged , Area Under Curve , China , Decision Support Techniques , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Precision Medicine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
20.
Cell ; 184(7): 1895-1913.e19, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062273

ABSTRACT

A dysfunctional immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet a detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 196 COVID-19 patients and controls and created a comprehensive immune landscape with 1.46 million cells. The large dataset enabled us to identify that different peripheral immune subtype changes are associated with distinct clinical features, including age, sex, severity, and disease stages of COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in diverse epithelial and immune cell types, accompanied by dramatic transcriptomic changes within virus-positive cells. Systemic upregulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis of and developing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Megakaryocytes/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , Young Adult
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