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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20549, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500755

ABSTRACT

Dried blood samples (DBSs) have many advantages; yet, impediments have limited the clinical utilization of DBSs. We developed a novel volumetric sampling device that collects a precise volume of blood, which overcomes the heterogeneity and hematocrit issues commonly encountered in a traditional DBS card collection as well as allowing for more efficient extraction and processing procedures and thus, more efficient quantitation, by using the entire sample. We also provided a thorough procedure validation using this volumetric DBS collection device with an established quantitative proteomics analysis method, and then analyzed 1000 proteins using this approach in DBSs concomitantly with serum for future consideration of utility in clinical applications. Our data provide a first step in the establishment of a DBS database for the broad application of this sample type for widespread use in clinical proteomic and other analyses applications.


Subject(s)
Dried Blood Spot Testing/instrumentation , Microarray Analysis , Proteomics/instrumentation , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107685, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses a huge threat internationally; however, the role of the host immune system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not well understood. METHODS: Cytokine and chemokine levels and characterisation of immune cell subsets from 20 COVID-19 cases after hospital admission (17 critically ill and 3 severe patients) and 16 convalescent patients were determined using a multiplex immunoassay and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in acute severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, whereas were normal in patients who had reached convalescence. CD8 T cells in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients expressed high levels of cytotoxic granules (granzyme B and perforin)and was hyperactivated as evidenced by the high proportions of CD38. Furthermore, the cytotoxic potential of natural killer (NK) cells, and the frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells was reduced in patients with severe and critical COVID-19; however, these dysregulations were found to be restored in convalescent phases. CONCLUSION: Thus, elicitation of the hyperactive cytokine-mediated inflammatory response, dysregulation of CD8 T and NK cells, and deficiency of host myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs, may contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis and provide insights into potential therapeutic targets and strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Inflammation/etiology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/blood , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/enzymology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Chemokine CXCL9/blood , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/enzymology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/blood , Middle Aged , Perforin/metabolism
5.
J Infect Dis ; 222(9): 1444-1451, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851783

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe immune abnormalities are at risk of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). The definition, prevention, and treatment of symptoms of CRS in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are important problems. We report a single-center case series of 11 COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome from The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University in China from 26 January 2020 to 18 February 2020. The termination date of follow-up was 19 February 2020. Eight patients were determined to have characteristics of CRS, including pulmonary inflammation, fever, and dysfunction of nonpulmonary organs. An increase in interleukin-6 in peripheral blood was the highest risk factor and an early indicator of CRS in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1130-1140, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743961

ABSTRACT

Fast and accurate diagnosis and the immediate isolation of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are regarded as the most effective measures to restrain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we present a high-throughput, multi-index nucleic acid isothermal amplification analyzer (RTisochip™-W) employing a centrifugal microfluidic chip to detect 19 common respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, from 16 samples in a single run within 90 min. The limits of detection of all the viruses analyzed by the RTisochip™-W system were equal to or less than 50 copies·µL-1, which is comparable to those of conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We also demonstrate that the RTisochip™-W system possesses the advantages of good repeatability, strong robustness, and high specificity. Finally, we analyzed 201 cases of preclinical samples, 14 cases of COVID-19-positive samples, 25 cases of clinically diagnosed samples, and 614 cases of clinical samples from patients or suspected patients with respiratory tract infections using the RTisochip™-W system. The test results matched the referenced results well and reflected the epidemic characteristics of the respiratory infectious diseases. The coincidence rate of the RTisochip™-W with the referenced kits was 98.15% for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Based on these extensive trials, we believe that the RTisochip™-W system provides a powerful platform for fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.

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