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1.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6890, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1884339

ABSTRACT

Stable financial operation is the essential factor for the sustainable development of the cruise tourism industry. The cruise industry was one of the fastest growing before the COVID-19 pandemic. The industry is capital intensive, has an enormous supply chain, serves to improve many ports-of-call economies, hires an immense quantity of people worldwide, and has a substantial economic contribution worldwide, especially in coastal countries or areas. COVID-19 has disrupted what had been an unending development of growth and success for the cruise industry. This study aims to analyze the financial performance of the worldwide cruise industry and realize the trends in the cruise tourism industry. The study examines the statistical data of the top three cruise companies that account for nearly 74.6–91.8% of the worldwide cruise tourism for 2015–2021. The financial analysis includes economic structure, solvency, operating ability, profitability, and financial leverage. We also analyze the economic indicators of the top three cruise companies with frequency analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the financial management risks of the top three cruise companies with the Z-Score Model. In addition, the study organizes and summarizes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global cruise tourism. The study found that from mid-March 2020 until July 2021, the temporary suspension decreased passenger numbers, operating losses, and stock price losses. The research results confirm that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused the suspension of cruise ships worldwide. The break has led to a sharp drop in the number of cruise passengers, resulting in a significant decrease in operating income and profits of cruise companies, and the debt-to-assets ratio and leverage ratio have increased significantly. The excessive debt ratio will affect the sustainable operation of cruise companies and the sustainable development of the cruise industry. Because of the enormous impact and damage caused to the cruise industry by the COVID-19 pandemic, it is suggested that the cruise industry should take effective preventive strategies against highly contagious infectious diseases, deploy these strategies ahead of time, and strengthen the resilience and pandemic prevention ability of the cruise industry, to achieve the goal of sustainably developing the cruise industry.

3.
Clin Chim Acta ; 532: 89-94, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Determining what quarantine period and detection strategy are more effective and sustainable remains a challenge for further prevention and social stability. METHODS: From October 2020 to December 2021, 290,547 inbound overseas travelers were subject to government quarantine in Xiamen, China. The detection rate of COVID-19 during different quarantine periods using dual or single nucleic acid testing reagents. RESULTS: The COVID-19 positive rate was 1.79% (519/290,547). The detection rates during the 7-day, 14-day and 14+7-day quarantine periods using the dual reagents were 78.4%, 91.7%, and 100%, respectively. The detection rate of the 7-day, 14-day and 14+7-day quarantine periods were 73.99%, 86.51%, and 94.22%, respectively, using the Liferiver reagent and 72.25%, 84.59%, and 91.91%, respectively, using the Daan reagent. Based on the 14+7 day strategy, dual nucleic acid testing reagent strategy detected all imported cases, but 30 cases (5.78%) were not detected via Liferiver reagent and 42 (8.09%) cases not detected via Daan reagent. CONCLUSION: A 14+7-day quarantine period and dual nucleic acid testing reagent strategy are effective screening methods for COVID-19 among inbound overseas travelers. The superior detection rate of these strategies reduce the risk of secondary transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , China , Humans , Indicators and Reagents , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877431

ABSTRACT

Background Currently, promoted vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 are being given out globally. However, the occurrence of numerous COVID-19 variants has hindered the goal of rapid mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic by effective mass vaccinations. The real-word effectiveness of the current vaccines against COVID-19 variants has not been assessed by published reviews. Therefore, our study evaluated the overall effectiveness of current vaccines and the differences between the various vaccines and variants. Methods PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, medRxiv, bioRxiv, and arXiv were searched to screen the eligible studies. The Newcastle–Ottawa scale and the Egger test were applied to estimate the quality of the literature and any publication bias, respectively. The pooled incident rates of different variants after vaccination were estimated by single-arm analysis. Meanwhile, the pooled efficacies of various vaccines against variants were evaluated by two-arm analysis using odds ratios (ORs) and vaccine effectiveness (VE). Results A total of 6,118 studies were identified initially and 44 articles were included. We found that the overall incidence of variants post first/second vaccine were 0.07 and 0.03, respectively. The VE of the incidence of variants post first vaccine between the vaccine and the placebo or unvaccinated population was 40% and post second vaccine was 96%, respectively. The sub-single-arm analysis showed a low prevalence rate of COVID-19 variants after specific vaccination with the pooled incidence below 0.10 in most subgroups. Meanwhile, the sub-two-arm analysis indicated that most current vaccines had a good or moderate preventive effect on certain variants considering that the VE in these subgroups was between 66 and 95%, which was broadly in line with the results of the sub-single-arm analysis. Conclusion Our meta-analysis shows that the current vaccines that are used globally could prevent COVID-19 infection and restrict the spread of variants to a great extent. We would also support maximizing vaccine uptake with two doses, as the effectiveness of which was more marked compared with one dose. Although the mRNA vaccine was the most effective against variants according to our study, specific vaccines should be taken into account based on the local dominant prevalence of variants.

5.
Appl Res Qual Life ; : 1-24, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859093

ABSTRACT

The use of electronic service-learning (e-Service-Learning or e-SL) is valuable under COVID-19 because we can provide the service without physical contact. Unfortunately, evaluation of e-SL is not widespread and there is no known study in different Chinese societies. Besides, there are many methodological limitations of the existing studies in the field. In this paper, we evaluated e-SL projects implemented in summer 2020 and 2021 in three sites in China. First, we examined service providers' changes based on pretest and posttest scores (i.e., objective outcome evaluation) and their perceptions of the e-SL projects (i.e., subjective outcome evaluation based on the service providers). Second, graduate student assessors in Chinese mainland universities and teachers of primary school students (i.e., service recipients) rated the SL program quality, service providers' performance and benefits to the service recipients after program completion (i.e., subjective outcome evaluation of SL projects based on other stakeholders). Third, trained graduate student assessors evaluated service quality during the implementation process (i.e., process evaluation). We found that university students (i.e., service providers) showed higher posttest scores in positive youth development attributes, leadership attributes and life satisfaction relative to pretest scores. Besides, service providers showed positive perceptions of their learning experience, own performance, benefits to the service recipients and themselves in the SL projects. Similarly, other stakeholders also had positive evaluation of the SL projects and related benefits. Finally, trained graduate student assessors had positive assessment of the quality of program implementation. The findings underscore the utility of e-SL involving both online teaching and learning as well as online service, particularly in a Chinese context.

6.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(Supplement): S146-S152, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847488

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed global health care systems under unprecedented strain but has, at the same time, provided a unique opportunity for pathologists to turn autopsy findings into directly actionable insights into patient care. The current data on the neuropathology of COVID-19 remains preliminary and is limited by the lack of suitable controls, but certain tentative conclusions can be drawn. SARS-CoV-2 can infect multiple cell types in the central nervous system and does so in a subset of patients, although the clinical significance of direct infections remains in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) infections remains unclear. The best-described neuropathological manifestations of COVID-19 in the brain are variable patterns of neuroinflammation and vascular injury, although again, it remains unclear to what degree these findings are specifically due to COVID-19. There is also intriguing preliminary data to suggest a complex relationship between COVID-19 and neurodegeneration, with certain alleles that increase AD risk also increasing the risk of severe COVID-19, and conversely, the possibility that COVID-19 may increase the risk of neurodegenerative disease. The neuropathology of so-called "long-COVID" and the potential effects of COVID-19, or critical illness in general, on neurodegenerative disease remains unclear. There is thus an urgent need for long-term cohort studies of COVID-19 survivors, including brain donation, particularly in elderly patients, with careful recruitment of controls with similar non-COVID inflammatory illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Aged , Brain/pathology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 876037, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847175

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody decay and SARS-CoV-2 variants, vaccine booster doses are a constant concern. It was focused on whether the third dose can quickly evoke and activate immunity and produce a sufficient and durable immune protection. Objectives: To evaluate the responses and durations of five subsets of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their predictive values for protection after the administration of a three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines regimens. Methods: A prospective cohort study of five subsets of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (neutralizing antibody, anti-RBD total antibody, anti-Spike IgG, anti-Spike IgM, and anti-Spike IgA) was carried out to evaluate the efficacies and immune characteristics of a three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines regimen in 32 volunteers. The dynamic response and immune decay were longitudinally profiled at 18 serial time points over 368 days. Results: The neutralizing antibody, anti-RBD total antibody, anti-Spike IgG and anti-Spike IgA levels rapidly increased to 773.60 (380.90-1273.00) IU/mL, 639.30 (399.60-878.60) AU/mL, 34.48 (16.83-44.68) S/CO and 0.91 (0.35-1.14) S/CO, respectively, after the administration of the third dose. Compared to the peak value after the second dose, these values were increased by 4.22-fold, 3.71-fold, 1.01-fold and 0.92-fold. On the other hand, the half-lives of the neutralizing antibody, anti-RBD total antibody, and anti-Spike IgG were 56.26 (95% CI, 46.81 to 70.49) days, 66.37 (95% CI, 54.90 to 83.88) days, and 82.91 (95% CI, 63.65 to 118.89) days, respectively. Compared to the half-lives after the second dose, these values were increased by 1.71-fold, 2.00-fold, and 2.93-fold, respectively. Nevertheless, the positive conversion rate of anti-Spike IgM was decreased to 9.38% (3/32), which was much lower than that after the second dose (65.63% (21/32)). Conclusions: Compared to the second dose, the third dose dramatically increased the antibody levels and decay times. However, the half-life of neutralizing antibody remained unsatisfactory. Due to decay, a fourth dose, and even annual revaccination, might be considered in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination management strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
9.
Green Energy & Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773326

ABSTRACT

Air-borne pollutants in particulate matter (PM) form, produced either physically during industrial processes or certain biological routes, have posed a great threat to human health. Particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic, effective filtration of the virus is an urgent matter worldwide. In this review, we first introduce some fundamentals about PM, including its source and classification, filtration mechanisms, and evaluation parameters. Advanced filtration materials and their functions are then summarized, among which polymers and MOFs are discussed in detail together with their antibacterial performance. The discussion on the application is divided into end-of-pipe treatment and source control. Finally, we conclude this review with our prospective view on future research in this area.

10.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-487489

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has been partitioned into four sub-lineages designated BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3, with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide recently by outcompeting BA.1 and BA.1.1. We and others have reported the striking antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparison of susceptibility of all the major Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are urgently needed. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) showed very weak to no neutralization activity, while a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) markedly improved the neutralization titers against all Omicron variants. The comparison between sub-lineages indicated that BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3 had comparable or even greater antibody resistance than BA.1. We further evaluated the neutralization profile of a panel of 20 mAbs, including 10 already authorized or approved, against these Omicron sub-lineages as well as viruses with different Omicron spike single or combined mutations. Most mAbs lost their neutralizing activity completely or substantially, while some demonstrated distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting their antigenic difference. Taken together, our results suggest all four Omicron sub-lineages threaten the efficacies of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319973

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing globally, which is a big challenge for public health. Alteration of human microbiota had been observed in COVID-19. However, it is unknown how the microbiota is associated with the fatality in COVID-19.Methods: We conducted metatranscriptome sequencing on 588 longitudinal oropharyngeal swab specimens collected from 192 COVID-19 patients recruited in the LOTUS clinical trial (Registration number: ChiCTR2000029308) (including 39 deceased patients), and 95 healthy controls from the same geographic area.Findings: The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota in COVID-19 patients differed from that in healthy controls, while deceased patients possessed a more distinct microbiota. Streptococcus was enriched in recovered patients, whereas potential pathogens, including Candida and Enterococcus, were more abundant in deceased patients. Moreover, the microbiota dominated by Streptococcus was more stable than that dominated by other species. In contrast, the URT microbiota in deceased patients showed a more significant alteration and became more deviated from the norm after admission. The abundance of Streptococcus on admission, particularly that of S. parasanguis, was identified as a strong predictor of fatality by Cox and L1 regularized logistic regression analysis, thus could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.Interpretation Alteration of the URT microbiota was observed in COVID-19 patients and was associated with the fatality rate. A higher abundance of Streptococcus, especially S. parasanguis, on admission in oropharyngeal swabs predicts a better outcome. The generalization of the results in other populations and underlying mechanisms need further investigations.Trial Registration: Participants were enrolled in ChiCTR2000029308.Funding: This study was funded in part by the National Major Science & Technology Project for Control and Prevention of Major Infectious Diseases in China (2017ZX10103004, 2018ZX10301401), the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2019-I2M-2-XX, 2016-I2M-1-014, 2018-I2M-1-003), The Non-profit Central Research Institute Fund of CAMS (2020HY320001, 2019PT310029), Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Genomics (ICG), and Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology (ICSB).Declaration of Interests: All authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Jin Yin-Tan Hospital (KY2020-02.01). Written informed consent was obtained from all patients or their legal representatives if they were too unwell to provide consent.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315786

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Since December 2019, a outbreak of Corona Virus Disease-2019(COVID-19) started in Wuhan, China. Now we comprehended much more about the troublesome disease from studies than the beginning. But more details between admission laboratory test and prognosis of COVID-19 were still confusing. So we focused on the admission biochemical test, and tried to verify their influence to the prognosis of COVID-19. Method: 522 patients from 4 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We collected demographic information, comorbidities and laboratory biochemical indicators, then compared them between survivors’ and nonsurvivors’ group. Logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Linear regression and receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC-curve) was applied to assess the efficiency of risk factors and regression model. Results: Age of nonsurvivors’ group(68.9) was older than survivors group(50.0). Diabetes(68.7%) was the most common comorbidity in the nonsurvivors’ group. In univariate regression analysis, most biochemical tests were related to the mortality except lipid metabolic results. Age, fasting blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) were with a p-value less than 0.001 in multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Age, BUN and fasting blood glucose were risk factors associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 related pneumonia.Authors Qi Long, Chen-liang Zhou, Ye-ming Wang, Bin Song, Xiao-bin Cheng, Qiu-fen Dong, and Liu-lin Wang contributed equally to this work.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315693

ABSTRACT

Although close exposure to respiratory droplets from an infected patient is the main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2, touching contaminated surfaces and objects might also contribute to transmission of this virus. There are increasing reports that cold-chain food and food packages have been tested with SARS-CoV-2, raising concerns that importation of contaminated food could be a source for transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The survival of SARS-CoV-2 on cold-chain food was investigated. We found SARS-CoV-2 remained viable for more than three weeks on both beef and mutton at 4°C. Furthermore, at freezing temperature, SARS-CoV-2 can easily survive for more than eight weeks. Our study showed the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to survive for a long time on cold-chain food at low temperatures.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315663

ABSTRACT

Developing conversational agents to interact with patients and provide primary clinical advice has attracted increasing attention due to its huge application potential, especially in the time of COVID-19 Pandemic. However, the training of end-to-end neural-based medical dialogue system is restricted by an insufficient quantity of medical dialogue corpus. In this work, we make the first attempt to build and release a large-scale high-quality Medical Dialogue dataset related to 12 types of common Gastrointestinal diseases named MedDG, with more than 17K conversations collected from the online health consultation community. Five different categories of entities, including diseases, symptoms, attributes, tests, and medicines, are annotated in each conversation of MedDG as additional labels. To push forward the future research on building expert-sensitive medical dialogue system, we proposes two kinds of medical dialogue tasks based on MedDG dataset. One is the next entity prediction and the other is the doctor response generation. To acquire a clear comprehension on these two medical dialogue tasks, we implement several state-of-the-art benchmarks, as well as design two dialogue models with a further consideration on the predicted entities. Experimental results show that the pre-train language models and other baselines struggle on both tasks with poor performance in our dataset, and the response quality can be enhanced with the help of auxiliary entity information. From human evaluation, the simple retrieval model outperforms several state-of-the-art generative models, indicating that there still remains a large room for improvement on generating medically meaningful responses.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315201

ABSTRACT

The mutations make uncertain to SARS-CoV-2 disease control and vaccine development. At population-level, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) have displayed mutations for illustrating epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis of COVID-19. These mutations are to be expected by the analysis of intra-host level, which presented as intra-host variations (iSNVs). Here, we performed spatio-temporal analysis on iSNVs in 402 clinical samples from 170 patients, and observed an increase of genetic diversity along the day post symptom onset within individual patient and among subpopulations divided by gender, age, illness severity and viral shedding time, suggested a positive selection at intra-host level. The comparison of iSNVs and SNPs displayed that most of nonsynonymous mutations were not fixed suggested a purifying selection. This two-step fitness selection enforced iSNVs containing more nonsynonymous mutations, that highlight the potential characters of SARS-CoV-2 for viral infections and global transmissions.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313367

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus was found in a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. WHO officially named this coronavirus as COVID-19. Since the first patient was hospitalized on December 12, 2019, China has reported a total of 78,824 confirmed CONID-19 cases and 2,788 deaths as of February 28, 2020. Wuhan's cumulative confirmed cases and deaths accounted for 61.1% and 76.5% of the whole China mainland , making it the priority center for epidemic prevention and control. Meanwhile, 51 countries and regions outside China have reported 4,879 confirmed cases and 79 deaths as of February 28, 2020. COVID-19 epidemic does great harm to people's daily life and country's economic development. This paper adopts three kinds of mathematical models, i.e., Logistic model, Bertalanffy model and Gompertz model. The epidemic trends of SARS were first fitted and analyzed in order to prove the validity of the existing mathematical models. The results were then used to fit and analyze the situation of COVID-19. The prediction results of three different mathematical models are different for different parameters and in different regions. In general, the fitting effect of Logistic model may be the best among the three models studied in this paper, while the fitting effect of Gompertz model may be better than Bertalanffy model. According to the current trend, based on the three models, the total number of people expected to be infected is 49852-57447 in Wuhan,12972-13405 in non-Hubei areas and 80261-85140 in China respectively. The total death toll is 2502-5108 in Wuhan, 107-125 in Non-Hubei areas and 3150-6286 in China respetively. COVID-19 will be over p robably in late-April, 2020 in Wuhan and before late-March, 2020 in other areas respectively.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310721

ABSTRACT

Background: There are growing evidence demonstrating that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is companied by acute myocardial injury. However, the association of SARS-CoV-2-induced myocardial injury with death risk of COVID-19 is unclear. Methods: : This prospective case-cohort study analyzed 355 COVID-19 patients from two hospitals in different regions. Clinical and demographic information were collected. Myocardial injury was evaluated and its prognosis was followed up. Results: Of 355 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 213 were mild, 90 severe and 52 critically ill patients. On admission, 220 (62.0%) patients were with myocardial injury. Myocardial injury was more popular in critically ill patients. Using multivariate logistic regression, male, older age and comorbidity with hypertension were three crucial independent risk factors predicting myocardial injury of COVID-19 patients. Among 220 COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury, 33 (15.0%) died on mean 10.9 day after hospitalization. Mortality was increased among COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury (15.0% vs 1.74%, RR =8.625, P <0.001). Follow-up study observed that at least one myocardial index of 21.3% patients remained abnormal 14 days after discharge. Conclusion: Myocardial injury at early stage elevates mortality of COVID-19 patients. Male elderly patients with hypertension are more vulnerable to myocardial injury. SARS-CoV-2-induced myocardial injury has not completely recovered 14 days after discharge.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308224

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. Real-time RT-PCR assays are recommended for diagnosis of COVID-19. Here we report a rare case of COVID-19 with multiple negative results for PCR assays outside Wuhan, China. Case presentation: A 32-year old male was admitted to our hospital because of 6 days of unexplained fever on January 29, 2020. He had come from Wuhan city 10 days before admission. 5 days before admission, no abnormality was noted in laboratory test, chest radiography, and nasopharyngeal swab test for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. The patient was treated with ibuprofen for alleviating fever. On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple ground-glass opacities in right lower lung field. COVID-19 was suspected. 3 times of nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected after admission. However, none of the specimens were positive. The patient was confirmed with COVID-19 after fifth SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. He was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, recombinant human interferon alfa-2b inhalation, methylprednisolone. After 18 days of treatment, he was discharged with improved symptoms, lung lesions and negative results of nasopharyngeal swab. Conclusion: This case reminds clinician that a patient with high clinical suspicion of COVID-19 but multiple negative RT-PCR result should not be taken out of isolation. A combination of patient’s exposure history, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and typical imaging findings plays a vital role in making preliminary diagnosis and guide early isolation and treatment. Repeat swab tests are helpful in diagnosis for this kind of patients.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308216

ABSTRACT

Background: Quantitative and radiomics imaging could realize non-invasive disease diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate radiomics features of the whole lung for predicting new coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) from different views, and to investigate new radiomics features. 75 patients were retrospectively enrolled from December 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020. Both lungs were segmented by an unsupervised hybrid image segmentation approach. Radiomics features of the transverse plane, coronal plane and sagittal plane were separately extracted. After utilizing least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), three radiomics models based on key radiomics features were built by machine learning. Meanwhile, the different categories radiomics models were constructed by the particle swarm optimization-deep extreme learning machine(PSO-DELM). Predictive accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and areas under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were evaluated performances of these radiomics models. Results: : Training and test cohorts had similar distributions of age and pneumonia type. 13 (transverse plane), 4 (coronal plane) and 8 (sagittal plane) selected features were constructed radiomics models in training cohort. Radiomics models based on PSO-DELM in the transverse plane, coronal plane and sagittal plane showed the favorable performance in the testing cohort(AUC=0.9444, 0.8636 and 0.9444, respectively). The phase congruency feature showed the stable predictive performance (AUC>0.9) among these radiomics features on the three different plane. Conclusions: : Multi-view whole lung radiomics features could effectively differentiate COVID-19 from other types of pneumonia. Phase congruency may be attempted as a radiomics biomarker for the identification of pulmonary diseases. Merging the radiomics features into PSO-DELM is a promising direction for future research about medical radiology and deep learning.

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