Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
Viral Immunol ; 35(3): 236-243, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815959

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical characteristic of domestic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients after vaccination campaign conducted in China. According to vaccination status and months from first vaccine dose to infection detection, patients were divided into unvaccinated, <3 months, 3-6 months, and >6 months groups. The information of demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid and IgM, IgG antibodies was retrospectively collected. Therapeutic approaches, temperature-normalizing and viral shedding times, outcomes were also summarized. SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were further analyzed based on the other following variables: time from second vaccine dose to infection, vaccine dose, the interval from the first to the second dose, and vaccine brand. Among 208 COVID-19 patients, 13 (6.28%) were unvaccinated. No significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and CT findings, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid loads were detected between groups (all p > 0.05). In comparison with the unvaccinated group, the median SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were noticeably increased in those vaccinated groups (0.603 in unvaccinated, 15.925 in <3 months, 14.04 in 3-6 months, and 4.94 in >6 months, respectively, p < 0.05). However, SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were not altered between groups divided based on the other variables. Vaccination does not affect the clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with vaccination have high SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. Underscore the necessity of rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns can be speculated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 483-497, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606402

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has set off a global pandemic. There is an urgent unmet need for safe, affordable, and effective therapeutics against COVID-19. In this regard, drug repurposing is considered as a promising approach. We assessed the compounds that affect the endosomal acidic environment by applying human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2)- expressing cells infected with a SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein-pseudotyped HIV reporter virus and identified that obatoclax resulted in the strongest inhibition of S protein-mediated virus entry. The potent antiviral activity of obatoclax at nanomolar concentrations was confirmed in different human lung and intestinal cells infected with the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype system as well as clinical virus isolates. Furthermore, we uncovered that obatoclax executes a double-strike against SARS-CoV-2. It prevented SARS-CoV-2 entry by blocking endocytosis of virions through diminished endosomal acidification and the corresponding inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the endosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L. Additionally, obatoclax impaired the SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion by targeting the MCL-1 protein and reducing furin protease activity. In accordance with these overarching mechanisms, obatoclax blocked the virus entry mediated by different S proteins derived from several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern such as, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2). Taken together, our results identified obatoclax as a novel effective antiviral compound that keeps SARS-CoV-2 at bay by blocking both endocytosis and membrane fusion. Our data suggested that obatoclax should be further explored as a clinical drug for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cathepsins/metabolism , Furin/metabolism , Indoles/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 22(5): e321-e326, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Due to functional hypogammaglobulinemia, patients with multiple myeloma are at increased risk for infection and generally have poorer responses to vaccines. In this study, we examined antibody responses after complete COVID-19 vaccination in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, most of whom were receiving treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Real world study of consecutive patients with multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) were evaluated after complete vaccination with either the 2-shot mRNA vaccines from BioNTech and Moderna or the 1-shot adenoviral vector vaccine from Johnson & Johnson (J&J). Patients received vaccines 1-4 months before antibody testing without controlling for the type of vaccine or the timing of drug therapy. Patients with a clinical history or antibody evidence of prior infection were excluded. Antinucleocapsid and quantitative anti-spike antibody levels were measured with the Roche Elecys assay. RESULTS: Ninety-five percent of patients had detectable antibody responses. Multivariate analysis showed that higher age, ongoing anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody therapy and the J&J vaccine negatively affected quantitative response. A small number of ineffectively vaccinated patients receiving IVIG subsequently had detectable nucleocapsid and spike antibodies confirming the presence of the latter in currently administered IVIG. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all PCD had detectable anti-spike antibodies after vaccination but age, anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody therapy, and the single-shot J&J vaccine negatively affected responses. In patients who received the J&J vaccine, second doses or heterologous mRNA vaccines should be tested. Quantitative antibody testing might make future management more rational, particularly in patients with poor responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Vaccination
5.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 150-157, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467097

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing pandemic that poses a great threat to human health worldwide. As the humoral immune response plays essential roles in disease occurrence and development, understanding the dynamics and characteristics of virus-specific humoral immunity in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients is of great importance for controlling this disease. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and further emphasize the potential applications and therapeutic prospects of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity and the critical role of this immunity in vaccine development. Notably, serological antibody testing based on the humoral immune response can guide public health measures and control strategies; however, it is not recommended for population surveys in areas with very low prevalence. Existing evidence suggests that asymptomatic individuals have a weaker immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas SARS-CoV-2-infected children have a more effective humoral immune response than adults. The correlations between antibody (especially neutralizing antibody) titers and protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection should be further examined. In addition, the emergence of cross-reactions among different coronavirus antigens in the development of screening technology and the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination should be given further attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 14(6):241-253, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1310155

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) strategies in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients suffering from cardiogenic cardiac arrest. During CPR, both healthcare and non-healthcare workers who provide resuscitation are at risk of infection. The Working Group for Expert Consensus on Prevention and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest in COVID-19 has developed this Chinese Expert Consensus to guide clinical practice of CPR in COVID-19 patients. Main recommendations: (1) A medical team should be assigned to evaluate severe and critical COVID-19 for early monitoring of cardiac-arrest warning signs. (2) Psychological counseling and treatment are highly recommended, since sympathetic and vagal abnormalities induced by psychological stress from the COVID-19 pandemic can induce cardiac arrest. (3) Healthcare workers should wear personal protective equipment (PPE). (4) Mouth-to-mouth ventilation should be avoided on patients suspected of having or diagnosed with COVID-19. (5) Hands-only chest compression and mechanical chest compression are recommended. (6) Tracheal-intubation procedures should be optimized and tracheal-intubation strategies should be implemented early. (7) CPR should be provided for 20-30 min. (8) Various factors should be taken into consideration such as the interests of patients and family members, ethics, transmission risks, and laws and regulations governing infectious disease control. Changes in management: The following changes or modifications to CPR strategy in COVID-19 patients are proposed: (1) Healthcare workers should wear PPE. (2) Hands-only chest compression and mechanical chest compression can be implemented to reduce or avoid the spread of viruses by aerosols. (3) Both the benefits to patients and the risk of infection should be considered. (4) Hhealthcare workers should be fully aware of and trained in CPR strategies and procedures specifically for patients with COVID-19.

7.
QJM ; 114(9): 670-671, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269603
8.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 31, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216454

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. How SARS-CoV-2 regulates cellular responses to escape clearance by host cells is unknown. Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation pathway for the clearance of various cargoes, including viruses. Here, we systematically screened 28 viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and identified that ORF3a strongly inhibited autophagic flux by blocking the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. ORF3a colocalized with lysosomes and interacted with VPS39, a component of the homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) complex. The ORF3a-VPS39 interaction prohibited the binding of HOPS with RAB7, which prevented the assembly of fusion machinery, leading to the accumulation of unfused autophagosomes. These results indicated the potential mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 escapes degradation; that is, the virus interferes with autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, our findings will facilitate strategies targeting autophagy for conferring potential protection against the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111064, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059802

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early reported symptoms include fever, cough, and respiratory symptoms. There were few reports of digestive symptoms. However, with COVID-19 spreading worldwide, symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain have gained increasing attention. Research has found that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Whether theoretically or clinically, many studies have suggested a close connection between COVID-19 and the digestive system. In this review, we summarize the digestive symptoms reported in existing research, discuss the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and determine the possible mechanisms and aetiology, such as cytokine storm. In-depth exploration of the relationship between COVID-19 and the digestive system is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anorexia/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bile Ducts/metabolism , Bile Ducts/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Postoperative Complications , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
10.
Fundamental Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1046452

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major ongoing challenge to global health. After being infected by SARS-CoV-2, a specific humoral immune response may be rapidly induced in the host to restrain the viral infection via the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), which are also useful for preventing reinfection [1, 2]. However, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral immunity and alterations in immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) levels in humans during viral infection. In this perspective, we have summarized several characteristics of the humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection and its potentially critical role in vaccine development. Additionally, we have discussed the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) phenomenon in antibody immunotherapy, the current status of vaccine development, and public health strategies aimed at ending the global COVID-19 pandemic. Since the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was reported as the causative agent of COVID-19 in December 2019, the subsequent spread of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 continues to considerably impact human health and life expectancy and endangers the global economy and socio-economic stability. The gold standard technique used to confirm early SARS-CoV-2 infection is reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based viral nucleic acid testing. However, previous studies conducted by our colleagues and other researchers indicate that virus-specific antibody detection for COVID-19 may be used as a complement to viral RNA detection for the diagnosis of suspected cases with negative RT-PCR results and/or for surveying asymptomatic infection in close contacts [3]. For theemerging virus, the characteristics and specific detailed mechanisms of how protective humoral immunity is developed in COVID-19 patients are not clearly defined. Herein, we compared the characterization of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses in the COVID-19 patients conducted in different studies worldwide and further discussed the critical roles of specific anti-viral humoral immunity in virus clearance and vaccine development.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 196-205, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007446

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Following outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2002 and 2012, respectively, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third highly pathogenic emerging human coronavirus (hCoV). SARS-CoV-2 is currently causing the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CoV infections in target cells may stimulate the formation of numerous double-membrane autophagosomes and induce autophagy. Several studies provided evidence that hCoV infections are closely related to various cellular aspects associated with autophagy. Autophagy may even promote hCoV infection and replication. However, so far it is unclear how hCoV infections induce autophagy and whether the autophagic machinery is necessary for viral propagation. Here, we summarize the most recent advances concerning the mutual interplay between the autophagic machinery and the three emerging hCoVs, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 and the model system mouse hepatitis virus. We also discuss the applicability of approved and well-tolerated drugs targeting autophagy as a potential treatment against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autophagosomes/virology , Autophagy , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
12.
Genes Dis ; 8(4): 484-492, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933100

ABSTRACT

To date, it remains unclear if severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infection exacerbates liver injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, we present a retrospective study of 133 hospitalized confirmed mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, including 116 patients with COVID-19 with negative serum hepatitis B antigen and 17 HBV inactive carriers with COVID-19. We found that there were no significant differences for the discharge rate or duration of hospitalization between the two groups. However, inactive HBV carriers with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection are at a higher risk of abnormal liver function tests. The enhanced liver injury induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HBV co-infection was identified as the hepatocyte type rather than the cholangiocyte type. Moreover, the inflammatory response, including abnormal lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and interleukin-6 production, may contribute to this injury following SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Collectively, SARS-CoV-2 and HBV co-infection exacerbates liver function of the patients with COVID-19.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 222(2): 189-193, 2020 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel ß-coronavirus, causes severe pneumonia and has spread throughout the globe rapidly. The disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the only test able to confirm this infection. However, the accuracy of RT-PCR depends on several factors; variations in these factors might significantly lower the sensitivity of detection. METHODS: In this study, we developed a peptide-based luminescent immunoassay that detected immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. The assay cutoff value was determined by evaluating the sera from healthy and infected patients for pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: To evaluate assay performance, we detected IgG and IgM in the sera from confirmed patients. The positive rate of IgG and IgM was 71.4% and 57.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, combining our immunoassay with real-time RT-PCR might enhance the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptides/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/immunology
14.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2124-2129, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245011

ABSTRACT

Studies have demonstrated that comorbidities, especially cardiovascular and endocrine diseases, correlated with poorer clinical outcomes. However, the impact of digestive system diseases has not been issued. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) on hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We extracted clinical data regarding 95 patients in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China, between 26 January and 21 February 2020. The Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) was used to assess the presence and severity of LPRD. An RSI greater than 13 is considered to be abnormal. A total of 95 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, with 61.1% (58/95), 32.6% (31/95), and 6.3% (6/95) being moderately ill, severely ill, and critically ill, respectively. In this study, 38.9% (37/95) of the patient had an RSI score over 13, which was indicative of LPRD. In univariable analysis, the age and RSI scores of severely or critically ill patients were statistically significantly higher than patients with moderate disease (P = .026 and P = .005, respectively). After controlling for age difference in a multivariable model, the RSI greater than 13, compared to RSI equal to 0, was associated with significantly higher risk of severe infection (P < .001; odds ratio [OR] = 11.411; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.95-42.09) and critical infection (P = .028; OR= 19.61; 95% CI, 1.38-277.99). Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, RSI scores greater than 13, indicative of LPRD, correlated with poorer clinical outcomes. The prevalence of LPRD may be higher than the general population, which indicated that COVID-19 can impair the upper esophageal sphincter and aggravate reflux.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , China , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/diagnostic imaging , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL