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1.
Digit Health ; 8: 20552076221106322, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886901

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is difficult for travelers to choose suitable nature-based leisure travel destinations because many factors are related to health risks and are highly uncertain. This research proposes a type-II fuzzy approach with explainable artificial intelligence to overcome this difficulty. First, an innovative type-II alpha-cut operations fuzzy collaborative intelligence method was used to derive the fuzzy priorities of factors critical for nature-based leisure travel destination selection. Subsequently, a type-II fuzzy Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje method, which is also novel, was employed to evaluate and compare the overall performance of nature-based leisure travel destinations. Furthermore, several measures were taken to enhance the explainability of the selection process and result. The effectiveness of the proposed type-II fuzzy approach was evaluated in a regional experiment conducted in Taichung City, Taiwan, during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2079344, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882944

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted lives worldwide and has led to global vaccination against COVID-19. However, there are concerns about the adverse effects of such vaccines on individuals' health. Therefore, it is important to investigate the association between vaccination and holistic health outcome (i.e., quality of life [QoL]). The present study analyzed data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSCS), a survey conducted utilizing stratified random sampling. More specifically, data (N = 1425; 47.44% males; mean age = 50.58 y) on their vaccinations (including COVID-19 and flu vaccines) and QoL (using the Short-Form 12) were used. Participants were separated into two age subgroups for analyses (those aged below 50 y, and those 50 y or above). For participants aged below 50 y, those who received COVID-19 vaccine and those who received both COVID-19 and flu vaccines had significantly better physical QoL than those who did not receive any vaccination. Mental QoL was not significantly associated with vaccinations for participants aged below 50 y. Moreover, neither mental nor physical QoL was significantly associated with vaccinations for those aged 50 y or above. The present study showed that not having COVID-19 and flu vaccinations is associated with poor QoL. This finding should be disseminated to the public to help aid vaccination promotion.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8802, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864768

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic struck the world unguarded, some places outperformed others in COVID-19 containment. This longitudinal study considered a comparative evaluation of COVID-19 containment across 50 distinctly governed regions between March 2020 and November 2021. Our analysis distinguishes between a pre-vaccine phase (March-November 2020) and a vaccinating phase (December 2020-November 2021). In the first phase, we develop an indicator, termed lockdown efficiency (LE), to estimate the efficacy of measures against monthly case numbers. Nine other indicators were considered, including vaccine-related indicators in the second phase. Linear mixed models are used to explore the relationship between each government policy & hygiene education (GP&HE) indicator and each vital health & socioeconomic (VH&SE) measure. Our ranking shows that surveyed countries in Oceania and Asian outperformed countries in other regions for pandemic containment prior to vaccine development. Their success appears to be associated with non-pharmaceutical interventions, acting early, and adjusting policies as needed. After vaccines have been distributed, maintaining non-pharmacological intervention is the best way to achieve protection from variant viral strains, breakthrough infections, waning vaccine efficacy, and vaccine hesitancy limiting of herd immunity. The findings of the study provide insights into the effectiveness of emerging infectious disease containment policies worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862812

ABSTRACT

Animal coronaviruses (CoVs) have been identified to be the origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and probably SARS-CoV-2 that cause severe to fatal diseases in humans. Variations of zoonotic coronaviruses pose potential threats to global human beings. To overcome this problem, we focused on the main protease (Mpro), which is an evolutionary conserved viral protein among different coronaviruses. The broad-spectrum anti-coronaviral drug, GC376, was repurposed to target canine coronavirus (CCoV), which causes gastrointestinal infections in dogs. We found that GC376 can efficiently block the protease activity of CCoV Mpro and can thermodynamically stabilize its folding. The structure of CCoV Mpro in complex with GC376 was subsequently determined at 2.75 Å. GC376 reacts with the catalytic residue C144 of CCoV Mpro and forms an (R)- or (S)-configuration of hemithioacetal. A structural comparison of CCoV Mpro and other animal CoV Mpros with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro revealed three important structural determinants in a substrate-binding pocket that dictate entry and release of substrates. As compared with the conserved A141 of the S1 site and P188 of the S4 site in animal coronaviral Mpros, SARS-CoV-2 Mpro contains N142 and Q189 at equivalent positions which are considered to be more catalytically compatible. Furthermore, the conserved loop with residues 46-49 in animal coronaviral Mpros has been replaced by a stable α-helix in SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. In addition, the species-specific dimerization interface also influences the catalytic efficiency of CoV Mpros. Conclusively, the structural information of this study provides mechanistic insights into the ligand binding and dimerization of CoV Mpros among different species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptide Hydrolases , Animals , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Dimerization , Dogs , Endopeptidases , Ligands , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
5.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(10):5810, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857427

ABSTRACT

Aptamers are single-stranded, short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can specifically bind to various target molecules. To diagnose the infected cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in time, numerous conventional methods are applied for viral detection via the amplification and quantification of DNA or antibodies specific to antigens on the virus. Herein, we generated a large number of mutated aptamer sequences, derived from a known sequence of receptor-binding domain (RBD)-1C aptamer, specific to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S protein). Structural similarity, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) were utilized to screen aptamers and characterize the detailed interactions between the selected aptamers and the S protein. We identified two mutated aptamers, namely, RBD-1CM1 and RBD-1CM2, which presented better docking results against the S protein compared with the RBD-1C aptamer. Through the MD simulation, we further confirmed that the RBD-1CM1 aptamer can form the most stable complex with the S protein based on the number of hydrogen bonds formed between the two biomolecules. Based on the experimental data of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the RBD-1CM1 aptamer could produce larger signals in mass change and exhibit an improved binding affinity to the S protein. Therefore, the RBD-1CM1 aptamer, which was selected from 1431 mutants, was the best potential candidate for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The RBD-1CM1 aptamer can be an alternative biological element for the development of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing.

6.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(10):5669, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857268

ABSTRACT

Animal coronaviruses (CoVs) have been identified to be the origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and probably SARS-CoV-2 that cause severe to fatal diseases in humans. Variations of zoonotic coronaviruses pose potential threats to global human beings. To overcome this problem, we focused on the main protease (Mpro), which is an evolutionary conserved viral protein among different coronaviruses. The broad-spectrum anti-coronaviral drug, GC376, was repurposed to target canine coronavirus (CCoV), which causes gastrointestinal infections in dogs. We found that GC376 can efficiently block the protease activity of CCoV Mpro and can thermodynamically stabilize its folding. The structure of CCoV Mpro in complex with GC376 was subsequently determined at 2.75 Å. GC376 reacts with the catalytic residue C144 of CCoV Mpro and forms an (R)- or (S)-configuration of hemithioacetal. A structural comparison of CCoV Mpro and other animal CoV Mpros with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro revealed three important structural determinants in a substrate-binding pocket that dictate entry and release of substrates. As compared with the conserved A141 of the S1 site and P188 of the S4 site in animal coronaviral Mpros, SARS-CoV-2 Mpro contains N142 and Q189 at equivalent positions which are considered to be more catalytically compatible. Furthermore, the conserved loop with residues 46–49 in animal coronaviral Mpros has been replaced by a stable α-helix in SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. In addition, the species-specific dimerization interface also influences the catalytic efficiency of CoV Mpros. Conclusively, the structural information of this study provides mechanistic insights into the ligand binding and dimerization of CoV Mpros among different species.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820448

ABSTRACT

Poloxamer-188 (P188) is a nonionic triblock linear copolymer that can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient because of its amphiphilic nature. This study investigated whether P188 can act as an adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor binding domain (RBD) subunit vaccine. BALB/c mice were vaccinated twice with the RBD antigen alone or in combination with P188 or MF59 (a commercial adjuvant for comparison purposes). The resulting humoral and cellular immunity were assessed. Results showed that P188 helped elicit higher neutralizing activity than MF59 after vaccination. P188 induced significant humoral immune response, along with type 1 T helper (Th1) and type 2 T helper (Th2) cellular immune response when compared with MF59 due to repressing p38MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, P188 did not result in adverse effects such as fibrosis of liver or kidney after vaccination. In conclusion, P188 is a novel adjuvant that may be used for safe and effective immune enhancement of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD antigen.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented global health crisis that may cause mental health problems and heighten suicide risk. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on trends in suicide attempts and suicide deaths in New Taipei City, Taiwan. METHODS: The current study used the official daily data on suicide attempts and deaths in New Taipei City, Taiwan (4 million inhabitants) between 2015 and 2020 from the Taiwan National Suicide Prevention Reporting System. Interrupted time-series (ITS) analyses with parameters corrected by the estimated autocorrelations were applied on weekly aggregated data to examine whether the suicide trends during the early COVID-19 pandemic (late January to July 2020) deviated from previous trends (January 2015 to late January 2020). The impact due to the suicide prevention policy change was also examined (since August 2020). RESULTS: ITS analyses revealed no significant increases in both mean and trend on weekly suicide deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic and after the policy change. In contrast, there was a significant increasing trend in weekly suicide attempts since the COVID-19 outbreak at the rate of 1.54 attempts per week (95% confidence interval 0.49-2.60; p = 0.004). Sex difference analysis revealed that, however, this increasing trend was observed only in females not in males. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has different impacts on suicides attempts and deaths during the early pandemic in New Taipei City, Taiwan. The COVID-19 outbreak drastically increased the trend of suicide attempts. In contrast, the number of suicide deaths had remained constant in the investigated periods.

9.
Front Psychol ; 13: 839688, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809581

ABSTRACT

The financial crisis of 2007-2008 and the COVID-19 pandemic have caused many enterprises to suffer great losses. Thus, companies have to take measures such as pays cut, furloughs, or layoffs, which caused dissatisfaction among employees and triggered labor disputes. Therefore, this study explores the service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior in order to understand the behavioral intentions of employees through their mental states, job attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. This study conducted questionnaire surveys for employees in different industries, collected 281 valid questionnaires, and applied Structural Equation Model for the analysis. The results show: (1) employees believe organizational justice in the organization is important, and when they feel treated fairly, their job attitudes and beliefs are enhanced. (2) Employees' job attitudes and beliefs support service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior, in other words, they have positive job attitudes and beliefs and will actively provide better service to customers. (3) When employees are treated reasonably and fairly by the organization and have positive job attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and perceived behavior control, their spontaneous service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior is stimulated, thus increasing organizational development.

10.
J Cell Biol ; 221(6)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806200

ABSTRACT

The endolysosome system plays central roles in both autophagic degradation and secretory pathways, including the release of extracellular vesicles and particles (EVPs). Although previous work reveals important interconnections between autophagy and EVP-mediated secretion, our understanding of these secretory events during endolysosome inhibition remains incomplete. Here, we delineate a secretory autophagy pathway upregulated in response to endolysosomal inhibition, which mediates EVP-associated release of autophagic cargo receptors, including p62/SQSTM1. This secretion is highly regulated and dependent on multiple ATGs required for autophagosome formation, as well as the small GTPase Rab27a. Furthermore, disrupting autophagosome maturation, either via genetic inhibition of autophagosome-to-autolysosome fusion or expression of SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, is sufficient to induce EVP secretion of autophagy cargo receptors. Finally, ATG-dependent EVP secretion buffers against the intracellular accumulation of autophagy cargo receptors when classical autophagic degradation is impaired. Thus, we propose secretory autophagy via EVPs functions as an alternate route to clear sequestered material and maintain proteostasis during endolysosomal dysfunction or impaired autophagosome maturation.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Extracellular Vesicles , Lysosomes , Proteostasis , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequestosome-1 Protein , Viroporin Proteins , rab27 GTP-Binding Proteins
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 280, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deep neck space abscess (DNSA) is a serious infection in the head and neck. Antibiotic therapy is an important treatment in patients with DNSA. However, the results of bacterial culture need at least 48 h, and the positive rate is only 30-50%, indicating that the use of empiric antibiotic treatment for most patients with DNSA should at least 48 h or even throughout the whole course of treatment. Thus, how to use empiric antibiotics has always been a problem for clinicians. This study analyzed the distribution of bacteria based on disease severity and clinical characteristics of DNSA patients, and provides bacteriological guidance for the empiric use of antibiotics. METHODS: We analyzed 433 patients with DNSA who were diagnosed and treated at nine medical centers in Guangdong Province between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020. A nomogram for disease severity (mild/severe) was constructed using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-logistic regression analysis. Clinical characteristics for the Gram reaction of the strain were identified using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: 92 (21.2%) patients developed life-threatening complications. The nomogram for disease severity comprised of seven predictors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the nomogram in the training and validation cohorts were 0.951 and 0.931, respectively. In the mild cases, 43.2% (101/234) had positive culture results (49% for Gram-positive and 51% for Gram-negative strains). The positive rate of cultures in the patients with severe disease was 63% (58/92, 37.9% for Gram-positive, and 62.1% for Gram-negative strains). Diabetes mellitus was an independent predictor of Gram-negative strains in the mild disease group, whereas gas formation and trismus were independent predictors of Gram-positive strains in the severe disease group. The positivity rate of multidrug-resistant strains was higher in the severe disease group (12.1%) than in the mild disease group (1.0%) (P < 0.001). Metagenomic sequencing was helpful for the bacteriological diagnosis of DNSA by identifying anaerobic strains (83.3%). CONCLUSION: We established a DNSA clinical severity prediction model and found some predictors for the type of Gram-staining strains in different disease severity cases. These results can help clinicians in effectively choosing an empiric antibiotic treatment.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Neck , Abscess/drug therapy , Abscess/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Metagenomics , Neck/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Front Surg ; 9: 853441, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776104

ABSTRACT

Aim: Limited data are available on the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients who underwent spine surgery. In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations between the COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan (May 2021) and PROMs in patients who underwent spine surgery. Method: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent spine surgery during identical defined 6-week time-intervals (May 16 to June 30) in 2019, 2020, and 2021. PROMs, including visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), were investigated before surgical intervention and at a 1-month follow-up. Relevant clinical information was collected from the electronic medical records of patients. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between the pandemic in 2021 (vs. 2019/2020) and the PROMs after adjusting for age, sex, and relevant clinical variables. Results: The number of patients who underwent spine surgery at our hospital during the identical defined 6-week time-intervals in 2019, 2020, and 2021 was 77, 70, and 48, respectively. The surgical intervention significantly improved VAS, ODI, and EQ-5D of the patients (1 month after surgery vs. before surgery, all p < 0.001) in all three study periods. However, there was a significant between-group difference in change from baseline in VAS (p = 0.002) and EQ-5D (p = 0.010). The decrease in VAS and increase in EQ-5D after surgery in 2021 were not as much as those in 2019 and 2020. The associations between the pandemic in 2021 (vs. 2019/2020) and changes in VAS (ß coefficient 1.239; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.355 to 2.124; p = 0.006) and EQ-5D (ß coefficient, -0.095; 95% CI, -0.155 to -0.035; p = 0.002) after spine surgery were independent of relevant clinical factors. Conclusion: There was less improvement in short-term PROMs (VAS and EQ-5D) after spine surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessment of PROMs in surgical patients during a pandemic may be clinically relevant, and psychological support in this condition might help improve patients' outcomes.

13.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(4): 523-530, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775464

ABSTRACT

Although private equity acquisition of short-term acute care hospitals purportedly improves efficiency and cost-effectiveness, financial performance after acquisition remains unexamined. We compared changes in the financial performance of 176 hospitals acquired during 2005-14 versus changes in matched control hospitals. Acquisition was associated with a $432 decrease in cost per adjusted discharge and a 1.78-percentage-point increase in operating margin. The majority of acquisitions-134 members of the Hospital Corporation of America, acquired in 2006-were associated with a $559 decrease in cost per adjusted discharge but no change in operating margin. Conversely, non-HCA hospitals exhibited a 3.27-percentage-point increase in operating margin without a concomitant change in cost per adjusted discharge. When we examined markers of hospital capacity, operational efficiency, and costs, we found that private equity acquisition was associated with decreases in total beds, ratio of outpatient to inpatient charges, and staffing (total personnel and nursing full-time equivalents and total full-time equivalents per occupied bed). Therefore, financial performance improved after acquisition, whereas patient throughput and inpatient utilization increased and staffing metrics decreased. Future research is needed to identify any unintended trade-offs with safety and quality.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Humans , Workforce
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 555539, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have evaluated the association of cadmium exposure with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the findings among these studies have been inconsistent. To further investigate the relationship, we carried out a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between cadmium exposure and GDM risk. METHODS: Five databases (Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and CNKI) were searched for eligible studies until September 09, 2021. The quality of eligible studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS). The summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by random-effects models due to high heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the robustness of the results. Publication bias was evaluated by Egger's test and Begg's test. We also conducted meta-regression analysis and subgroup analysis to assess the potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies with 32,000 participants related to our issue were included. Comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of cadmium exposure, no significant association was observed between cadmium exposure and the risk of GDM (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.92-1.46, and P = 0.206). No publication bias was found in Begg's and Egger's tests (all P > 0.05). Meta-regression suggested that publication year was the potentially heterogeneous source (P = 0.034). Subgroup analysis of publication year showed that the OR of studies before the year of 2016 was 4.05 (95% CI = 1.87-8.76, P < 0.001), and prospective cohort studies showed a borderline increased GDM risk (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.99-1.33, and P = 0.061). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated no significant association between cadmium exposure and GDM risk. Further high-quality prospective studies, especially those using standard analytic methods for cadmium exposure, are warranted to confirm the results.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Cadmium/adverse effects , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
15.
Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education ; 12(11):4133-4138, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1743558

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a new infectious disease, " corona virus disease " (COVID-19), mainly lung lesion, has been emerging in China. The outbreak of covid-19 coincided with the Chinese New Year in 2020. The rapid spread of the disease triggered public panic and an overwhelming number of news reports on new media platforms. However, information does not always equate with the way of communication. The communication bias happened in the flow of information. This paper takes the information flow about covid-19 before 26th December, 2020 as a model, and compares the time of information flow in the early development of the epidemic with the approach of Edmund Carpenter's "explorations in media and anthropology" and Harold A. Innis' "the bias of communication ". The bias of time and of information delivered during the pandemic is examined. The study further focuses on the reflection and response of Chinese new media platforms and information platforms towards the public opinion management.

16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 814669, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of flavonoids in treating viral acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were entered into meta-analyses performed separately for each indication. Efficacy analyses were based on changes in disease-specific symptom scores. Safety was analyzed based on the pooled data from all eligible trials, by comparing the incidence of adverse events between flavonoids and the control. RESULTS: In this study, thirty RCTs (n = 5,166) were included. In common cold, results showed that the flavonoids group decreased total cold intensity score (CIS), the sum of sum of symptom intensity differences (SSID) of CIS, and duration of inability to work vs. the control group. In influenza, the flavonoids group improved the visual analog scores for symptoms. In COVID-19, the flavonoids group decreased the time taken for alleviation of symptoms, time taken for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR clearance, the RT-PCR positive subjects at day 7, time to achievement of the normal status of symptoms, patients needed oxygen, patients hospitalized and requiring mechanical ventilation, patients in ICU, days of hospitalization, and mortality vs. the control group. In acute non-streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, the flavonoids group decreased the tonsillitis severity score (TSS) on day 7. In acute rhinosinusitis, the flavonoids group decreased the sinusitis severity score (SSS) on day 7, days off work, and duration of illness. In acute bronchitis, the flavonoids group decreased the bronchitis severity score (BSS) on day 7, days off work, and duration of illness. In bronchial pneumonia, the flavonoids group decreased the time to symptoms disappearance, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In upper respiratory tract infections, the flavonoids group decreased total CIS on day 7 and increased the improvement rate of symptoms. Furthermore, the results of the incidence of adverse reactions did not differ between the flavonoids and the control group. CONCLUSION: Results from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that flavonoids were efficacious and safe in treating viral ARTIs including the common cold, influenza, COVID-19, acute non-streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, acute rhinosinusitis, acute bronchitis, bronchial pneumonia, and upper respiratory tract infections. However, uncertainty remains because there were few RCTs per type of ARTI and many of the RCTs were small and of low quality with a substantial risk of bias. Given the limitations, we suggest that the conclusions need to be confirmed on a larger scale with more detailed instructions in future studies.Systematic Review Registration: inplasy.com/inplasy-2021-8-0107/, identifier: INPLASY20218010.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 149: 112802, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729559

ABSTRACT

At the time of writing, more than 440 million confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and more than 5.97 million COVID-19 deaths worldwide have been reported by the World Health Organization since the start of the outbreak of the pandemic in Wuhan, China. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many variants of SARS-CoV-2 have arisen because of high mutation rates. N501Y, E484K, K417N, K417T, L452R and T478K in the receptor binding domain (RBD) region may increase the infectivity in several variants of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we discovered that GB-1, developed from Chiehyuan herbal formula which obtained from Tian Shang Sheng Mu of Chiayi Puzi Peitian Temple, can inhibit the binding between ACE2 and RBD with Wuhan type, K417N-E484K-N501Y and L452R-T478K mutation. In addition, GB-1 inhibited the binding between ACE2 and RBD with a single mutation (E484K or N501Y), except the K417N mutation. In the compositions of GB-1, glycyrrhizic acid can inhibit the binding between ACE2 and RBD with Wuhan type, except K417N-E484K-N501Y mutation. Our results suggest that GB-1 could be a potential candidate for the prophylaxis of different variants of SARS-CoV-2 infection because of its inhibition of binding between ACE2 and RBD with different mutations (L452R-T478K, K417N-E484K-N501Y, N501Y or E484K).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Pandemics , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 30-32, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719334

ABSTRACT

This study hypothesized that national population health literacy might reflect on their keywords searching. We applied Google searches for "wash hands" and "face mask" during January 19 to February 18 as a surrogate of national population health literacy among 21 countries, and examine whether google searches for "wash hands" and "face masks" would protect from increased numbers of confirmed cases of among 21 countries We found the increased google searches for "wash hands" from January 19 to February 18, 2020, correlated with a lower spreading speed of COVID-19 from February 19 to March 10, 2020 among 21 countries (Pearson's correlation coefficient of -0.70, P < 0.001). The result highlights the importance of public awareness of hand washing in preventing COVID-19 disease spreading.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Information Seeking Behavior , Internet , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Search Engine , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Environ Res ; 211: 112984, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712595

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown policy reduced anthropogenic emissions and impacted the atmospheric chemical characteristics in Chinese urban cities. However, rare studies were conducted at the high mountain site. In this work, in-situ measurements of light absorption by carbonaceous aerosols and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were conducted at Waliguan (WLG) over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China from January 3 to March 30, 2020. The data was employed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on atmospheric chemistry in the background-free troposphere. During the sampling period, the light absorption near-infrared (>470 nm) was mainly contributed by BC (>72%), however, BC and brown carbon (BrC) contributed equally to light absorption in the short wavelength (∼350 nm). The average BC concentrations in the pre-, during and post-lockdown were 0.28 ±â€¯0.25, 0.18 ±â€¯0.16, and 0.28 ±â€¯0.20 µg m-3, respectively, which decreased by approximately 35% during the lockdown period. Meanwhile, CO2 also showed slight decreases during the lockdown period. The declined BC was profoundly attributed to the reduced emissions (∼86%), especially for the combustion of fossil fuels. Moreover, the declined light absorption of BC, primary and secondary BrC decreased the solar energy absorbance by 35, 15, and 14%, respectively. The concentration weighted trajectories (CWT) analysis suggested that the decreased BC and CO2 at WLG were exclusively associated with the emission reduction in the eastern region of WLG. Our results highlighted that the reduced anthropogenic emissions attributed to the lockdown in the urban cities did impact the atmospheric chemistry in the free troposphere of the Tibetan Plateau.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Soot/analysis
20.
Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1710780

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases are an ever-present threat to public health, and COVID-19 is the most recent example. There is an urgent need to develop a robust framework to combat the disease with safe and effective therapeutic options. Compared to de novo drug discovery, drug repurposing may offer a lower-cost and faster drug discovery paradigm to explore potential treatment options of existing drugs. This chapter elucidates the advantages of artificial intelligence (AI) in enhancing the drug repurposing process from a data science perspective, using COVID-19 as an example. First, we elaborate on how AI-powered drug repurposing benefits from the accumulated data and knowledge of COVID-19 natural history and pathogenesis. Second, we summarize the pros and cons of AI-powered drug repurposing strategies to facilitate fit-for-purpose selection. Finally, we outline challenges of AI-powered drug repurposing from a regulatory perspective and suggest some potential solutions. Key points • AI-powered drug purposing is promising for emerging treatments for COVID-19 infection.• Accumulated biological data profiles facilitate AI-based drug repurposing efforts for development of COVID-19 therapies.• The ‘fit-for-purpose selection of AI-powered drug repurposing strategies is key to uncovering hidden information among drugs, targets, and diseases.• Efforts from different stakeholders boost the adoption of AI-powered drug repurposing in the regulatory setting.

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