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1.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 29: 100569, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977617

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented strict non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain COVID-19 at the early stage. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care continuum in China. Methods: Aggregated data on HIV care continuum between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2020 were collected from centers for disease control and prevention at different levels and major infectious disease hospitals in various regions in China. We used interrupted time series analysis to characterize temporal trend in weekly numbers of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescriptions, HIV tests, HIV diagnoses, median time intervals between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (time intervals, days), ART initiations, mean CD4+ T cell counts at ART initiation (CD4 counts, cells/µL), ART collections, and missed visits for ART collection, before and after the implementation of massive NPIs (23 January to 7 April 2020). We used Poisson segmented regression models to estimate the immediate and long-term impact of NPIs on these outcomes. Findings: A total of 16,780 PEP prescriptions, 1,101,686 HIV tests, 69,659 HIV diagnoses, 63,409 time intervals and ART initiations, 61,518 CD4 counts, 1,528,802 ART collections, and 6656 missed visits were recorded during the study period. The majority of outcomes occurred in males (55·3-87·4%), 21-50 year olds (51·7-90·5%), Southwestern China (38·2-82·0%) and heterosexual transmission (47·9-66·1%). NPIs was associated with 71·5% decrease in PEP prescriptions (IRR 0·285; 95% CI 0·192-0·423), 36·1% decrease in HIV tests (0·639, 0·497-0·822), 32·0% decrease in HIV diagnoses (0·680, 0·511-0·904), 59·3% increase in time intervals (1·593, 1·270-1·997) and 17·4% decrease in CD4 counts (0·826, 0·746-0·915) in the first week during NPIs. There was no marked change in the number of ART initiations, ART collections and missed visits during the NPIs. By the end of 2020, the number of HIV tests, HIV diagnoses, time intervals, ART initiations, and CD4 counts reached expected levels, but the number of PEP prescriptions (0·523, 0·394-0·696), ART collections (0·720, 0·595-0·872), and missed visits (0·137, 0·086-0·220) were still below expected levels. With the ease of restrictions, PEP prescriptions (slope change 1·024/week, 1·012-1·037), HIV tests (1·016/week, 1·008-1·026), and CD4 counts (1·005/week, 1·001-1·009) showed a significant increasing trend. Interpretation: HIV care continuum in China was affected by the COVID-19 NPIs at various levels. Preparedness and efforts to maintain the HIV care continuum during public health emergencies should leverage collaborations between stakeholders. Funding: Natural Science Foundation of China.

2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(4): 408-417, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on HIV self-testing (HIVST) remains unclear. We aimed to quantify the impact of COVID restrictions on HIVST kit purchasing behaviors in mainland China. METHODS: Deidentified transaction data were retrieved from a large online shopping platform. An interrupted time series model was constructed to examine the impact of COVID restrictions on the weekly number of anonymous customers purchasing HIVST kits, online orders, and purchased kits. RESULTS: A total of 2.32 million individuals submitted 4.46 million orders for 4.84 million HIVST kits between January 7, 2016, and April 22, 2020. Compared with expected levels, assuming COVID-19 epidemic and related restrictions had not happened, the number of purchasers, orders, and kits decreased by an estimated 10,500 (51.7%), 18,000 (55.3%), and 18,500 (54.9%) in the first week (January 23, 2020, to January 29, 2020) after COVID restrictions were implemented, respectively. As restrictions eased, the number of purchasers, orders, and kits increased by an average of 7.4%, 4.8%, and 4.9% per week, respectively. In the first week after COVID restrictions were lifted (April 9, 2020, to April 15, 2020), the number of purchasers returned to expected levels, whereas the number of orders and kits were still lower than expected levels. The impact of COVID restrictions on outcomes at the beginning of COVID restrictions and the increasing trends of outcomes were larger among those living in regions with higher COVID-19 incidence (eg, Wuhan city and Hubei province). CONCLUSIONS: Online sales of HIVST kits were significantly impacted by COVID restrictions, and HIVST kit purchasing patterns returned to expected levels after restrictions were lifted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Humans , Mass Screening , Self-Testing
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3722-3730, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888725

ABSTRACT

To mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission, vaccines have been urgently approved. With their limited availability, it is critical to distribute the vaccines reasonably. We simulated the SARS-CoV-2 transmission for 365 days over four intervention periods: free transmission, structural mitigation, personal mitigation, and vaccination. Sensitivity analyses were performed to obtain robust results. We further evaluated two proposed vaccination allocations, including one-dose-high-coverage and two-doses-low-coverage, when the supply was low. 33.35% (infection rate, 2.68 in 10 million people) and 40.54% (2.36) of confirmed cases could be avoided as the nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) adherence rate rose from 50% to 70%. As the vaccination coverage reached 60% and 80%, the total infections could be reduced by 32.72% and 41.19%, compared to the number without vaccination. When the durations of immunity were 90 and 120 days, the infection rates were 2.67 and 2.38. As the asymptomatic infection rate rose from 30% to 50%, the infection rate increased 0.92 (SD, 0.16) times. Conditioned on 70% adherence rate, with the same amount of limited available vaccines, the 20% and 40% vaccination coverage of one-dose-high-coverage, the infection rates were 2.70 and 2.35; corresponding to the two-doses-low-coverage with 10% and 20% vaccination coverage, the infection rates were 3.22 and 2.92. Our results indicated as the duration of immunity prolonged, the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 would be delayed and the scale would be declined. On average, the total infections in two-doses-low-coverage was 1.48 times (SD, 0.24) as high as that in one-dose-high-coverage. It is crucial to encourage people in order to improve vaccination coverage and establish immune barriers. Particularly when the supply is limited, a wiser strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 is equally distributing doses to the same number of individuals. Besides vaccination, NPIs are equally critical to the prevention of widespread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Vaccination
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323633

ABSTRACT

To discuss influencing factors on critical COVID-19 patient’s prognosis, construct a basic model and predict their mortality risks. Retrospectively analyzed the general condition and respective laboratory biomarkers of critical patients with duration≥24 h from Feb. 10th, 2020 to Mar. 30th, 2020 to separate them into a survival group and death group based on their clinical features. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors for critical COVID-19 patient’s and a nomogram was constructed based on screened risk factors. A receiver operating curve (ROC) was created to evaluate the accuracy of the nomogram. Multi-factor Logistic recovery analysis results show: Age, Peripheral blood leucocyte count,Lymphocyte percentage, Thrombocyte count and Hyper C-reactive protein are single danger factors of critical COVID-19 patient’s mortality risk (p<0.05). ROC curve indicates Nomogram predictive model AUC is 0.958 (95%CI: 0.923-0.993), which has high predictive value. Findings from this study suggest advanced age, high peripheral blood leucocyte count, high hyper C-reactive protein, low lymphocyte percentage and low thrombocyte count are risk factors of critical COVID-19 patient’s death.The Nomogram model is helpful for timely intervention to reduce the incidence of critical COVID-19 patients.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4971-4981, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM), a population bearing the greatest HIV burden in many countries, may also be vulnerable to COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccines are essential to containing the pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy may compromise vaccine coverage. We aimed to understand the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HIV-infected MSM in mainland China. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey among HIV-infected MSM was conducted between 13 and 21 February 2021 in mainland China. Variables including demographics, mental health status, HIV characteristics, and knowledge of and attitudes toward COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 vaccine were collected. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: A total of 1295 participants were included. The median age was 29.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25.2-34.0 years). The uptake of COVID-19 vaccine was 8.7%. Two main reasons for receiving vaccines were "regarded vaccination as self-health protection" (67.3%) and "trust in domestic medical technology" (67.3%). Among participants who did not initiate vaccination, concern about side effects (46.4%) and disclosure of HIV infection (38.6%) were top two reasons, and 47.2% had higher vaccine hesitancy. Men who had with high antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.80), often (0.26, 0.17-0.40) or sometimes (0.46, 0.31-0.67) paid attention to information about the COVID-19 vaccine, preferred domestic vaccines (0.37, 0.24-0.59), thought the pandemic had moderate (0.58, 0.38-0.90) and moderately severe or severe impact (0.54, 0.38-0.78) on immunity, who were waiting for vaccination programs organized at workplace (0.60, 0.44-0.81) and who were unaware of where to get COVID-19 vaccine (0.61, 0.45-0.82) had lower degree of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Men who were concerned about the efficacy (1.72, 1.16-2.54) and side effects (2.44, 1.78-3.35) had higher degree of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine uptake among HIV-infected MSM is still suboptimal. Understanding influencing factors of vaccine hesitancy among this group and making tailored measures to alleviate hesitancy would help improve the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4964-4970, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to ravage the world. People living with HIV (PLHIV) are one of the most vulnerable groups. This study aims to identify the factors associated with the uptake and adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: We recruited PLHIV in China by convenience sampling between 7 and 23 February 2021. Participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess factors associated with vaccine uptake. RESULTS: A total of 527 vaccinated and 1091 unvaccinated PLHIV were recruited. Individuals who had a higher education, engaged in occupations with a higher risk of COVID-19 infection, received influenza or pneumonia vaccine in the past 3 years (5.40, 3.36-8.77), believed in the effectiveness of vaccines (3.01, 2.20-4.12), and received media information regarding COVID-19 vaccine (2.23, 1.61-3.11), were more likely to be vaccinated. Concerning about adverse reactions (0.31, 0.22-0.44), negative impact on the progression of HIV/AIDS (0.36, 0.26-0.50) or antiretroviral therapy (ART) (0.61, 0.44-0.85), disclosure of HIV infection status (0.69, 0.49-0.96), comorbidities (0.33, 0.22-0.47), being unmarried (0.43, 0.28-0.66) and older age were negatively associated with vaccination. Of the 527 vaccinated PLHIV, 155 (29.4%) PLHIV reported adverse reactions, with pain at the injection site being the most common (18.2%). CONCLUSIONS: PLHIV, who are concerned about adverse reactions, negative impact on ART outcome and disclosure of HIV infection status, were less likely to adopt COVID-19 vaccination. To increase vaccination coverage among PLHIV, health-care professionals should emphasize the benefits and necessity of vaccination and provide consultancy regarding adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 7337-7348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was associated with a higher risk of arrhythmia in infected patients. However, there are no reports about the effect of the ongoing pandemic on arrhythmias in the non-infected population. We measured the arrhythmia burden in a non-infected population with cardiac implantable devices. METHODS: The arrhythmia burden during the COVID-19 pandemic was compared to a 6-month interval in the pre-COVID-19 period. The COVID-19 pandemic was divided into high-risk (17 January 2020 to 16 March 2020) and low-risk periods (17 March 2020 to 17 July 2020) according to whether there were locally infected patients. Arrhythmia burdens were compared among the pre-COVID-19, high-risk, and low-risk periods. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients with 1859 episodes were included. We observed a larger proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) during the COVID-19 pandemic (38.36% vs 26.03%, p = 0.006). There was not significantly more ventricular arrhythmia during the COVID period than the pre-COVID-19 period (p > 0.05). During the high-risk period, daily frequency of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) (0.0172, 0.0475 vs 0.0109, 0.0164, p < 0.05), atrial tachycardia (AT) (0.0345, 0.0518 vs 0.0164, 0.0219 p < 0.05) and AF (0.0345, 0.0432 vs 0.0164, 0.0186, p < 0.05) and daily duration of NSVT (0.1982, 0.2845 vs 0.0538, 0.1640 p < 0.05) were higher and longer than those in the pre-COVID-19 period. Regression modeling showed that the impact of COVID-19 pandemic lead to an increased onset of AF (odds ratio 2.465; p < 0.01). Patients with paroxysmal AF who had undergone a previous radiofrequency ablation had a lower burden of AF (incidence 21.43% vs 55.00%, P = 0.049, daily frequency 0.0000, 0.0027 vs 0.0000, 241.7978, P = 0.020) during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to a higher burden of arrhythmias in non-infected patients. Patients would experience a lower burden of AF following radiofrequency ablation treatment, and this effect persisted during the pandemic.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 321, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633920

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout China and the rest of the world. Many mathematical models have been developed to understand and predict the infectiousness of COVID-19. We aim to summarize these models to inform efforts to manage the current outbreak. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, bioRxiv, medRxiv, arXiv, Preprints, and National Knowledge Infrastructure (Chinese database) for relevant studies published between 1 December 2019 and 21 February 2020. References were screened for additional publications. Crucial indicators were extracted and analysed. We also built a mathematical model for the evolution of the epidemic in Wuhan that synthesised extracted indicators. Results: Fifty-two articles involving 75 mathematical or statistical models were included in our systematic review. The overall median basic reproduction number (R0) was 3.77 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.78-5.13], which dropped to a controlled reproduction number (Rc) of 1.88 (IQR 1.41-2.24) after city lockdown. The median incubation and infectious periods were 5.90 (IQR 4.78-6.25) and 9.94 (IQR 3.93-13.50) days, respectively. The median case-fatality rate (CFR) was 2.9% (IQR 2.3-5.4%). Our mathematical model showed that, in Wuhan, the peak time of infection is likely to be March 2020 with a median size of 98,333 infected cases (range 55,225-188,284). The earliest elimination of ongoing transmission is likely to be achieved around 7 May 2020. Conclusions: Our analysis found a sustained Rc and prolonged incubation/ infectious periods, suggesting COVID-19 is highly infectious. Although interventions in China have been effective in controlling secondary transmission, sustained global efforts are needed to contain an emerging pandemic. Alternative interventions can be explored using modelling studies to better inform policymaking as the outbreak continues.

9.
J Infect ; 80(6): 656-665, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better inform efforts to treat and control the current outbreak with a comprehensive characterization of COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese Database) for studies published as of March 2, 2020, and we searched references of identified articles. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. RESULTS: 43 studies involving 3600 patients were included. Among COVID-19 patients, fever (83.3% [95% CI 78.4-87.7]), cough (60.3% [54.2-66.3]), and fatigue (38.0% [29.8-46.5]) were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated C-reactive protein (68.6% [58.2-78.2]), decreased lymphocyte count (57.4% [44.8-69.5]) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (51.6% [31.4-71.6]). Ground-glass opacities (80.0% [67.3-90.4]) and bilateral pneumonia (73.2% [63.4-82.1]) were the most frequently reported findings on computed tomography. The overall estimated proportion of severe cases and case-fatality rate (CFR) was 25.6% (17.4-34.9) and 3.6% (1.1-7.2), respectively. CFR and laboratory abnormalities were higher in severe cases, patients from Wuhan, and older patients, but CFR did not differ by gender. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are symptomatic with a moderate CFR. Patients living in Wuhan, older patients, and those with medical comorbidities tend to have more severe clinical symptoms and higher CFR.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors
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