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1.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(2): 30, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616222

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the entire world. The effective implementation of vaccination strategy is critical to prevent the resurgence of the pandemic, especially during large-scale population migration. We establish a multiple patch coupled model based on the transportation network among the 31 provinces in China, under the combined strategies of vaccination and quarantine during large-scale population migration. Based on the model, we derive a critical quarantine rate to control the pandemic transmission and a vaccination rate to achieve herd immunity. Furthermore, we evaluate the influence of passenger flow on the effective reproduction number during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush. Meanwhile, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is investigated for different control strategies, viz. global control and local control. The impact of vaccine-related parameters, such as the number, the effectiveness and the immunity period of vaccine, are explored. It is believed that the articulated models as well as the presented simulation results could be beneficial to design of feasible strategies for preventing COVID-19 transmission during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush or the other future events involving large-scale population migration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , China/epidemiology , Holidays , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Vaccination
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(12): 976-983, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606117

ABSTRACT

Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to present a major challenge to public health. Vaccine development requires an understanding of the kinetics of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: In total, 605 serum samples from 125 COVID-19 patients (from January 1 to March 14, 2020) varying in age, sex, severity of symptoms, and presence of underlying diseases were collected, and antibody titers were measured using a micro-neutralization assay with wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Results: NAbs were detectable approximately 10 days post-onset (dpo) of symptoms and peaked at approximately 20 dpo. The NAb levels were slightly higher in young males and severe cases, while no significant difference was observed for the other classifications. In follow-up cases, the NAb titer had increased or stabilized in 18 cases, whereas it had decreased in 26 cases, and in one case NAbs were undetectable at the end of our observation. Although a decreasing trend in NAb titer was observed in many cases, the NAb level was generally still protective. Conclusion: We demonstrated that NAb levels vary among all categories of COVID-19 patients. Long-term studies are needed to determine the longevity and protective efficiency of NAbs induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 795741, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581316

ABSTRACT

Glycan-masking the vaccine antigen by mutating the undesired antigenic sites with an additional N-linked glycosylation motif can refocus B-cell responses to desired epitopes, without affecting the antigen's overall-folded structure. This study examined the impact of glycan-masking mutants of the N-terminal domain (NTD) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, and found that the antigenic design of the S protein increases the neutralizing antibody titers against the Wuhan-Hu-1 ancestral strain and the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2). Our results demonstrated that the use of glycan-masking Ad-S-R158N/Y160T in the NTD elicited a 2.8-fold, 6.5-fold, and 4.6-fold increase in the IC-50 NT titer against the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351) and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants, respectively. Glycan-masking of Ad-S-D428N in the RBD resulted in a 3.0-fold and 2.0-fold increase in the IC-50 neutralization titer against the Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) variants, respectively. The use of glycan-masking in Ad-S-R158N/Y160T and Ad-S-D428N antigen design may help develop universal COVID-19 vaccines against current and future emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Genetic Engineering , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Polysaccharides , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
4.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 8097-8108, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523542

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been circulating in many countries around the world, characterized by long incubation period, strong infectivity, strong variability, high population susceptibility and diversified transmission methods. Its causative agent is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Compared with adult patients, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in children are often dominated by mild or asymptomatic infections, but children are also important virus carriers and play an important role in the transmission of the virus. In addition, some children will show excessive inflammatory response and experience serious complications such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). At present, the research on COVID-19 in children is still imperfect. This article will review epidemiological characteristics, the mechanism of action, variant characteristics, clinical manifestations, auxiliary examinations and treatment of children with COVID-19, in order to provide help for the diagnosis, treatment and research of children with COVID-19.

5.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(11): 210682, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522462

ABSTRACT

Air travel has been one of the hardest hit industries of COVID-19, with many flight cancellations and airport closures as a consequence. By analysing structural characteristics of the Official Aviation Guide flight data, we show that this resulted in an increased average distance between airports, and in an increased number of long-range routes. Based on our study of network robustness, we uncover that this disruption is consistent with the impact of a mixture of targeted and random global attack on the worldwide air transportation network. By considering the individual functional evolution of airports, we identify anomalous airports with high centrality but low degree, which further enables us to reveal the underlying transitions among airport-specific representations in terms of both geographical and geopolitical factors. During the evolution of the air transportation network, we also observe how the network attempted to cope by shifting centralities between different airports around the world. Since these shifts are not aligned with optimal strategies for minimizing delays and disconnects, we conclude that they are consistent with politics trumping science from the viewpoint of epidemic containment and transport.

6.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the usefulness of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for RCTs published before 7 September 2021. Only RCTs that compared the clinical efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors with other alternative treatments or placebos in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Overall, patients receiving JAK inhibitors exhibited a lower 28-day mortality rate than the control group (risk ratio [RR], 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.77; I2 = 0%). Compared with the control group, the study group also had a lower 14-day mortality rate (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.85; I2 = 0%), a higher rate of clinical improvement (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09; I2 = 0%), and less need of mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.84; I2 = 0%). Finally, JAK inhibitor use was associated with a similar risk of adverse events and infections as that observed in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: JAK inhibitors can help reduce mortality and improve clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Additionally, JAK inhibitors can be used safely in this clinical entity.

7.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500922

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials(RCTs) was to investigate the efficacy of interferon (IFN)-ß-containing regimens in treating patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to 17 July 2021. RCTs comparing the clinical efficacy and safety of IFN-ß-containing regimens (study group) to other antiviral treatment options or placebo (control group) in treating patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Eight RCTs were included. No significant difference in the 28-day all-cause mortality rate was observed between the study and control groups (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.44-1.24; I2 = 51%). The study groups had a lower rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions than the control groups (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.95; I2 = 0%). Furthermore, INF-ß was not associated with an increased risk of any adverse event (AE) or serious AE when compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-ß does not appear to provide an increased survival benefit in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 but may help reduce the risk of ICU admission. Moreover, IFN-ß is a safe agent for use in the treatment of COVID-19.

8.
Adv Mater ; : e2104608, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499211

ABSTRACT

Solid-state transistor sensors that can detect biomolecules in real time are highly attractive for emerging bioanalytical applications. However, combining upscalable manufacturing with the required performance remains challenging. Here, an alternative biosensor transistor concept is developed, which relies on a solution-processed In2 O3 /ZnO semiconducting heterojunction featuring a geometrically engineered tri-channel architecture for the rapid, real-time detection of important biomolecules. The sensor combines a high electron mobility channel, attributed to the electronic properties of the In2 O3 /ZnO heterointerface, in close proximity to a sensing surface featuring tethered analyte receptors. The unusual tri-channel design enables strong coupling between the buried electron channel and electrostatic perturbations occurring during receptor-analyte interactions allowing for robust, real-time detection of biomolecules down to attomolar (am) concentrations. The experimental findings are corroborated by extensive device simulations, highlighting the unique advantages of the heterojunction tri-channel design. By functionalizing the surface of the geometrically engineered channel with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody receptors, real-time detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein down to am concentrations is demonstrated in under 2 min in physiological relevant conditions.

9.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 5475-5487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496749

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm (CS) is a significant cause of death in patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia. Excessive immune-inflammatory reaction, many inflammatory cell infiltration, and extreme increase of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines lead to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This review compares the characters of cytokine storms and immune responses caused by three highly pathogenic and infectious coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and analyzes the possible mechanisms to guide clinical treatment in the future.

10.
Front Neurol ; 12: 738329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463491

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but fatal complication observed within 2 weeks of adenovirus-vectored vaccination. Case Report: A 52-year-old male patient, with a family history of autoimmune diseases, presented with a new onset of worsening headache with nausea and vomiting post-vaccination. The patient was diagnosed with VITT based on laboratory findings demonstrating thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, and dural sinus thrombosis identified on neuroimaging. The patient was successfully treated with high-dose immunoglobulin, steroids, and non-heparin anticoagulants, without any neurologic sequelae. Finally, a confirmatory test with anti-platelet factor 4 antibody was strongly positive. Conclusion: Physicians should be vigilant when treating patients presenting with new-onset thunderclap headache, progressive worsening headache, and awakening headache accompanied by nausea or vomiting after vaccination, even if no definite clinical neurological deficits are identified. Emergency laboratory test results for demonstrating elevated D-dimer levels, decreased platelet count, and neuroimaging correlation are integral for diagnosis and must be the standard protocol. Treatment with non-heparin anticoagulants, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, and steroids that halt or slow the immune-mediated prothrombotic process should be initiated immediately. Considering the high mortality rate of VITT, treatment should be initiated prior to confirmatory test results.

11.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 57: 103228, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458738

ABSTRACT

AIM: To identify the prevalence of mental health problems and sleep disturbances among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. BACKGROUND: As a future professional workforce, nursing students are expected to play a role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic; however, physical and mental health problems may hinder their willingness to stay in the nursing profession. Evidence of the prevalence of the health problems among nursing students related to COVID-19 may allow educators to manage their students' health problems and make them feel more positive about their future careers. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. This study was prospectively registered with PROSPERO. DATA SOURCES: Databases, including CINAHL, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science, were searched for all related journal articles, from database inception to June 29, 2021, published between 2020 and 2021. METHODS: This review was conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using a PICOS search strategy. A DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model was used to estimate the prevalence and potential heterogeneity among the selected studies using the Cochran Q statistic and I-square test. Publication bias was assessed using the Egger intercept test. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis, representing 13,247 nursing students. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of four health problems and sleep disturbances were identified. The health problem with the highest prevalence in nursing students was depression (52%). Other COVID-19-related health problems were fear (41%), anxiety (32%) and stress (30%) and sleep disturbances (27%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study showed that strategies are necessary to manage nursing students' teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic or similar future situations. Our results suggest that preparing modified distance learning might reduce the prevalence of health problems related to the educational process. In addition, providing regular mental health assessments or online mental health services to students may improve their mental health and increase their well-being. Nursing education policies regarding clinical practice remain to be formulated to ensure the achievement of competencies to support future careers while considering the mental readiness and safety of students.

12.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(4): 1071-1100, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359788

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore the correlation between cardiac-related comorbidities, cardiac biomarkers, acute myocardial injury, and severity level, outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHOD: Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Cochrane Library databases, medRxiv, and Sinomed were reviewed systemically. Various types of clinical research reporting cardiac-related comorbidities, cardiac biomarkers including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin I (TnI), high sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), myoglobin (Myo), N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and acute cardiac injury grouped by severity of COVID-19 were included. Outcome measures were events and total sample size for comorbidities, acute cardiac injury, and laboratory parameters of these biomarkers. The study was performed with Stata version 15.1. RESULTS: Seventy studies, with a total of 15,354 cases were identified. The results showed that COVID-19's severity was related to cardiovascular disease. Similar odds ratios (ORs) were achieved in hypertension except for severe versus critical group (OR = 1.406; 95% CI, 0.942-2.097; p = .095). The relative risk (RR) of acute cardiac injury is 7.01 (95% CI, 5.64-8.71) in non-survivor cases. When compared with the different severity of cardiac biomarkers, the pool OR of CK, CK-MB, TnI, Myo and LDH were 2.683 (95% CI, 0.83-8.671; p = .106; I2 = 0%), 2.263 (95% CI, 0.939-5.457; p = .069), 1.242 (95% CI, 0.628-2.457; p = .534), 1.756 (95% CI, 0.608-5.071; p = .298; I2 = 42.3%), 1.387 (95% CI, 0.707-2.721;  p = .341; I2 = 0%) in the critical versus severe group, whose trends were not similar to other groups. The standard mean differences (SMD) of CK and TnI in the critical versus severe group were 0.09 (95% CI, -0.33 to 0.50; p = .685; I2 = 65.2%), 0.478 (95% CI, -0.183 to 1.138; p = .156; I2 = 76.7%), which means no difference was observed in the serum level of these indicators. CONCLUSION: Most of the findings clearly indicate that hypertension, cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury, and related laboratory indicators are associated with the severity of COVID-19. What is now needed are cross-national prospectively designed observational or clinical trials that will help improve the certainty of the available evidence and treatment decisions for patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 304: 114115, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313387

ABSTRACT

Psychological concerns caused by the COVID-19 pandemic become a public health crisis. It is noteworthy that the associations between COVID-19 related experiences and typical mental symptoms among pregnant women remain unclear. A cross-sectional online survey among pregnant women was conducted in Shenzhen, China. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to explore the associations of COVID-19 related experiences with anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy. Totally, 751 pregnant women were enrolled. Lower prevalence of anxiety and depression was observed among older individuals: 17.2%, 12.3%, and 6.7% for anxiety symptom; 40.0%, 35.3%, and 24.6% for depression symptom, respectively in age <30 years, 30 to 34 years, and ≥35 years groups. COVID-19 related experiences that associated with the anxiety and depression symptoms among pregnant women included having confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases around, subjective moderate or high risk of being infected, subjective severe life impact, subjective moderate or severe psychological impact, and spending more than one hour in COVID-19 related news. In the post-pandemic era, the psychological strain imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic is urgently needed to be alleviated among pregnant women. The long-term impacts of COVID-19 related experiences on maternal and child health should be monitored longitudinally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Light Sci Appl ; 10: 129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275899

ABSTRACT

As demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic, advanced deep ultraviolet (DUV) light sources (200-280 nm), such as AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) show excellence in preventing virus transmission, which further reveals their wide applications from biological, environmental, industrial to medical. However, the relatively low external quantum efficiencies (mostly lower than 10%) strongly restrict their wider or even potential applications, which have been known related to the intrinsic properties of high Al-content AlGaN semiconductor materials and especially their quantum structures. Here, we review recent progress in the development of novel concepts and techniques in AlGaN-based LEDs and summarize the multiple physical fields as a toolkit for effectively controlling and tailoring the crucial properties of nitride quantum structures. In addition, we describe the key challenges for further increasing the efficiency of DUV LEDs and provide an outlook for future developments.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 552-558, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parental attitudes towards the vaccines play a key role in the success of the herd immunity for the COVID-19. Psychological health seems to be a controversial determinant of vaccine hesitancy and remains to be investigated. This study attempted to measure parental psychological distress, attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine, and to explore the potential associations. METHODS: An online survey using convenience sampling method was conducted among parents within the school public health network of Shenzhen. Demographic information and attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination were collected. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) was applied to measure psychological distress. RESULTS: Overall, 4,748 parents were included (average age: 40.28, standard deviation: 5.08). More than one fifth of them demonstrated psychological distress, in which only 3.3% were moderate to severe symptom. The proportions of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for themselves, their spouses, and their children were 25.2%, 26.1%, and 27.3%, respectively. Parents with psychological distress were more likely to suffer vaccine hesitancy for themselves (OR: 1.277, 95%CI: 1.091~1.494), for their spouses (OR:1.276, 95%CI: 1.088~1.496) and children (OR:1.274, 95%CI: 1.092~1.486). These associations tended to be more significant among parents with mild or severe psychological distress. LIMITATION: Non-random sampling limited the generalization of our findings to all parents. CONCLUSION: Parents had a low level of psychological distress but relatively high willingness of COVID-19 vaccination when there was no local epidemic but persistent risk of imported cases. Targeted health education and intervention strategies should be provided to people with vaccine hesitancy, especially for those who are susceptible to psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Journal of Applied Finance and Banking ; 11(4):35-44, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1244425

ABSTRACT

Banks' digitalization is a future trend and a national financial technology policy. This research aims to study which factors will affect digital accounts' promotion by digital banking. Specifically, we apply the Pearson product-moment correlation (PPMC) to analyze the relationship between variables. The empirical findings can briefly be summarized as follows: 1. In the PPMC model, the research shows that digital accounts have a significant positive relationship with the card in force and active cards. 2. The digital accounts' negative relationship with account opening age limit. On the whole, there are two ways for digital banking to promote digital accounts. First, digital banking effectively promotes digital accounts by targeting customers who hold the bank's credit cards. Second, digital banking best doesn't set the account opening age limit. The results of this research can also serve as a reference for bank authorities when formulating policies to promote digital accounts' promotion.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 243-251, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are emotionally vulnerable and have suffered great psychological impacts. Following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, a study was undertaken of the prevalence of, and factors contributing to, symptoms of anxiety and depression among pregnant women in Shenzhen, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on pregnant women was conducted from September to December 2020 in Shenzhen, using a random-recruit method. The General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) surveys were used to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to explore factors potentially associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. RESULTS: A total of 3,434 pregnant women aged 15 to 59 years were enrolled. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were present in 9.8% and 6.9%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis using a stepwise procedure revealed that an increased risk of symptoms of anxiety and depression was associated with unmarried/divorced/widowed, unemployed, received professional psychological counseling, family dysfunction, the first trimester of pregnancy, pregnancy complications and vaginal bleeding, unplanned pregnancy, decline in household income and disputes between partners caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, consumption of alcoholic drinks by women and their partners, smoking, lack of exercise and sedentary lifestyle. Women with education from junior high school through college were less likely to experience symptoms of prenatal depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed factors associated with psychological symptoms among pregnant women in the post-COVID-19-pandemic era. These results should help to update guidance for psychological interventions for pregnant women during the period of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211010632, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216873

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread rapidly worldwide. As researchers seek to learn more about COVID-19, the disease it causes, this novel virus continues to infect and kill. Despite the socioeconomic impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infections and likelihood of future outbreaks of other pathogenic coronaviruses, options to prevent or treat coronavirus infections remain limited. In current clinical trials, potential coronavirus treatments focusing on killing the virus or on preventing infection using vaccines largely ignore the host immune response. The relatively small body of current research on the virus indicates pathological responses by the immune system as the leading cause for much of the morbidity and mortality caused by COVID-19. In this review, we investigated the host innate and adaptive immune responses against COVID-19, collated information on recent COVID-19 experimental data, and summarized the systemic immune responses to and histopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we summarized the immune-related biomarkers to define patients with high-risk and worst-case outcomes, and identified the possible usefulness of inflammatory markers as potential immunotherapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of current knowledge on COVID-19 and the symptomatological differences between healthy, convalescent, and severe cohorts, while offering research directions for alternative immunoregulation therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biomarkers , Humans
19.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(8): 935-943, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2019, a novel coronavirus named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged worldwide. Apart from fever and respiratory complications, acute kidney injury has been observed in a few patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Furthermore, according to recent findings, the virus has been detected in urine. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) has been proposed to serve as the receptor for the entry of 2019-nCoV, which is the same as that for the severe acute respiratory syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the possible cause of kidney damage and the potential route of 2019-nCoV infection in the urinary system. METHODS: We used both published kidney and bladder cell atlas data and new independent kidney single-cell RNA sequencing data generated in-house to evaluate ACE2 gene expression in all cell types in healthy kidneys and bladders. The Pearson correlation coefficients between ACE2 and all other genes were first generated. Then, genes with r values larger than 0.1 and P values smaller than 0.01 were deemed significant co-expression genes with ACE2. RESULTS: Our results showed the enriched expression of ACE2 in all subtypes of proximal tubule (PT) cells of the kidney. ACE2 expression was found in 5.12%, 5.80%, and 14.38% of the proximal convoluted tubule cells, PT cells, and proximal straight tubule cells, respectively, in three published kidney cell atlas datasets. In addition, ACE2 expression was also confirmed in 12.05%, 6.80%, and 10.20% of cells of the proximal convoluted tubule, PT, and proximal straight tubule, respectively, in our own two healthy kidney samples. For the analysis of public data from three bladder samples, ACE2 expression was low but detectable in bladder epithelial cells. Only 0.25% and 1.28% of intermediate cells and umbrella cells, respectively, had ACE2 expression. CONCLUSION: This study has provided bioinformatics evidence of the potential route of 2019-nCoV infection in the urinary system.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Kidney/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Urinary Bladder/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
20.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 77(14):S109-S110, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1174332
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