Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337257

ABSTRACT

Background: Stigma is a prominent issue among nurses working with patients with infectious diseases, but the unavailability of validated measures of such stigma. The aim of our study was to adapt, modify, and validate the COVID-19 Stigma Instrument-Nurse -Version 3 (CSI-N-3) with both classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analysis. Methods: : We administered the scale to 249 eligible nurses who worked in a COVID-19 designed hospital in Shanghai, China. Results: : The two-factor structure was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The 15-item CSI-N-3 achieved Cronbach's α of 0.64 to 0.84. Convergent validity was also demonstrated. In IRT analysis, the CSI-N-3 has ordered response thresholds, with the appropriate item difficulty and infit and outfit mean squares. Self-reported social support was the only factor influencing nurses' COVID-19 stigma (standardized coefficients β =-0.21). Conclusions: : The CSI-N-3 is an instrument with sound psychometric properties that can be used to measure COVID-19 stigma during the COVID-19 outbreak or afterward among nurses.

2.
Gut ; 69(6): 997-1001, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the GI symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. DESIGN: We analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease 2019. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces and GI tissues. RESULTS: Among the 95 patients, 58 cases exhibited GI symptoms of which 11 (11.6%) occurred on admission and 47 (49.5%) developed during hospitalisation. Diarrhoea (24.2%), anorexia (17.9%) and nausea (17.9%) were the main symptoms with five (5.3%), five (5.3%) and three (3.2%) cases occurred on the illness onset, respectively. A substantial proportion of patients developed diarrhoea during hospitalisation, potentially aggravated by various drugs including antibiotics. Faecal samples of 65 hospitalised patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including 42 with and 23 without GI symptoms, of which 22 (52.4%) and 9 (39.1%) were positive, respectively. Six patients with GI symptoms were subjected to endoscopy, revealing oesophageal bleeding with erosions and ulcers in one severe patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and rectum specimens for both two severe patients. In contrast, only duodenum was positive in one of the four non-severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310229

ABSTRACT

Background: More than 230,000 cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been reported worldwide. We sought to discuss the impact of new electronic communication tools with patients in diagnosis and treatment of these cases. Methods: : We recruited adult patients from Jan 20 to Feb 26, 2020, with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, in Zhuhai, China. 47 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly classified into either a test or control group. All of them were treated with standard therapeutic regimen and routine ward-round. The test group was subdivided into three subgroups. The first subgroup was arranged an extra 5min on-line ward-round by WeChat voice call once daily for basic disease communication. The second subgroup was given an extra 10min voice call once daily for further detail, similarly, the third subgroup was given an extra 10min than the second group every three days. The main end point was the duration of positive-to-negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Results: : 47 patients were included in the final analysis. The median time from disease diagnosed to the endpoint of test group was 7.0 days (interquartile range, 3.8 to 10.8), whereas the control group was 10.0 days (interquartile range, 6.5 to 14.5). It showed significant reduced the duration time of virus from positive to negative by the NAT (nucleic acid testing) (P=0.032), especially compared the 10 minutes group (3.0 days, interquartile range, 3.0 to 7.5) to control group (P=0.0065). Conclusions: : The patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection might benefit from the use of the new electronic communication mode. It’s very valuable to reduce the shortage of medical protection resources and the risk of occupation.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324431

ABSTRACT

Background: Gut ecosystem has profound effects on host physiology and health. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Compared with other organs, gut antiviral response can result in more complicated immune responses because of the interactions between the gut microbiota and host immunity. However, there are still large knowledge gaps in the impact of COVID-19 on gut molecular profiles and commensal microbiome, hindering our comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the treatment of COVID-19. Results: : We performed longitudinal stool multi-omics profiling to systemically investigate the molecular phenomics alterations of gut ecosystem in COVID-19. Gut proteomes of COVID-19 were characterized by disturbed immune, proteolysis and redox homeostasis. The expression and glycosylation of proteins involved in neutrophil degranulation and migration were suppressed, while those of proteases were upregulated. The variable domains of Ig heavy chains were downregulated and the overall glycosylation of IgA heavy chain constant regions, IgGFc-binding protein, and J chain were suppressed with glycan-specific variations. There was a reduction of beneficial gut bacteria and an enrichment of bacteria derived deleterious metabolites potentially associated with multiple types of diseases (such as ethyl glucuronide). The reduction of Ig heave chain variable domains may contribute to the increase of some Bacteroidetes species. Many bacteria ceramide lipids with a C17-sphingoid based were downregulated in COVID-19. In many cases, the gut phenome did not restore two months after symptom onset. Conclusions: : Our study indicates widely disturbed gut molecular profiles which may play a role in the development of symptoms in COVID-19. Our findings also emphasis the need for ongoing investigation of the long-term gut molecular and microbial alterations during COVID-19 recovery process. Considering the gut ecosystem as a potential target could offer a valuable approach in managing the disease.

5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1180: 338881, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338317

ABSTRACT

Gut ecosystem has profound effects on host physiology and health. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Compared with other organs, gut antiviral response can result in more complicated immune responses because of the interactions between the gut microbiota and host immunity. However, there are still large knowledge gaps in the impact of COVID-19 on gut molecular profiles and commensal microbiome, hindering our comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the treatment of COVID-19. We performed longitudinal stool multi-omics profiling to systemically investigate the molecular phenomics alterations of gut ecosystem in COVID-19. Gut proteomes of COVID-19 were characterized by disturbed immune, proteolysis and redox homeostasis. The expression and glycosylation of proteins involved in neutrophil degranulation and migration were suppressed, while those of proteases were upregulated. The variable domains of Ig heavy chains were downregulated and the overall glycosylation of IgA heavy chain constant regions, IgGFc-binding protein, and J chain were suppressed with glycan-specific variations. There was a reduction of beneficial gut bacteria and an enrichment of bacteria derived deleterious metabolites potentially associated with multiple types of diseases (such as ethyl glucuronide). The reduction of Ig heave chain variable domains may contribute to the increase of some Bacteroidetes species. Many bacteria ceramide lipids with a C17-sphingoid based were downregulated in COVID-19. In many cases, the gut phenome did not restore two months after symptom onset. Our study indicates widely disturbed gut molecular profiles which may play a role in the development of symptoms in COVID-19. Our findings also emphasis the need for ongoing investigation of the long-term gut molecular and microbial alterations during COVID-19 recovery process. Considering the gut ecosystem as a potential target could offer a valuable approach in managing the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ecosystem , Feces , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ann Neurol ; 89(5): 872-883, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148790

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for electrographic seizures and other electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) undergoing clinically indicated continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG) monitoring and to assess whether EEG findings are associated with outcomes. METHODS: We identified 197 patients with COVID-19 referred for cEEG at 9 participating centers. Medical records and EEG reports were reviewed retrospectively to determine the incidence of and clinical risk factors for seizures and other epileptiform patterns. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis assessed the relationship between EEG patterns and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Electrographic seizures were detected in 19 (9.6%) patients, including nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in 11 (5.6%). Epileptiform abnormalities (either ictal or interictal) were present in 96 (48.7%). Preceding clinical seizures during hospitalization were associated with both electrographic seizures (36.4% in those with vs 8.1% in those without prior clinical seizures, odds ratio [OR] 6.51, p = 0.01) and NCSE (27.3% vs 4.3%, OR 8.34, p = 0.01). A pre-existing intracranial lesion on neuroimaging was associated with NCSE (14.3% vs 3.7%; OR 4.33, p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis of outcomes, electrographic seizures were an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 4.07 [1.44-11.51], p < 0.01). In competing risks analysis, hospital length of stay increased in the presence of NCSE (30 day proportion discharged with vs without NCSE: HR 0.21 [0.03-0.33] vs 0.43 [0.36-0.49]). INTERPRETATION: This multicenter retrospective cohort study demonstrates that seizures and other epileptiform abnormalities are common in patients with COVID-19 undergoing clinically indicated cEEG and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:872-883.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography/trends , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seizures/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
7.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-3966

ABSTRACT

The present study analyzes the clin. effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Toujie Quwen granules in the early curative effect and the related inflammatory index expression of the COVID-19. The clin. syndrome and inflammatory particles of COVID-19 can be alleviated by early and timely use of Toujie Quwen granules.

8.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; 45(10):1003-1029, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-972626

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)";now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis [including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents], diagnosis [including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest X-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections], treatments [including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, Qingfei Paidu decoction, Lianhua Qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)], and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients. © 2020 People's Military Medical Press. All rights reserved.

9.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(19): 1239, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 26,760,000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported globally to date. This study aimed to analyze the impact of new electronic communication tools in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: From January 20 to February 26, 2020, adult patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were treated in The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, in Zhuhai, China, were recruited. Forty-seven eligible patients were enrolled and randomly classified into either the test group or the control group. All of the patients received the standard therapeutic regimen and routine ward rounds. The test group was subdivided into three subgroups: the first subgroup (5-minute group) was given an extra 5-minute ward round by WeChat voice call once daily for basic disease communication; the second subgroup (10-minute group) received an extra 10-minute ward round by WeChat voice call once daily for further detail; and the third subgroup (20-minute group) was given an extra 10-minute ward round via WeChat voice call once daily, as well as an extra 10 minutes every 3 days. The primary outcome was the duration of positive-to-negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid diagnosed by the NAT (nucleic acid testing). RESULTS: In the test groups, the median time from diagnosis to the endpoint was 7.0 days [interquartile range (IQR), 3.8-10.8], compared with 10.0 days (IQR, 6.5-14.5) in the control group. It showed significant reduced the duration time of virus from positive to negative by the NAT (nucleic acid testing), (P=0.032) especially between the 10-minute subgroup (3.0 days; IQR, 3.0-7.5) and the control group (P=0.0065). CONCLUSIONS: The use of new modes of electronic communication can benefit patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and could be extremely valuable in addressing the shortage of medical protective equipment and reducing occupational risk of exposure to infection.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 540187, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The quality and rationality of many recently registered clinical studies related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs to be assessed. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the current status of COVID-19 related registered clinical trial. METHODS: We did an electronic search of COVID-19 related clinical studies registered between December 1, 2019 and February 21, 2020 (updated to May 28, 2020) from the ClinicalTrials.gov, and collected registration information, study details, recruitment status, characteristics of the subjects, and relevant information about the trial implementation process. RESULTS: A total of 1,706 studies were included 10.0% of which (n=171) were from France, 943 (55.3%) used an interventional design, and 600 (35.2%) used an observational design. Most of studies (73.6%) aimed to recruit fewer than 500 people. Interferon was the main prevention program, and antiviral drugs were the main treatment program. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine (230/943, 24.4%) were widely studied. Some registered clinical trials are incomplete in content, and 37.4% of the 1,706 studies may have had insufficient sample size. CONCLUSION: The quality of COVID-19 related studies needs to be improved by strengthening the registration process and improving the quality of clinical study protocols so that these clinical studies can provide high-quality clinical evidence related to COVID-19.

13.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 41, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745023

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)"; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Chemoprevention/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Discharge/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 242, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-547968

ABSTRACT

Recently WHO has characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic. Diagnosing the disease accurately and decreasing misdiagnoses and missed diagnoses is very important for management. Therefore, we have analyzed the seven versions of China's national guidelines to examine how the diagnostic criteria roadmap has developed and evolved, in order to share our experience worldwide. In this article, we present the developments from the first to seventh versions, involving changes of case classification, changes to "suspected case," changes in "confirmed case," changes in clinical classifications, changes in "severe case," and unchanged criteria. We have also discussed the reasons and implications for these changes and are looking forward to providing suggestions for worldwide understanding and management of this pandemic. A nucleic acid test is currently accepted as the gold standard method to confirm diagnosis. In addition, imaging examination and epidemiological history should also be considered as auxiliary diagnosis methods.

15.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 24, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many healthcare workers were infected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) early in the epidemic posing a big challenge for epidemic control. Hence, this study aims to explore perceived infection routes, influencing factors, psychosocial changes, and management procedures for COVID-19 infected healthcare workers. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, single hospital-based study. We recruited all 105 confirmed COVID-19 healthcare workers in the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from February 15 to 29, 2020. All participants completed a validated questionnaire. Electronic consent was obtained from all participants. Perceived causes of infection, infection prevention, control knowledge and behaviour, psychological changes, symptoms and treatment were measured. RESULTS: Finally, 103 professional staff with COVID-19 finished the questionnaire and was included (response rate: 98.1%). Of them, 87 cases (84.5%) thought they were infected in working environment in hospital, one (1.0%) thought their infection was due to the laboratory environment, and 5 (4.9%) thought they were infected in daily life or community environment. Swab of throat collection and physical examination were the procedures perceived as most likely causing their infection by nurses and doctors respectively. Forty-three (41.8%) thought their infection was related to protective equipment, utilization of common equipment (masks and gloves). The top three first symptoms displayed before diagnosis were fever (41.8%), lethargy (33.0%) and muscle aches (30.1%). After diagnosis, 88.3% staff experienced psychological stress or emotional changes during their isolation period, only 11.7% had almost no emotional changes. Arbidol (Umifenovir; an anti-influza drug; 69.2%) was the drug most commonly used to target infection in mild and moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION: The main perceived mode of transmission was not maintaining protection when working at a close distance and having intimate contact with infected cases. Positive psychological intervention is necessary.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Personnel/psychology , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
17.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 4, 2020 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-405

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new type viral pneumonia cases occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province; and then named "2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 12 January 2020. For it is a never been experienced respiratory disease before and with infection ability widely and quickly, it attracted the world's attention but without treatment and control manual. For the request from frontline clinicians and public health professionals of 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia management, an evidence-based guideline urgently needs to be developed. Therefore, we drafted this guideline according to the rapid advice guidelines methodology and general rules of WHO guideline development; we also added the first-hand management data of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University. This guideline includes the guideline methodology, epidemiological characteristics, disease screening and population prevention, diagnosis, treatment and control (including traditional Chinese Medicine), nosocomial infection prevention and control, and disease nursing of the 2019-nCoV. Moreover, we also provide a whole process of a successful treatment case of the severe 2019-nCoV infected pneumonia and experience and lessons of hospital rescue for 2019-nCoV infections. This rapid advice guideline is suitable for the first frontline doctors and nurses, managers of hospitals and healthcare sections, community residents, public health persons, relevant researchers, and all person who are interested in the 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Infection , Infection Control , Mass Screening , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Molecular Epidemiology , Nursing Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL