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1.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): e49-e53, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637375

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to clarify the incidence and risk of acute symptomatic seizures in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multicenter retrospective study enrolled people with COVID-19 from January 18 to February 18, 2020 at 42 government-designated hospitals in Hubei province, the epicenter of the epidemic in China; Sichuan province; and Chongqing municipality. Data were collected from medical records by 11 neurologists using a standard case report form. A total of 304 people were enrolled, of whom 108 had a severe condition. None in this cohort had a known history of epilepsy. Neither acute symptomatic seizures nor status epilepticus was observed. Two people had seizurelike symptoms during hospitalization due to acute stress reaction and hypocalcemia, and 84 (27%) had brain insults or metabolic imbalances during the disease course known to increase the risk of seizures. There was no evidence suggesting an additional risk of acute symptomatic seizures in people with COVID-19. Neither the virus nor potential risk factors for seizures seem to be significant risks for the occurrence of acute symptomatic seizures in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
Neurology ; 95(11): e1479-e1487, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606935

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate new-onset neurologic impairments associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted between January 18 and March 20, 2020, including people with confirmed COVID-19 from 56 hospitals officially designated in 3 Chinese regions; data were extracted from medical records. New-onset neurologic events as assessed by neurology consultants based on manifestations, clinical examination, and investigations were noted, in which critical events included disorders of consciousness, stroke, CNS infection, seizures, and status epilepticus. RESULTS: We enrolled 917 people with average age 48.7 years and 55% were male. The frequency of new-onset critical neurologic events was 3.5% (32/917) overall and 9.4% (30/319) among those with severe or critical COVID-19. These were impaired consciousness (n = 25) or stroke (n = 10). The risk of critical neurologic events was highly associated with age above 60 years and previous history of neurologic conditions. Noncritical events were seen in fewer than 1% (7/917), including muscle cramp, unexplained headache, occipital neuralgia, tic, and tremor. Brain CT in 28 people led to new findings in 9. Findings from lumbar puncture in 3 with suspected CNS infection, unexplained headache, or severe occipital neuralgia were unremarkable. CONCLUSIONS: People with COVID-19 aged over 60 and with neurologic comorbidities were at higher risk of developing critical neurologic impairment, mainly impaired consciousness and cerebrovascular accidents. Brain CT should be considered when new-onset brain injury is suspected, especially in people under sedation or showing an unexplained decline in consciousness. Evidence of direct acute insult of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to the CNS is lacking.

3.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): 1166-1173, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the severity of psychological distress between patients with epilepsy and healthy controls during the COVID-19 outbreak in southwest China, as well as identify potential risk factors of severe psychological distress among patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This cross-sectional case-control study examined a consecutive sample of patients older than 15 years treated at the epilepsy center of West China Hospital between February 1 and February 29, 2020. As controls, sex- and age-matched healthy visitors of inpatients (unrelated to the patients) were also enrolled during the same period. Data on demographics and attention paid to COVID-19 were collected by online questionnaire, data on epilepsy features were collected from electronic medical records, and psychological distress was evaluated using the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-6). Potential risk factors of severe psychological distress were identified using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The 252 patients and 252 controls in this study were similar along all demographic variables except family income. Patients with epilepsy showed significantly higher K-6 scores than healthy controls and spent significantly more time following the COVID-19 outbreak (both P < .001). Univariate analyses associated both diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy and time spent paying attention to COVID-19 with severe psychological distress (defined as K-6 score >12; both P ≤ .001). Multivariate logistic regression identified two independent predictors of severe psychological distress: time spent paying attention to COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.172, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.073-1.280) and diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy (OR = 0.283, 95% CI = 0.128-0.623). SIGNIFICANCE: During public health outbreaks, clinicians and caregivers should focus not only on seizure control but also on mental health of patients with epilepsy, especially those with drug-resistant epilepsy. K-6 scores > 12 indicate severe psychological distress. This may mean, for example, encouraging patients to engage in other activities instead of excessively following media coverage of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Attention , Betacoronavirus , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
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