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J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-12, 2022 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170874


The current study investigated the binding variations among the wilt type, Omicron sub-variants BA.2.75 and BA.5, using protein-protein docking, protein structural graphs (P SG), and molecular simulation methods. HADDOCK predicted docking scores and dissociation constant (KD) revealed tighter binding of these sub-variants in contrast to the WT. Further investigation revealed variations in the hub residues, protein sub-networks, and GlobalMetapath in these variants as compared to the WT. A very unusual dynamic for BA.2.75 and BA.5 was observed, and secondary structure transition can also be witnessed in the loops (44-505). The results show that the flexibility of these three loops is increased by the mutations as an allosteric effect and thus enhances the chances of bonding with the nearby residues to connect and form a stable connection. Furthermore, the additional hydrogen bonding contacts steer the robust binding of these variants in contrast to the wild type. The total binding free energy for the wild type was calculated to be -61.38 kcal/mol, while for BA.2.75 and BA.5 variants the T BE was calculated to be -70.42 kcal/mol and 69.78 kcal/mol, respectively. We observed that the binding of BA.2.75 is steered by the electrostatic interactions while the BA.5 additional contacts are due to the vdW (Van der Waal) energy. From these findings, it can be observed the Spike (S) protein is undergoing structural adjustments to bind efficiently to the hACE2 (human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor and, in turn, increase entry to the host cells. The current study will aid the development of structure-based drugs against these variants.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090285


The emergence of immune-evading variants of SARS-CoV-2 further aggravated the ongoing pandemic. Despite the deployments of various vaccines, the acquired mutations are capable of escaping both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses. Therefore, further investigation is needed to design a decisive pharmacological treatment that could efficiently block the entry of this virus into cells. Hence, the current study used structure-based methods to target the RBD of the recombinant variant (Deltacron) of SARS-CoV-2, which was used as a model variant. From the virtual drug screenings of various databases, a total of four hits were identified as potential lead molecules. Key residues were blocked by these molecules with favorable structural dynamic features. The binding free energies further validated the potentials of these molecules. The TBE for MNP was calculated to be -32.86 ± 0.10 kcal/mol, for SANC00222 the TBE was -23.41 ± 0.15 kcal/mol, for Liriodenine the TBE was -34.29 ± 0.07 kcal/mol, while for Carviolin the TBE was calculated to be -27.67 ± 0.12 kcal/mol. Moreover, each complex demonstrated distinct internal motion and a free energy profile, indicating a different strategy for the interaction with and inhibition of the RBD. In conclusion, the current study demands further in vivo and in vitro validation for the possible usage of these compounds as potential drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Molecular Docking Simulation