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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875645

ABSTRACT

Actinidia latifolia is one of the very few kiwifruit genotypes with extremely high ascorbic acid (AsA) content. However, a transcriptome atlas of this species is lacking. The accumulation of AsA during fruit development and ripening and the associated molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Herein, dynamic changes in AsA content at six different stages of A. latifolia fruit development and ripening were determined. AsA content of A. latifolia fruit reached 1108.76 ± 35.26 mg 100 g-1 FW at full maturity. A high-quality, full-length (FL) transcriptome of A. latifolia was successfully constructed for the first time using third-generation sequencing technology. The transcriptome comprises 326,926 FL non-chimeric reads, 15,505 coding sequences, 2882 transcription factors, 18,797 simple sequence repeats, 3328 long noncoding RNAs, and 231 alternative splicing events. The genes involved in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways were identified and compared with those in different kiwifruit genotypes. The correlation between the AsA content and expression levels of key genes in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways was revealed. LncRNAs that participate in AsA-related gene expression regulation were also identified. Gene expression patterns in AsA biosynthesis and metabolism exhibited a trend similar to that of AsA accumulation. Overall, this study paves the way for genetic engineering to develop kiwifruits with super-high AsA content.


Subject(s)
Actinidia , Actinidia/genetics , Actinidia/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Fruit/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Transcriptome
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 4469-4482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526719

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the impact of hyperglycemia on the clinical outcome of COVID-19 in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 3114 cases of COVID-19 without pre-existing diabetes, 351 of which had NDD, in Hubei Province, China. The Cox regression model was used to calculate the risk of adverse clinical outcomes comparing the NDD vs non-NDD group before and after propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. Patients with NDD were further divided into a sustained hyperglycemia group, a fluctuating group, and a remitted group based on their blood glucose levels during hospitalization as well as into hypoglycemic agent users and nonusers. RESULTS: Compared to the non-NDD individuals, individuals with NDD had a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR after PSM, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.49-4.72; P = 0.001) and secondary outcomes involving organ damage during the 28-day follow-up period. Subgroup analyses indicated that among individuals with NDD, the individuals with remitted hyperglycemia had the lowest 28-day mortality, whereas those with sustained hyperglycemia had the highest (IRR 24.27; 95% CI, 3.21-183.36; P < 0.001). Moreover, individuals treated with hypoglycemic agents had significantly lower all-cause mortality than those not treated with hypoglycemic agents (IRR 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.56; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study reinforces the clinical message that NDD is strongly associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, resolved hyperglycemia in the later phase of the disease and the use of hypoglycemic agents were associated with improved prognosis in patients with NDD.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(1): 13-20, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to escalate intensively worldwide. Massive studies on general populations with SARS-CoV-2 infection have revealed that pre-existing comorbidities were a major risk factor for the poor prognosis of COVID-19. Notably, 49-75% of COVID-19 patients had no comorbidities, but this cohort would also progress to severe COVID-19 or even death. However, risk factors contributing to disease progression and death in patients without chronic comorbidities are largely unknown; thus, specific clinical interventions for those patients are challenging. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective study based on 4806 COVID-19 patients without chronic comorbidities was performed to identify potential risk factors contributing to COVID-19 progression and death using LASSO and a stepwise logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 4806 patients without pre-existing comorbidities, the proportions with severe progression and mortality were 34.29% and 2.10%, respectively. The median age was 47.00 years [interquartile range, 36.00-56.00], and 2162 (44.99%) were men. Among 51 clinical parameters on admission, age ≥ 47, oxygen saturation < 95%, increased lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil count, direct bilirubin, creatine phosphokinase, blood urea nitrogen levels, dyspnea, increased blood glucose and prothrombin time levels were associated with COVID-19 mortality in the entire cohort. Of the 3647 patients diagnosed with non-severe COVID-19 on admission, 489(13.41%) progressed to severe disease. The risk factors associated with COVID-19 progression from non-severe to severe illness were increased procalcitonin levels, SpO2 < 95%, age ≥ 47, increased LDH, activated partial thromboplastin time levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, dyspnea and increased D-dimer levels. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients without pre-existing chronic comorbidities have specific traits and disease patterns. COVID-19 accompanied by severe bacterial infections, as indicated by increased procalcitonin levels, was highly associated with disease progression from non-severe to severe. Aging, impaired respiratory function, coagulation dysfunction, tissue injury, and lipid metabolism dysregulation were also associated with disease progression. Once factors for multi-organ damage were elevated and glucose increased at admission, these findings indicated a higher risk for mortality. This study provides information that helps to predict COVID-19 prognosis specifically in patients without chronic comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Hypertension ; 76(4): 1104-1112, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992137

ABSTRACT

The prognostic power of circulating cardiac biomarkers, their utility, and pattern of release in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have not been clearly defined. In this multicentered retrospective study, we enrolled 3219 patients with diagnosed COVID-19 admitted to 9 hospitals from December 31, 2019 to March 4, 2020, to estimate the associations and prognostic power of circulating cardiac injury markers with the poor outcomes of COVID-19. In the mixed-effects Cox model, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratio of 28-day mortality for hs-cTnI (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) was 7.12 ([95% CI, 4.60-11.03] P<0.001), (NT-pro)BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide) was 5.11 ([95% CI, 3.50-7.47] P<0.001), CK (creatine phosphokinase)-MB was 4.86 ([95% CI, 3.33-7.09] P<0.001), MYO (myoglobin) was 4.50 ([95% CI, 3.18-6.36] P<0.001), and CK was 3.56 ([95% CI, 2.53-5.02] P<0.001). The cutoffs of those cardiac biomarkers for effective prognosis of 28-day mortality of COVID-19 were found to be much lower than for regular heart disease at about 19%-50% of the currently recommended thresholds. Patients with elevated cardiac injury markers above the newly established cutoffs were associated with significantly increased risk of COVID-19 death. In conclusion, cardiac biomarker elevations are significantly associated with 28-day death in patients with COVID-19. The prognostic cutoff values of these biomarkers might be much lower than the current reference standards. These findings can assist in better management of COVID-19 patients to improve outcomes. Importantly, the newly established cutoff levels of COVID-19-associated cardiac biomarkers may serve as useful criteria for the future prospective studies and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Diseases , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Pneumonia, Viral , Troponin I/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Med (N Y) ; 2(1): 38-48.e2, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently emerged respiratory infectious disease with kidney injury as a part of the clinical complications. However, the dynamic change of kidney function and its association with COVID-19 prognosis are largely unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we analyzed clinical characteristics, medical history, laboratory tests, and treatment data of 12,413 COVID-19 patients. The patient cohort was stratified according to the severity of the outcome into three groups: non-severe, severe, and death. FINDINGS: The prevalence of elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), elevated serum creatinine (Scr), and decreased blood uric acid (BUA) at admission was 6.29%, 5.22%, and 11.66%, respectively. The trajectories showed the elevation in BUN and Scr levels, as well as a reduction in BUA level for 28 days after admission in death cases. Increased all-cause mortality risk was associated with elevated baseline levels of BUN and Scr and decreased levels of BUA. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic changes of the three kidney function markers were associated with different severity and poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. BUN showed a close association with and high potential for predicting adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients for severity stratification and triage. FUNDING: This study was supported by grants from the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFF0101504), the National Science Foundation of China (81630011, 81970364, 81970070, 81970011, 81870171, and 81700356), the Major Research Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (91639304), the Hubei Science and Technology Support Project (2019BFC582, 2018BEC473, and 2017BEC001), and the Medical Flight Plan of Wuhan University.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cell Metab ; 32(4): 537-547.e3, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741151

ABSTRACT

The safety and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs are critical for maximizing the beneficial impacts of well-controlled blood glucose on the prognosis of individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first-line medication for T2D, but its impact on the outcomes of individuals with COVID-19 and T2D remains to be clarified. Our current retrospective study in a cohort of 1,213 hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D indicated that metformin use was significantly associated with a higher incidence of acidosis, particularly in cases with severe COVID-19, but not with 28-day COVID-19-related mortality. Furthermore, metformin use was significantly associated with reduced heart failure and inflammation. Our findings provide clinical evidence in support of continuing metformin treatment in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D, but acidosis and kidney function should be carefully monitored in individuals with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Metformin/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acidosis, Lactic/chemically induced , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 176-187.e4, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612919

ABSTRACT

Statins are lipid-lowering therapeutics with favorable anti-inflammatory profiles and have been proposed as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19. However, statins may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry by inducing ACE2 expression. Here, we performed a retrospective study on 13,981 patients with COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 1,219 received statins. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after propensity score-matching, we found that the risk for 28-day all-cause mortality was 5.2% and 9.4% in the matched statin and non-statin groups, respectively, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.58. The statin use-associated lower risk of mortality was also observed in the Cox time-varying model and marginal structural model analysis. These results give support for the completion of ongoing prospective studies and randomized controlled trials involving statin treatment for COVID-19, which are needed to further validate the utility of this class of drugs to combat the mortality of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Hepatology ; 72(2): 389-398, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease. To reveal the hepatic injury related to this disease and its clinical significance, we conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 5,771 adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Hubei Province. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We reported the distributional and temporal patterns of liver injury indicators in these patients and determined their associated factors and death risk. Longitudinal liver function tests were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the risk factors and death. Liver injury dynamic patterns differed in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL). AST elevated first, followed by ALT, in severe patients. ALP modestly increased during hospitalization and largely remained in the normal range. The fluctuation in TBIL levels was mild in the non-severe and the severe groups. AST abnormality was associated with the highest mortality risk compared with the other indicators of liver injury during hospitalization. Common factors associated with elevated liver injury indicators were lymphocyte count decrease, neutrophil count increase, and male gender. CONCLUSION: The dynamic patterns of liver injury indicators and their potential risk factors may provide an important explanation for the COVID-19-associated liver injury. Because elevated liver injury indicators, particularly AST, are strongly associated with the mortality risk, our study indicates that these parameters should be monitored during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Circ Res ; 126(12): 1671-1681, 2020 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72368

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Use of ACEIs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) is a major concern for clinicians treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and hospitalized due to COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective, multi-center study included 1128 adult patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19, including 188 taking ACEI/ARB (ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range, 55-68] years; 53.2% men) and 940 without using ACEI/ARB (non-ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range 57-69]; 53.5% men), who were admitted to 9 hospitals in Hubei Province, China from December 31, 2019 to February 20, 2020. In mixed-effect Cox model treating site as a random effect, after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and in-hospital medications, the detected risk for all-cause mortality was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.19-0.92]; P=0.03). In a propensity score-matched analysis followed by adjusting imbalanced variables in mixed-effect Cox model, the results consistently demonstrated lower risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients who received ACEI/ARB versus those who did not receive ACEI/ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.15-0.89]; P=0.03). Further subgroup propensity score-matched analysis indicated that, compared with use of other antihypertensive drugs, ACEI/ARB was also associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.70]; P=0.01) in patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension, inpatient use of ACEI/ARB was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with ACEI/ARB nonusers. While study interpretation needs to consider the potential for residual confounders, it is unlikely that in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB was associated with an increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
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