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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(20): 23459-23470, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since April 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.167) Delta variant has been rampant worldwide. Recently, this variant has spread in Guangzhou, China. Our objective was to characterize the clinical features and risk factors of severe cases of the Delta variant in Guangzhou. METHODS: A total of 144 patients with the Delta variant were enrolled, and the data between the severe and non-severe groups were compared. Logistic regression methods and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors of severe cases. RESULTS: The severity of the Delta variant was 11.1%. Each 1-year increase in age (OR, 1.089; 95% CI, 1.035-1.147; P = 0.001) and each 1-µmol/L increase in total bilirubin (OR, 1.198; 95% CI, 1.021-1.406; P = 0.039) were risk factors for severe cases. Moreover, the risk of progression to severe cases increased 13.444-fold and 3.922-fold when the age was greater than 58.5 years (HR, 13.444; 95% CI, 2.989-60.480; P = 0.001) or the total bilirubin level was greater than 7.23 µmol/L (HR, 3.922; 95% CI, 1.260-12.207; P = 0.018), respectively. CONCLUSION: Older age and elevated total bilirubin were independent risk factors for severe cases of the Delta variant in Guangzhou, especially if the age was greater than 58.5 years or the total bilirubin level was greater than 7.23 µmol/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Fractals ; 29(6), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1438111

ABSTRACT

Based on high-frequency data, we study the difference in cryptocurrency market before and during the COVID-19. We analyze the multifractality of three major cryptocurrencies via the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). To investigate the source of multifractality, we construct shuffled, surrogated and truncate data. The results show that market efficiency of cryptocurrency has decreased during COVID-19. The cryptocurrency multifractal characteristics mainly come from non-Gaussian distribution. Additionally, the components of multifractal nature have changed during the pandemic. The results provide evidence for the impact of COVID-19 on cryptocurrency market.

5.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(5):1985, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1257861

ABSTRACT

The influence of meteorological conditions on the pollution processes was investigated in this study by analyzing the changes of air quality as well as the characteristics of two persistent heavy pollution episodes during the Coronavirus Disea se 2019(COVID-19) prevention(January 24 to February 29) of 2020 winter compared with the same period of 2015~2019. Cold air intensity in 2020 winter was weaker with the cold surges frequency decreased by 50%. Air temperature was 0.73℃ higher, and wind speed and mixed layer height were 17.8% and 32.5% lower, respectively. Relative humidity and dew point temperature increased by 60. 9% and 48.1%, respectively. Northerly wind frequency reduced 7.5% while both of southerly and easterly wind increased 6.0%. As shown above, all meteorological conditions in 2020 winter were significantly more favorable for air pollution than the same historical period. Moreover, two heavy pollution episodes(January 24~29 and February 8~14) lasted for 59 and 75 hours were analyzed. At the cumulative stage, regional transport that can be divided into east and south channel greatly affected PM2.5, with the contribution of 70% and 58% for two episodes. By contrast, the contribution of local pollution was 67% and 48%, respectively, indicating the increased proportion of hygroscopic growth and secondary generation in the maintenance and aggravation stages. Under the meteorological background of "high humidity and high atmospheric stability", the combined effects of atmospheric vertical dynamics and horizontal convergence accumulated PM2.5 and water vapor in Beijing plain and prevented them from spreading beyond the boundary layer. Further bidirectional feedback between increased pollutants and meteorological factor s in stable boundary layer resulting in aggravation of pollution. According to EMI index, meteorological conditions during the epi demic prevention in 2020 winter caused an increase of 70.1% in PM2.5 concentration compared to pre-COVID-19. Emissions reduction caused by emergency measures for COVID-19 lockdown offset 53% of the adverse impact induced by meteorological conditions. As for the two episodes in 2020 winter, EMI was 26.9% and 19.7% larger than the average of other nine episodes in the correspond ing period of 2015~2019, and PM2.5 concentration was basically unchanged or slightly reduced. Overall, if the current social emission level is not changed, emission reduction caused by city blockade under special circumstances can only partially reduce the pollution concentration, however, cannot completely offset the adverse impact of meteorological conditions.

6.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(11):1066-1068, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1029694

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Dazhou City, we provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of COVID-19 in Dazhou City.

7.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-380816

ABSTRACT

In the current study we analyzed the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated from Italy, Sweden, Congo (countries in the same meridian) and Brazil, as outgroup country. Evolutionary analysis revealed codon 9628 under episodic selective pressure for all four countries, suggesting it as a key site for the virus evolution. Belonging to the P0DTD3 (Y14_SARS2) uncharacterized protein 14, further investigation has been conducted showing the codon mutation as responsible for the helical modification in the secondary structure. According to the predictions done, the codon is placed into the more ordered region of the gene (41-59) and close the area acting as transmembrane (54-67), suggesting its involvement into the attachment phase of the virus. The predicted structures of P0DTD3 mutated and not confirmed the importance of the codon to define the protein structure and the ontological analysis of the protein emphasized that the mutation enhances the binding probability.

8.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-2055

ABSTRACT

The incidence of close contacts has a correlation with the frequency and degree of contact. Living together results in frequent contact, which further leads to multiple clusters in families. The attack rate of the family cluster is significantly higher than that of other contacts. Implementing family prevention and control measures will helreduce the attack rate of a family cluster.

11.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 67(2): 126-130, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696117

ABSTRACT

Severe patients of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may progress rapidly to critical stage. This study aimed to identify factors useful for predicting the progress. 33 severe COVID-19 patients at the intensive care unit were included in this study. During treatment, 13 patients deteriorated and required further treatment for supporting organ function. The remaining 20 patients alleviated and were transferred to the general wards. The multivariate COX regression analyses showed that hypoproteinemia was an independent risk factor associated with deterioration of severe patients (HR, 0.763; 95% CI, 0.596 to 0.978; p = 0.033). The restricted cubic spline indicated that when HR = 1, the corresponding value of albumin is 29.6 g/L. We used the cutoff of 29.6 g/L to divide these patients. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the survival rate of the high-albumin group was higher than that of the low-albumin group. Therefore, hypoalbuminemia may be an independent risk factor to evaluate poor prognosis of severely patients with COVID-19, especially when albumin levels were below 29.6 g/L.

12.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-087288

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing an unprecedented global pandemic demanding the urgent development of therapeutic strategies. Microarray binding experiments using an extensive heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharide library showed that the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike of SARS-CoV-2 can bind HS in a length-and sequence-dependent manner. Hexa- and octa-saccharides composed of IdoA2S-GlcNS6S repeating units were identified as optimal ligands. Surface plasma resonance (SPR) showed the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds with much higher affinity to heparin (KD = 55 nM) compared to the RBD (KD = 1 M) alone. We also found that heparin does not interfere in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding or proteolytic processing of the spike. Our data supports a model in which HS functions as the point of initial attachment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Tissue staining studies using biologically relevant tissues indicate that heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) is a critical attachment factor for the virus. Collectively, our results highlight the potential of using HS oligosaccharides as a therapeutic agent by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 binding to target cells.

13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20085761

ABSTRACT

BackgroundEffective antiviral drugs for COVID-19 are still lacking. This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes and plasma concentrations of baloxavir marboxil and favipiravir in COVID-19 patients. MethodsFavipiravir and baloxavir acid were evaluated for their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro before the trial initiation. We conducted an exploratory trial with 3 arms involving hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomized assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio into baloxavir marboxil group, favipiravir group, and control group. The primary outcome was the percentage of subjects with viral negative by Day 14 and the time from randomization to clinical improvement. Virus load reduction, blood drug concentration and clinical presentation were also observed. The trial was registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR 2000029544). ResultsBaloxavir showed antiviral activity in vitro with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 5.48 {micro}M comparable to arbidol and lopinavir, but favipiravir didnt demonstrate significant antiviral activity up to 100 {micro}M. Thirty patients were enrolled. The percentage of patients who turned viral negative after 14-day treatment was 70%, 77%, and 100% in the baloxavir, favipiravir, and control group respectively, with the medians of time from randomization to clinical improvement was 14, 14 and 15 days, respectively. One reason for the lack of virological effect and clinical benefits may be due to insufficient concentrations of these drugs relative to their antiviral activities. ConclusionsOur findings do not support that adding either baloxavir or favipiravir under the trial dosages to the existing standard treatment.

14.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-914952

ABSTRACT

Since the SARS outbreak 18 years ago, a large number of severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1-4. Previous studies indicated that some of those bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5-7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel coronavirus (nCoV-2019) which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans, in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, started from December 12th, 2019, has caused 198 laboratory confirmed infections with three fatal cases by January 20th, 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at the early stage of the outbreak. They are almost identical to each other and share 79.5% sequence identify to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, it was found that nCoV-2019 is 96% identical at the whole genome level to a bat coronavirus. The pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. The nCoV-2019 virus was then isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient, which can be neutralized by sera from several patients. Importantly, we have confirmed that this novel CoV uses the same cell entry receptor, ACE2, as SARS-CoV.

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