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1.
Journal of acute medicine ; 12(2):45-52, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940083

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 tests have different turnaround times (TATs), accuracy levels, and limitations, which emergency physicians should be aware of. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) can be divided into standard high throughput tests and rapid molecular diagnostic tests at the point of care (POC). The standard NAAT has the advantages of high throughput and high accuracy with a TAT of 3–4 hours. The POC molecular test has the same advantages of high accuracy as standard high throughput PCR, but can be done in 13–45 minutes. Roche cobas Liat is the most commonly used machine in Taiwan, displaying 99%–100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, respectively. Abbott ID NOW is an isothermal PCR-based POC machine with a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 100%. A high rate of false positives and false negatives is associated with rapid antigen testing. Antibody testing is mostly used as part of public health surveys and for testing for immunity.

3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760498

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: It has been hypothesized that a discrepancy exists in the understanding of a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order among physicians. We hypothesized that a DNR order signed in the emergency department (ED) could influence the patients' prognosis after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. (2) Methods: We included patients older than 17 years, who visited the emergency department for non-traumatic disease, who had respiratory failure, required ventilator support, and were admitted to the ICU between January 2010 and December 2016. The associations between DNR and mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), and medical fees were analyzed. Prolonged hospital LOS was defined as hospital stay ≥75th percentile (≥26 days for the study). Patients were classified as those who did and did not sign a DNR order. A 1:4 propensity score matching was conducted for demographics, comorbidities, and etiology. (3) Results: The study enrolled a total of 1510 patients who signed a DNR and 6040 patients who did not sign a DNR. The 30-day mortality rates were 47.4% and 28.0% among patients who did and did not sign a DNR, respectively. A DNR order was associated with mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (hazard ratio, 1.9; confidence interval, 1.70-2.03). It was also a risk factor for prolonged hospital LOS in survivors (odds ratio, 1.2; confidence interval, 1.02-1.44). Survivors who signed a DNR order were charged higher medical fees than those who did not sign a DNR (217,159 vs. 245,795 New Taiwan Dollars, p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: Signing a DNR order in the ED increased the ICU mortality rate among patients who had respiratory failure and needed ventilator support. It increased the risk of prolonged hospital LOS among survivors. Finally, signing a DNR order was associated with high medical fees among survivors.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324275

ABSTRACT

We profiled the circulating immune cells in COVID-19 patients during the active disease and recovery phases via single cell RNA, TCR and BCR sequencing in order to elucidate the key anti-virus adaptive immune responses, and explore potential immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies. T cell competence plays a dominant role in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Clonally expanded CD4 T effector cells averted CD8 T cell exhaustion, and expansion of multiple CD8 T effector/memory clones was correlated with rapid virus clearance. In contrast, the patients lacking CD4 T EFF cell clonal expansion harbored exhausted CD8 T EFF cells co-expressing multiple co-inhibitory molecules. In addition, more than 90% of the exhausted cells expressed at least 2 and more than half of exhausted cells expressed at least 4 inhibitory molecules. Furthermore, co-expression of LAG3, Galectin-9, and SLAMF6 is the inhibitory molecule expression signature of exhausted T cell population in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings indicate that LAG3-based immune checkpoint blockade is a promising strategy for treating COVID-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324122

ABSTRACT

Background: An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. After nearly 2 months efforts by the Chinese government and people from all walks of life, the epidemic in China has gradually been controlled. The awareness of the disease has gradually increased. We have detected the SARS-CoV-2 gene in the patient's sputum, throat swabs and feces, blood and even urine samples, but whether the SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the extrapulmonary age is unknown. Methods: We collected data from 146 patients admitted to the Public Health Center of Taizhou Hospital, Zhejiang University, China from January 23, 2020 to March 11, 2020, and confirmed the diagnosis of new-type coronavirus pneumonia by RT-PCR. The final selection was made after screening. For a total of 134 confirmed patients, we collected their clinical data and sputum, nasopharyngeal swabs or throat swabs, fecal nucleic acid test results, and calculated the age of each specimen. Results: A total of 134 confirmed patients were included in the study;of them, 93 were of the common type, and 41 were critically ill. There were no significant differences between males and females, P = 0.853) and their epidemiological history ( P = 0.441). The average age of severe patients was 55.85 ± 13.28 years, which was higher than that of common patients at 44.06 ± 12.86 years ( P = 0.00). The results showed that the time of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the upper respiratory tract was 15.1 ± 7.23 days for common patients and 20.56 ± 6.59 days for severe patients, which was longer than that of common patients ( P = 0.00). The time of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the lower respiratory tract was 27.45 ± 10.06 days for common patients and 29.78 ± 10.11 days for severe patients. There was no statistical difference ( P = 0.328);SARS-CoV-2 RNA existed in the digestive tract. The time was 22.6 ± 7.69 days for common patients and 27.24 ± 7.86 days for severe patients, which was longer than that of common patients ( P = 0.01). SARS-CoV-2 existed for a shorter time in the upper respiratory and digestive tracts than in the lower respiratory tract. CONCLUSION : SARS-CoV-2 is present in the lower respiratory tract for longer than the upper respiratory and digestive tracts, and there were no statistical differences in the lower respiratory tract between common and severe patients.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312692

ABSTRACT

Aims: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) status and explore its associated factors in pediatric medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic so as to guide hospitals and administrators to formulate suitable interventions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the associated factors. Results: A total of 2,997 participants were recruited. Females scored worse than males in terms of emotional functioning ( OR  = 1.6, 95% CI : 1.2–2.1) and cognitive functioning ( OR  = 1.4, 95% CI : 1.1–1.8). The respondents aged 30–39 years and 40–49 years scored worse in nearly all domains of HRQoL compared health care professionals under 30 years old. Respondents with high education had lower scores in physical functioning ( OR  = 1.3, 95% CI : 1.0-1.7) and emotional functioning ( OR  = 1.5, 95% CI : 1.2–1.9).Compared with doctors, nurses had higher scores in all domains except for summary score and worry. The respondents whose working places had not set up pediatric fever clinics and isolated observation areas independently had better scores in all domains except for worry. The respondents who had ever treated patients with COVID-19 had lower scores in all domains. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff decreased. The factors associated with HRQoL can be used to develop intervention to improve HRQoL in pediatric medical staff.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308272

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a severe novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (Coronavirus Disease 2019,COVID-19) has occurred in Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread to the country and around the world. This study intends to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in a surrounding city of Wuhan. Methods: : A retrospective study was conducted on 208 cases of COVID -19 patients from February 11, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in Xiaogan dongnan Hospital, collected basic information, history of exposure, medical history, clinical symptoms, laboratory indicators and pulmonary imaging Data, and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all patients. According to the clinical classification criteria, 208 patients were divided into light group and ordinary group, and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. Results: : Among 208 patients in this study, with a median age of 50.5 years (IQR,36-64.7,range,10-91 years), among which 107 (51.4%) were males and 101 (48.6%) were females. 51 (24.5%) had a clear exposure to COVID-19 infection within 2 weeks before admission, and 40 (19.2%) had a history of residence or exposure in Wuhan within 2 weeks before admission. Among all the patients, there were 16 (7.7%) with pulmonary diseases, 41 (19.7%) with hypertension, 11 (5.3%) with coronary heart disease, 13 (6.3%) with diabetes, 12(5.8%) with a history of alcohol consumption, and 12(5.8%) with a history of smoking. Among all clinical symptoms, 146 cases (70.2%) of fever, the highest temperature range was 37.3℃-41℃ before admission, 115 (55.3%) cases of cough, and 57 (27.4%) cases of chest tightness, 47 (22.6%) cases of fatigue, 28 (13.5%) cases of inappetence, 9 (4.3%) cases of diarrhea, 7 (3.4%) cases of nasal congestion or runny nose , and 5 ( 2.4%) cases of pharyngalgia. Analysis of the laboratory results of 208 patients showed that 42 (20.2%) cases had decreased white blood cell count, and 61 (29.3%) cases had decreased lymphocyte count. There were 154 (74%) cases with elevated CRP, 50 (24%) cases with elevated fasting blood glucose, and 23 (11.1%) cases with elevated LDH (>245U/L). The comparison of clinical characteristics between the light group and the common group showed that the median age of the light group was 44.8 years (IQR 30-58), the median age of the common group was 53.1 years (IQR 38.8-67) (P<0.01). The symptoms of fever [53(80.3%) vs 93(65.5%),P<0.05], fatigue [53(80.3%) vs 93(65.5%),P<0.05] and inappetence [4(6.1%) vs 24(16.9%),P<0.05] in the light group were less than those in the common group. The white blood cell count (5.48 vs 6.37, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (1.40 vs 1.61, P<0.05) and HDL-C (1.5 vs 1.3, P<0.05) of the common group were lower than that of the light group, while CRP (26.5 vs 22.1, P<0.01), AST (22.9 vs 18.5, P<0.05), fasting blood glucose (5.8 vs 5.6, P<0.05), LDH (196.8 vs 157.9, P<0.001) of the common group were higher than that of the light group. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection is mainly in middle-aged and elderly patients, patients with other diseases are more susceptible to infection. The main symptoms of COVID-19 infection were fever, cough, chest tightness, fatigue, and inappetence. Decreased lymphocyte count, increased CRP concentration, increased LDH concentration and decreased HDL-C concentration were the laboratory features of COVID-19 infection, and were important indicators to assess the severity of COVID-19 disease.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315595

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the first public genome of SARS-CoV-2, over 170,000 genome sequences of the virus have been shared by researchers world-wide (till November 1st 2020). Multiplex PCR targeting SARS-CoV-2 followed by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and/or nanopore sequencing is a widely used strategy to recover the genome from primary samples. However, the bias of amplification among different amplicons should not be ignored, which might lead to uneven sequencing coverage on the viral genome.MethodsWe aim to develop a novel multiplex PCR panel to achieve an improved coverage evenness of SARS-CoV-2. We adapt long amplicons (~1000-bp) for the panel and thus reduced the number of primer pairs. The panel was validated with clinical samples and sequenced via MPS sequencing systems and a portable nanopore sequencing device MinION. We evaluated the full-genome coverage evenness and its dependence on viral loads of the long amplicon panel;we then compared it with a 98-plex panel provided by the ARTIC network. The accuracy to identify viral genomic variations based on the panel and sequencing with MinION was assessed.ResultsWe developed a two-pool 36-plex panel for full-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2, whose amplicon size ranged from 880 to 1027 bp. For samples with a <30 C t value, >90% viral genome could be recovered with a high sequencing depth (>0.2 mean depth) by using the long-amplicon panel (n = 36), compared with 79-88% highly covered genome region for the ARTIC panel (n = 5). The coverage evenness of the long-amplicon panel was also less affected by low viral titers and not dependent on sequencing data amount. With MinION sequencing, the consensus viral genomes could be reliably recovered. However, a high false positive rate was observed to identify sub-clonal genomic variations with a <0.6 frequency.ConclusionA novel multiplex PCR panel for full-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 with improved coverage evenness and low requirement of data throughput was validated with clinical samples. Amplification of SARS-CoV-2 with the panel followed by MinION sequencing could generate reliable consensus genome sequences, but the detection of non-dominating viral populations within host is error-prone.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293462

ABSTRACT

The divergence of SARS-CoV-2 into variants of concern/interest (VOC/VOI) necessitated analysis of their impact on vaccines. Escape from vaccine-induced antibodies by SARS-CoV-2 VOC/VOIs was analyzed to ascertain and rank their risk. The variants showed differential reductions in neutralization and replication titers by the post-vaccination sera with Beta variant showing the most neutralization escape that was mechanistically driven by mutations in both the N-terminal domain and receptor-binding domain of the spike.

10.
Chemistry ; 27(71): 17928-17940, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487453

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has called for an urgent need for dedicated antiviral therapeutics. Metal complexes are commonly underrepresented in compound libraries that are used for screening in drug discovery campaigns, however, there is growing evidence for their role in medicinal chemistry. Based on previous results, we have selected more than 100 structurally diverse metal complexes for profiling as inhibitors of two relevant SARS-CoV-2 replication mechanisms, namely the interaction of the spike (S) protein with the ACE2 receptor and the papain-like protease PLpro . In addition to many well-established types of mononuclear experimental metallodrugs, the pool of compounds tested was extended to approved metal-based therapeutics such as silver sulfadiazine and thiomersal, as well as polyoxometalates (POMs). Among the mononuclear metal complexes, only a small number of active inhibitors of the S/ACE2 interaction was identified, with titanocene dichloride as the only strong inhibitor. However, among the gold and silver containing complexes many turned out to be very potent inhibitors of PLpro activity. Highly promising activity against both targets was noted for many POMs. Selected complexes were evaluated in antiviral SARS-CoV-2 assays confirming activity for gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) or dithiocarbamato ligands, a silver NHC complex, titanocene dichloride as well as a POM compound. These studies might provide starting points for the design of metal-based SARS-CoV-2 antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
12.
13.
RSC Chem Biol ; 2(4): 1263-1273, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324437

ABSTRACT

Fungal infections represent a global problem, notably for immunocompromised patients in hospital, COVID-19 patient wards and care home settings, and the ever-increasing emergence of multidrug resistant fungal strains is a sword of Damocles hanging over many healthcare systems. Azoles represent the mainstay of antifungal drugs, and their mode of action involves the binding mode of these molecules to the fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase target enzyme. In this study, we have prepared and characterized four novel organometallic derivatives of the frontline antifungal drug fluconazole (1a-4a). Very importantly, enzyme inhibition and chemogenomic profiling demonstrated that lanosterol 14α-demethylase, as for fluconazole, was the main target of the most active compound of the series, (N-(ferrocenylmethyl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propan-1-aminium chloride, 2a). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies suggested that 2a induced a loss in cell wall integrity as well as intracellular features ascribable to late apoptosis or necrosis. The impressive activity of 2a was further confirmed on clinical isolates, where antimycotic potency up to 400 times higher than fluconazole was observed. Also, 2a showed activity towards azole-resistant strains. This finding is very interesting since the primary target of 2a is the same as that of fluconazole, emphasizing the role played by the organometallic moiety. In vivo experiments in a mice model of Candida infections revealed that 2a reduced the fungal growth and dissemination but also ameliorated immunopathology, a finding suggesting that 2a is active in vivo with added activity on the host innate immune response.

16.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(6): 600-602, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254841

ABSTRACT

In 2019, global diabetes prevalence was 463 million. Diabetes increases the risk of TB and adverse treatment outcomes including death and relapse. Diabetes also increases the risk of severe disease, multi-organ failure, coagulopathy and death in COVID-19. TB and COVID-19 share many features, suggesting opportunities to integrate prevention, diagnosis and care. Three areas for further work are highlighted: better infection control in diabetes clinics, easier and quicker diagnosis using similar technology platforms and optimal blood glucose control. The funding and resources for COVID-19 should be harnessed to improve TB and diabetes care and achieve their respective sustainable development goal targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 883, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies related to the SARS-CoV-2 spikes in the past few months, while there are limited studies on the entire outbreak-suppressed cycle of COVID-19. We estimate the cause-specific excess mortality during the complete circle of COVID-19 outbreak in Guangzhou, China, stratified by sociodemographic status. METHODS: Guangzhou Center for Disease Control Prevention provided the individual data of deaths in Guangzhou from 1 January 2018 through 30 June 2020. We applied Poisson regression models to daily cause-specific mortality between 1 January 2018 and 20 January 2020, accounting for effects of population size, calendar time, holiday, ambient temperature and PM2.5. Expected mortality was estimated for the period from 21 January through 30 June 2020 assuming that the effects of factors aforementioned remained the same as described in the models. Excess mortality was defined as the difference between the observed mortality and the expected mortality. Subgroup analyses were performed by place of death, age group, sex, marital status and occupation class. RESULTS: From 21 January (the date on which the first COVID-19 case occurred in Guangzhou) through 30 June 2020, there were three stages of COVID-19: first wave, second wave, and recovery stage, starting on 21 January, 11 March, and 17 May 2020, respectively. Mortality deficits were seen from late February through early April and in most of the time in the recovery stage. Excesses in hypertension deaths occurred immediately after the starting weeks of the two waves. Overall, we estimated a deficit of 1051 (95% eCI: 580, 1558) in all-cause deaths. Particularly, comparing with the expected mortality in the absence of COVID-19 outbreak, the observed deaths from pneumonia and influenza substantially decreased by 49.2%, while deaths due to hypertension and myocardial infarction increased by 14.5 and 8.6%, respectively. In-hospital all-cause deaths dropped by 10.2%. There were discrepancies by age, marital status and occupation class in the excess mortality during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The excess deaths during the COVID-19 outbreak varied by cause of death and changed temporally. Overall, there was a deficit in deaths during the study period. Our findings can inform preparedness measures in different stages of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2
18.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(12): 2731-2738, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases are a constant threat to the public's health and health care systems around the world. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), which was defined by the World Health Organization as pandemic, has rapidly emerged as a global health threat. Outbreak evolution and prevention of international implications require substantial flexibility of frontline health care facilities in their response. AIM: To explore the effect of the implementation and management strategy of pre-screening triage in children during COVID-19. METHODS: The standardized triage screening procedures included a standardized triage screening questionnaire, setup of pre-screening triage station, multi-point temperature monitoring, extensive screenings, and two-way protection. In order to ensure the implementation of the pre-screening triage, the prevention and control management strategies included training, emergency exercise, and staff protection. Statistical analysis was performed on the data from all the children hospitalized from January 20, 2020 to March 20, 2020 at solstice during the pandemic period. Data were obtained from questionnaires and electronic medical record systems. RESULTS: A total of 17561 children, including 2652 who met the criteria for screening, 192 suspected cases, and two confirmed cases without omission, were screened from January 20, 2020 to March 20, 2020 at solstice during the pandemic period. There was zero transmission of the infection to any medical staff. CONCLUSION: The effective strategies for pre-screening triage have an essential role in the prevention and control of hospital infection.

19.
Front Public Health ; 8: 565849, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207746

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) status and explore its associated factors in pediatric medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic so as to provide fundamental evidence for clinicians and administrators to formulate targeted intervention measures to improve the HRQoL and mental health status in pediatric medical staff during this, and future pandemics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the associated factors. Results: A total of 2,997 participants were recruited. Females scored worse than males in terms of emotional functioning (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and cognitive functioning (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). The respondents aged 30-39 and 40-49 years scored worse in nearly all domains of HRQoL compared health care professionals under 30 years old. Respondents with high education had lower scores in physical functioning (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7) and emotional functioning (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Compared with doctors, nurses had higher scores in all domains except for summary score and worry. The respondents whose working places had not set up pediatric fever clinics and isolated observation areas independently had lower scores in all domains except for worry. The respondents who had ever treated patients with COVID-19 had lower scores in all domains. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff decreased. The factors associated with HRQoL can be used to develop intervention to improve HRQoL in pediatric medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 34(2): 108-114, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127303

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is associated with strong infectiousness and has no effective therapy. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of Mycobacterium vaccae nebulization in the treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we included 31 adult patients with moderate COVID-19 who were admitted to the Fourth People's Hospital of Nanning (Nanning, China) between January 22, 2020 and February 17, 2020. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A (standard care group) and group B (M. vaccae in combination with standard care group). The primary outcome was the time interval from admission to viral RNA negative conversion (oropharyngeal swabs were used in this study). Secondary outcomes included chest computed tomography (CT), mortality, length of hospital stay, complications during treatment, and so on. Patients were followed up to 4 weeks after discharge (reexamination of viral RNA, chest CT, etc.). Results: Nucleic acid test negative conversion time in group B was shorter than that in group A (2.9 days [2.7-8.7] vs. 6.8 days [3.3-13.8]; p = 0.045). No death and no conversion to severe or critical cases were observed in both groups. Two weeks after discharge, neither "relapse" nor "return to positive" cases were found. Four weeks after discharge, it was found that there was no case of " relapse " or "return to positive" in group B, and 1 patient in group A showed "return to positive", but there was no clinical manifestation and imaging progression. No adverse reactions related to M. vaccae were found during observation period. Conclusion: M. vaccae treatment might shorten the time interval from admission to viral RNA negative conversion, which might be beneficial to the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: ChiCTR2000030016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay , Mycobacteriaceae/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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