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1.
2022 International Conference on System Science and Engineering, ICSSE 2022 ; : 100-103, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161405

ABSTRACT

The assessment of mental status is an important task in psychiatry. But the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic has reduced the number of face-to-face assessments with physicians, and thus making it difficult. In recent years, some studies have used EEG (electroencephalogram) to help assess depression or mental state. Users can thus further assess mental state through simple EEG measurement. Since the EEG measurement will obtain multiple frequency bands related to mental or emotion state, if only one frequency band is used to evaluate a specific emotion or mental state, it may be insufficient. Some studies have proposed an ensemble method of multiple frequency bands for emotion recognition. In this study, we will use ensemble multi-bands EEG frequency to do and assist mental state or depression assessment. Through the method of ensemble learning, we integrate the frequency bands which is mainly related to mental state to assist the evaluation of mental state. From the experimental results, we can find that this method has a good effect. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Cell Discov ; 8(1):131, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160195

ABSTRACT

The immunity of patients who recover from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be long lasting but persist at a lower level. Thus, recovered patients still need to be vaccinated to prevent reinfection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or its mutated variants. Here, we report that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine can stimulate immunity in recovered patients to maintain high levels of anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) and anti-nucleocapsid protein (NP) antibody titers within 9 months, and high neutralizing activity against the prototype, Delta, and Omicron strains was observed. Nevertheless, the antibody response decreased over time, and the Omicron variant exhibited more pronounced resistance to neutralization than the prototype and Delta strains. Moreover, the intensity of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4(+) T cell response was also increased in recovered patients who received COVID-19 vaccines. Overall, the repeated antigen exposure provided by inactivated COVID-19 vaccination greatly boosted both the potency and breadth of the humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, effectively protecting recovered individuals from reinfection by circulating SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

3.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128083

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe COVID-19 is associated with platelet activation, thrombosis, and thrombocytopenia, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Similarly, very rare cases of COVID-19 vaccine-induced-thrombotic-thrombocytopenia (VITT) are also poorly understood. Both infection and vaccination utilize the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein for virus-host cell entry and to elicit an immune response, respectively. Interestingly, the RBD contains an RGD integrin-binding motif that may facilitate platelet binding. Aim(s): To determine whether the RBD binds platelets and causes platelet activation/clearance. Method(s): We intravenously injected different doses (0.25, 0.5, 1.0mug/g) of recombinant RBD into mice and measured platelet counts post-injection using a Z2 Series Coulter. Flow cytometry detected RBD/RBD variants binding to platelets and associated platelet activation, apoptosis, and desialylation. Human gel-filtered platelet aggregation was induced by ADP, Collagen and Thrombin. Six anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated and tested in a SARS-CoV-2 Vero cell infection model with the envelop gene quantified by RT-qPCR to determine the virus replication. Result(s): RBD injection caused platelet clearance in a dose-dependent manner. The RBD could also bind to platelets, induce activation and potentiate platelet aggregation in vitro. Our preliminary data also showed the RBD Delta variant has greater potential in inducing platelet activation. Interestingly, the RBD bound beta3-/-platelets ~50% less relative than wildtype mice. Consistently, mutating the RGD motif to RGE, and preincubating platelets with the beta3 inhibitor Eptifibatide also reduced RBD binding to platelets. Our novel anti-RBD mAbs 4F2 and 4H12 inhibited RBD-induced platelet activation and RBD-potentiated platelet aggregation in vitro, and prevented RBD-induced platelet clearance in vivo. Importantly, these mAbs also inhibited SARS-CoV-2 viral replication in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion(s): Our data demonstrate that the RBD could directly bind to platelets partially via beta3 integrin. RBD-induced platelet activation and clearance may contribute to thrombosis and thrombocytopenia observed in clinical cases of COVID-19 and VITT.

4.
PM and R ; 14(Supplement 1):S20, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2127982

ABSTRACT

Case Diagnosis: A 65-year-old woman who developed multiple system atrophy as a sequelae of COVID-19 infection Case Description or Program Description: The patient developed progressive dizziness, blurriness, and unsteady gait immediately following hospitalization for COVID-19 infection. Formal evaluation noted rightward nystagmus, mild resting tremor of the right hand, slowed finger tapping test bilaterally, overshooting on right finger to nose, and shuffling gait. MRI of the brain revealed moderate cerebellar and pontine volume loss with crossed hyperintensity of the pons, or "hot cross bun sign", raising suspicion for degenerative disease. Lumbar puncture analysis was normal. The patient was diagnosed with multiple system atrophy with parkinsonism features and started on a trial of amantadine and carbidopa/levodopa. Videonystagmography confirmed cerebellar etiology of her symptoms. Vestibular rehabilitation and meclizine was initiated with subsequent improvement in dizziness and functionality. Setting(s): Acute inpatient rehabilitation facility. Assessment/Results: After 20 days of acute inpatient rehabilitation including vestibular therapy, amantadine, carbidopa/levodopa, and meclizine, there was improvement of dizziness, dysarthria, tremor, weakness, and gait. The therapy team noted good progress since admission regarding performance of self-care tasks as well as transfers and mobility. The patient was discharged home with outpatient vestibular therapy. Discussion (relevance): This is a case of newly diagnosed multiple system atrophy associated with "hot cross buns sign" on MRI with COVID19 infection as the implicated etiology. To our knowledge, this is the first case of central cerebellopontine degeneration associated with COVID19. Conclusion(s): New onset multiple system atrophy may be a sequelae of COVID19 infection.

5.
Huanan Ligong Daxue Xuebao/Journal of South China University of Technology (Natural Science) ; 50(9):22-28, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2110982

ABSTRACT

Under the background of dual-carbon policy, it is imperative to maintain ecological balance and reduce carbon emissions. Nowadays, it is very important to accurately measure the carbon emission index of vehicles on a wide range of road networks. Therefore, this study proposed a measuring method of vehicle carbon emission in expressway network based on multi-source data fusion. Firstly, a basic data cleaning method for carbon emission statistics was proposed to clean the basic data required for subsequent carbon emission calculation. Secondly, the highway carbon emission calculation model was established, and then the related calculation process was designed. Finally, taking the whole highway network of Guangdong province as an example, this paper calculated the vehicle carbon emission from September 2020 to June 2021, and compared the calculation results with China's carbon accounting database. Through this method, the proposed method was proved to be scientific and reliable. The research shows that the average carbon emission of mini buses in Guangdong province is small, but the total carbon emission accounts for the largest proportion of all types of vehicles, up to 52.1%;the total carbon emission of gasoline vehicles accounts for 49.8%, which is higher than that of diesel vehicles (45.4%) and of other energy vehicles (4.8%). Vigorously promoting new energy vehicles can effectively reduce the carbon emission of expressways. In addition, the study finds that there are significant differences in the travel patterns of different vehicles under COVID-19, but the overall impact on the transportation economy is limited. © 2022, Editorial Department, Journal of South China University of Technology. All right reserved.

6.
Yaoxue Xuebao ; 57(10):3173-3185, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2100540

ABSTRACT

We identified molecular mechanisms by which Isatidis Radix might prevent or mitigate influenza and corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on chemical composition and network pharmacology. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to analyze the components of Isatidis Radix. Seventy compounds were identified, of which 33 prototype compounds entered the blood. Network pharmacological analysis of 41 potential active components demonstrated that Isatidis Radix can regulate protein kinase B1 (AKT1), serum albumin (ALB), glyceraldehyde-3phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), tyrosine-protein kinase SRC (SRC), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) and other key genes, which have preventive effects on influenza and COVID-19 through hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), influenza A, Toll-like receptor (TLR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT), COVID-19 and other signaling pathways. This study identifies mechanisms by which Isatidis Radix might act against influenza and COVID-19 that are related to the inflammatory response, immunomodulation and viral defense, and provides a basis for subsequent clinical research. All animal experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee of Shenyang Pharmaceutical University (SYPU-IACUCS2020-12.23-201). Copyright © 2022, Chinese Pharmaceutical Association. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology ; 37(Supplement 1):251, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2088264

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Poor bowel preparation for colonoscopy leads to aborted procedures and reduced polyp and cancer detection rates, leading to increased risk for patients, inconvenience to families, and additional resource use in a burgeoning health care system. The UK's Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy suggests that units have a > 90% rate of adequate preparation for successful accreditation. To improve patient education and poor preparation rates at our institution, the Project GEO - GE Online video platform was introduced in 2019. This consists of five Vimeo-hosted short educational videos to help prepare patients and their carers for their endoscopy and colonoscopy procedures, including diet and bowel preparation. We aimed to examine key performance indicators in colonoscopy, including bowel preparation, before and after the introduction of GEO. Method(s): We performed a retrospective audit in a metropolitan teaching hospital in Queensland that performs more than 6000 colonoscopies per year. A link to GEO, a set of culturally sensitive, patient-centered videos, was sent in a letter, an email, and SMS to patients preparing for endoscopy and colonoscopy. Previously, patients were required to attend the hospital and were given printed handouts for information. This audit obtained Provation MD data for a 6-month period in 2019, before the initiation of GEO, and a 6-month period after, in 2021. Incomplete colonoscopies or those without preparation reporting were excluded from the analysis. Statistics were performed with chi2 analysis, and significance was set as a P value of < 0.05. Result(s): In the 6 months of 2019, before the GEO videos, a total of 2798 colonoscopies were performed. After colonoscopies with missing data and incomplete procedures were removed, there were 2031 colonoscopies for analysis. A total of 2277 colonoscopies were included in the post-GEO dataset. Results for bowel preparation and sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) detection rate before and after GEO are shown in Table 1. Conclusion(s): Project GEO has shown a significant reduction in poor preparation rates in a high-performing center and reduced repeat procedures, while not compromising SSA detection rate. Poor preparation often leads to abandonment of procedures, waste of health resources, and significant risk and inconvenience for patients, carers, and the system provider. Project GEO has had excellent patient feedback that it is improving patient and carer education and understanding, is improving compliance, and is convenient. This has led to a massive reduction in face-to-face outpatient visits (> 10 000). GEO is also COVID-19-friendly, culturally sensitive, and reaches our patients in distant regional and rural Queensland.

8.
Nephrology ; 27:29-29, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083854
9.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 190: 247-263, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036015

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies have shown a significant positive correlation between age and the likelihood of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. This increased susceptibility is positively correlated with chronic inflammation and compromised neurocognitive functions. Postmortem analyses suggest that acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with systemic and lung hyperinflammation, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Supraphysiological supplemental oxygen, also known as hyperoxia, is commonly used to treat decreased blood oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia alone can cause oxygen toxicity, due to an excessive increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can overwhelm the cellular antioxidant capacity. Subsequently, this causes oxidative cellular damage and increased levels of aging biomarkers, such as telomere shortening and inflammaging. The oxidative stress in the lungs and brain can compromise innate immunity, resulting in an increased susceptibility to secondary lung infections, impaired neurocognitive functions, and dysregulated hyperinflammation, which can lead to ALI/ARDS, and even death. Studies indicate that lung inflammation is regulated by the central nervous system, notably, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP), which is innervated by the vagus nerve and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) on lung cells, particularly lung macrophages. The activation of α7nAChRs attenuates oxygen toxicity in the lungs and improves clinical outcomes by restoring hyperoxia-compromised innate immunity. Mechanistically, α7nAChR agonist (e.g., GAT 107 and GTS-21) can regulate redox signaling by 1) activating Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response and a cytoprotective defense system, which can decrease cellular damage caused by ROS and 2) inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response. Notably, GTS-21 has been shown to be safe and it improves neurocognitive functions in humans. Therefore, targeting the α7nAChR may represent a viable therapeutic approach for attenuating dysregulated hyperinflammation-mediated ARDS and sepsis in COVID-19 patients receiving prolonged oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Hyperoxia , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Aging , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hyperoxia/complications , Hyperoxia/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism
10.
COVID-19's Impact on the Cryptocurrency Market and the Digital Economy ; : 65-81, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024610

ABSTRACT

This chapter examines how COVID-19 has impacted cryptocurrency enforcement at the state level. This author employs a qualitative single case study method and investigates the cryptocurrency enforcement actions of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 2020. The data were collected from SEC cryptocurrency press releases and public statements. The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has brought 28 enforcement actions against companies and individuals in the crypto industry in 2020 regarding the three types of cryptocurrency enforcement actions and trading suspensions (trading suspension, litigation, and administrative proceeding). Among them, litigation is the most common type of cryptocurrency enforcement action taken by the SEC. This author concludes that the law enforcement agencies in the United States faced several challenges before and during the pandemic. Finally, the author suggests some measures that law enforcement agencies can take to address the above challenges. © 2021, IGI Global.

11.
Quality of Life in Asia ; 14:181-201, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2014040

ABSTRACT

In this chapter, we outline two Service-Learning (SL) subjects implemented in Project WeCan, which represents partnership among the business sector, high schools in the community, and a university in Hong Kong. For the first subject (entitled “Promotion of Children and Adolescent Development”), it focuses on theories and approaches of promoting the development of children and adolescents. For the second subject (entitled “Service Leadership through Serving Children and Families with Special Needs”), it covers the Service Leadership Theory and attributes of effective service leaders. We highlight the attributes of these two subjects and reflect on their implementation before and during COVID-19. Finally, we present several evaluation studies of the impacts of SL projects on the service providers and service recipients under face-to-face service delivery mode and online mode during the pandemic of COVID-19. The evaluation findings suggest that SL under Project WeCan can promote the quality of life of the service providers (i.e., university students) and service recipients (i.e., high school students). © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
Professional Psychology-Research and Practice ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2004753

ABSTRACT

Public Significance Statement This study is among the first in examining the relationship between challenges with the use of telehealth and psychologists' response during the coronavirus pandemic, highlighting the need to address both provider and patient barriers to telehealth that influence provider well-being. Allowing flexibility in policies, regulations, and format of service delivery and making telehealth training opportunities and resources available are key to ensure a healthy behavioral workforce and the continued delivery of health care services. The coronavirus pandemic drastically altered the landscape of mental health care delivery as psychologists pivoted to telehealth and grappled with increasing population mental health care needs. Despite the rapid shift to telehealth, many challenges on both the provider and patient sides remain. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between challenges with the use of telehealth and psychologists' response during the pandemic. The study used survey data from 1,679 doctoral-level licensed psychologists who provided services via telehealth during September-October 2020. Results from ordered logistic and ordinary least squares regressions suggest that the degree of telehealth challenge psychologists experienced was not statistically associated with workload, patient load, or ability to meet patient demand during the pandemic. However, the degree of telehealth challenge patients experienced was significantly associated with these outcomes. The fewer patients who experienced telehealth challenges, the more psychologists were able to maintain or increase their workload and patient load and meet patient demand. Telehealth challenges experienced by both psychologists and their patients were associated with psychologists' mental health. Psychologists experiencing fewer telehealth challenges, and having fewer patients experiencing telehealth challenges, were more likely to report lower stress levels, be able to practice self-care and maintain positive work-life balance, and less likely to experience burnout. Findings of this study have clear policy implications to encourage continued telehealth after the public health emergency ends and address barriers to effectively utilize telehealth. These measures are critical to supporting the health service psychologist workforce and maintaining the continuity of mental health care.

13.
18th IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) ; : 7366-7375, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927512

ABSTRACT

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms have attracted much attentions in medical image segmentation by leveraging unlabeled data, which challenge in acquiring massive pixel-wise annotated samples. However, most of the existing SSLs neglected the geometric shape constraint in object, leading to unsatisfactory boundary and non-smooth of object. In this paper, we propose a novel boundary-aware semi-supervised medical image segmentation network, named Graph-BAS(3)Net, which incorporates the boundary information and learns duality constraints between semantics and geometrics in the graph domain. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two components: a multi-task learning framework BAS(3)Net and a graph-based cross-task module BGCM. The BAS(3)Net improves the existing GAN-based SSL by adding a boundary detection task, which encodes richer features of object shape and surface. Moreover, the BGCM further explores the co-occurrence relations between the semantics segmentation and boundary detection task, so that the network learns stronger semantic and geometric correspondences from both labeled and unlabeled data. Experimental results on the LiTS dataset and COVID-19 dataset confirm that our proposed Graph-BAS(3) Net outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in semi-supervised segmentation task.

14.
Chinese Journal of Psychiatry ; 55(1):8-13, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1911764

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has caused serious and long-lasting health and social harm. Vaccination is considered as the most effective way to prevent the COVID-19 epidemic. Patients with mental disorders are at high risk of COVID-19 infection who are in urgent need to get protection. However, due to the particularity of their conditions, whether these patients should be vaccinated has become a tough issue that obsesses doctors, patients with mental disorders, and their families. In light of this issue, this article provides expert advice on the safety, legal and ethical issues of vaccination for patients with mental disorders to regulate the vaccination of these vulnerable populations against COVID-19. © 2022 Chinese Journal of Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

15.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904492

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a real disruption of children's lives. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their parents seem to be particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health effects due to lockdown policies. This study explores the psychological state of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and their parents during the first lockdown in France. A national prospective cross-sectional parent-reported study was conducted using an online survey disseminated through different social networks of French ADHD associations during the first lockdown. The survey consisted of open-ended, multiple-choice questions and standardized questionnaires such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the coping self-report questionnaire (Brief COPE) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). A total of 538 parents completed the online survey between the 6th and the 15th of April 2020. These results suggest that most children (65.29%) did not experience a worsening of their behavior but still had pathological levels of hyperactivity (56.47%) and behavioral (57.60%) symptoms at the time of the first lockdown. In addition, some parents (26.27%) showed responses indicating possible major depressive disorder. Positive parental coping strategies were associated with both improved child behavior and fewer parental depressive symptoms. Strengthening parents' coping strategies may be an effective intervention to protect both parents and children with ADHD from the negative psychological effects of lockdown. In times of pandemic, psychological care modalities must evolve to provide quality online interventions for families of children with ADHD.

16.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 34(6):699-703, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1894085

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the application and safety of apheresis technology in collection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CP), and to analyze the quality characteristics of the plasma. Methods The general data of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CP) donors, including gender, age, date of discharge or release from medical isolation, were collected based on informed consent. After physical examination, the CP was collected by apheresis technology with plasma separator, inactivated with methylene blue, and determined for severe acute respiratory symptom Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid and specific antibody (RBD-IgG) against SARS-CoV-2. Results The collection process went well, and no serious adverse events related to plasma collection were reported during or after the collection. The average age of COVID-19 CP donors was 38 years (n = 933). The distributions of blood groups A, B, AB and 0 in RhD (+) COVID-19 CP were 33. 4%, 29. 2%, 10% and 27. 2% respectively. The plasma donation date was 18 d from the discharge date in average. All the test results of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in CP were negative, while the proportion of plasma samples at SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer of more than 1: 160 was 92. 60%. Conclusion Apheresis technology was safe and reliable. The COVID-19 CP contained high titer antibody. Large-scale collection and preparation of inactivated plasma against SARS-CoV-2 played an important role in the treatment of COVID-19.

17.
Global Perspectives ; 3(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1892390

ABSTRACT

This article provides an empirical illustration of current disjunctive globalization dynamics, especially with regard to the transition from embodied to disembodied globalization. After an overview of a new typology of globalization designed to capture these dynamics, we introduce ABCKID (a pseudonym) and other home-based, virtual, and transnational educational platforms as cases. We illustrate how offshore English teaching conducted on these platforms took over migrated English teachers as the dominant form of foreigner-taught English learning in China before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on in-depth interviews, surveys, and online data, we argue in this article that this transition from embodied to disembodied globalization has been disorganized, uneven, and multidirectional. In particular, we document how the rise of digital platforms brought the global educational job market to formerly marginalized US social groups such as stay-at-home moms, military wives, and freelance artists who had been left out of the domestic labor market and migration-based global job market. Disjunctive globalization creates new forms of global inequality among contractors and produces in individual contractors a divided, "unhappy consciousness." Such complex and contradictory work experience of these formerly marginalized social groups is the micro-level manifestation of the macro-level shift from embodied to disembodied globalization. © 2022 American Institute of Physics Inc.. All rights reserved.

18.
Modern Pathology ; 35(SUPPL 2):16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857688

ABSTRACT

Background: More than 20% of COVID-19 patients have gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, among which diarrhea is the most commonly seen symptom. Studies have suggested that patients with severe disease are more likely to have abdominal manifestations. Recent studies have also implicated that coagulopathy and thromboembolic as the major pathophysiological event leading to higher mortality. Besides thrombus in larger vessels, microthrombi appears to occur systemically and plays an important role in multiple organ dysfunction. However, fewer studies have focused on microthrombosis in the GI system. Design: 13 bronchial SARS-CoV-2 PCR proven autopsy cases were included in the study. Small intestinal specimens were obtained, and processed to routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and CD61 immunohistochemistry (IHC). Related clinical and laboratory data were collected from patient chats. H&E and IHC slides were reviewed by two GI pathologists to evaluate histopathology and microthrombi. The degree of microthrombosis was graded as no microthrombi, focal (1- 2 per 10x), scattered (3-5 per 10x), and diffuse (≥6 per 10x). Results: Out of 13 patients (11 males, 1 female, age range 22-89 years old), 6 had diarrhea as the initial GI symptom, while others (7 patients) did not report any GI manifestations. Sections from the small intestine showed no acute inflammation in all cases. CD61 positive microthrombi was seen in all small intestine specimens, mainly located in the microvasculature of mucosa, and occasionally submucosal tissue. Patients who had diarrhea, 4/6 (66.7%) showed diffuse (greater than 6 per 10x field) microthrombi in the small intestine. In contrast, patients without GI symptoms, only 2/7 (28.5%) had diffuse microthrombi. Data from lab tests showed the D-dimer appeared to be higher in patients with diarrhea (median, 4067, range from 867 to 10000 ng/ml) compared to patients without diarrhea (median, 2820, range from 298 to 10000 ng/ml). There was no significant difference between median levels of C-reactive protein, prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) between patients with or without diarrhea. Conclusions: Our study highlights that microthrombi frequently occurs in the GI system as reported in other organs. COVID-19 patients with initial GI manifestations, may develop severe microthrombosis and progress to sever disease.

19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(4): 474-478, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834947

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the course of disease and epidemiological parameters of COVID-19 and provide evidence for making prevention and control strategies. Methods: To display the distribution of course of disease of the infectors who had close contacts with COVID-19 cases from January 1 to March 15, 2020 in Guangdong Provincial, the models of Lognormal, Weibull and gamma distribution were applied. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the basic characteristics and epidemiological parameters of course of disease. Results: In total, 515 of 11 580 close contacts were infected, with an attack rate about 4.4%, including 449 confirmed cases and 66 asymptomatic cases. Lognormal distribution was fitting best for latent period, incubation period, pre-symptomatic infection period of confirmed cases and infection period of asymptomatic cases; Gamma distribution was fitting best for infectious period and clinical symptom period of confirmed cases; Weibull distribution was fitting best for latent period of asymptomatic cases. The latent period, incubation period, pre-symptomatic infection period, infectious period and clinical symptoms period of confirmed cases were 4.50 (95%CI:3.86-5.13) days, 5.12 (95%CI:4.63-5.62) days, 0.87 (95%CI:0.67-1.07) days, 11.89 (95%CI:9.81-13.98) days and 22.00 (95%CI:21.24-22.77) days, respectively. The latent period and infectious period of asymptomatic cases were 8.88 (95%CI:6.89-10.86) days and 6.18 (95%CI:1.89-10.47) days, respectively. Conclusion: The estimated course of COVID-19 and related epidemiological parameters are similar to the existing data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies
20.
20th and 21st Joint COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals - Advanced Transportation, Enhanced Connection ; : 681-690, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1790152

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been affecting every aspect of societal life including human mobility since December, 2019. In this paper, we study the impact of COVID-19 on human mobility patterns at the state level within the United States. From the temporal perspective, we find that the change of mobility patterns does not necessarily correlate with government policies and guidelines, but is more related to people's awareness of the pandemic, which is reflected by the search data from Google Trends. Our results show that it takes on average 14 days for the mobility patterns to adjust to the new situation. From the spatial perspective, we conduct a state-level network analysis and clustering using the mobility data from Multiscale Dynamic Human Mobility Flow Dataset. As a result, we find that 1) states in the same cluster have shorter geographical distances;2) a 14-daydelay again is found between the time when the largest number of clusters appears and the peak of Coronavirus-related search queries on Google Trends;and 3) a major reduction in other network flow properties, namely degree, closeness, and betweenness, of all states from the week of March2 to the week of April 6 (the week of the largest number of clusters).

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