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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 952650, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326989

ABSTRACT

Given pandemic risks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 variants and other SARS-like coronaviruses in the future, it is valuable to perform studies on conserved antigenic sites to design universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines. By using antibodies obtained from convalescent COVID-19 patients, we succeeded in functional comparison of conserved antigenic sites at multiple aspects with each other, and even with SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites, which promotes the cognition of process of humoral immune response to the conserved antigenic sites. The conserved antigenic sites between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV can effectively induce affinity maturation of cross-binding antibodies, finally resulting in broadly neutralizing antibodies against multiple variants of concern, which provides an important basis for universal vaccine design, however they are subdominant, putatively due to their lower accessibility relative to SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites. Furthermore, we preliminarily design RBDs to improve the immunogenicity of these conserved antigenic sites. Our study focusing on conserved antigenic sites provides insights for promoting the development of universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines, thereby enhancing our pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046995

ABSTRACT

Given pandemic risks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 variants and other SARS-like coronaviruses in the future, it is valuable to perform studies on conserved antigenic sites to design universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines. By using antibodies obtained from convalescent COVID-19 patients, we succeeded in functional comparison of conserved antigenic sites at multiple aspects with each other, and even with SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites, which promotes the cognition of process of humoral immune response to the conserved antigenic sites. The conserved antigenic sites between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV can effectively induce affinity maturation of cross-binding antibodies, finally resulting in broadly neutralizing antibodies against multiple variants of concern, which provides an important basis for universal vaccine design, however they are subdominant, putatively due to their lower accessibility relative to SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites. Furthermore, we preliminarily design RBDs to improve the immunogenicity of these conserved antigenic sites. Our study focusing on conserved antigenic sites provides insights for promoting the development of universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines, thereby enhancing our pandemic preparedness.

3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999023

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly throughout the world, causing severe morbidity and mortality. Since the first reports of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in late 2019, research on the characteristics of specific humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19 has made great progress. However, our knowledge of persistent humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited. The existence of protective immunity after infection will affect future transmission and disease severity. Therefore, it is important to gather knowledge about the kinetics of antibody responses. In this review, we summarize the information obtained so far on the characteristics and kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 infection of specific humoral immune response, especially in neutralizing antibodies and their relationship with disease severity. In addition, with the emergence of variants of concern, we summarize the neutralizing effect of specific humoral immunity on variants of concern after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination.

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