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1.
Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group) ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2151091

ABSTRACT

Aerosols can transmit infectious diseases including SARS-CoV-2, influenza and norovirus. Flushed toilets emit aerosols that spread pathogens contained in feces, but little is known about the spatiotemporal evolution of these plumes or the velocity fields that transport them. Using laser light to illuminate ejected aerosols we quantify the kinematics of plumes emanating from a commercial flushometer-type toilet, and use the motion of aerosol particles to compute velocity fields of the associated flow. The toilet flush produces a strong chaotic jet with velocities exceeding 2 m/s;this jet transports aerosols to heights reaching 1.5 m within 8 seconds of initiating a flush. Quantifying toilet plumes and associated flow velocities provides a foundation for future design strategies to mitigate plume formation or to disinfect pathogens within it.

2.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038178

ABSTRACT

Germicidal ultraviolet (UV) devices have been widely used for pathogen disinfection in water, air, and on food and surfaces. Emerging UV technologies, like the krypton chloride (KrCl*) excimer emitting at 222 nm, are rapidly gaining popularity due to their minimal adverse effects on skin and eyes compared with conventional UV lamps emitting at 254 nm, opening opportunities for UV disinfection in occupied public spaces. In this study, inactivation of seven bacteria and five viruses, including waterborne, foodborne and respiratory pathogens, was determined in a thin-film aqueous solution using a filtered KrCl* excimer emitting primarily at 222 nm. Our results show that the KrCl* excimer can effectively inactivate all tested bacteria and viruses, with most microorganisms achieving more than 4-log (99.99%) reduction with a UV dose of 10 mJ cm-2 . Compared with conventional UV lamps, the KrCl* excimer lamp exhibited better disinfection performance for viruses but was slightly less effective for bacteria. The relationships between UV sensitivities at 222 and 254 nm for bacteria and viruses were evaluated using regression analysis, resulting in factors that could be used to estimate the KrCl* excimer disinfection performance from well-documented UV kinetics using conventional 254 nm UV lamps. This study provides fundamental information for pathogen disinfection when employing KrCl* excimers.

3.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(9): 524-537, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931709

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 and its corresponding public health burden has prompted industries to rapidly implement traditional and novel control strategies to mitigate the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, generating a surge of interest and application of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) sources as disinfection systems. With this increased attention the need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these types of devices is paramount. A field study of the early implementation of UVGI devices was conducted at the Space Needle located in Seattle, Washington. Six devices were evaluated, including four low-pressure (LP) mercury-vapor lamp devices for air and surface sanitation not designed for human exposure and two krypton chloride (KrCl*) excimer lamp devices to be operated on and around humans. Emission spectra and ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at different locations from the UV devices were measured and germicidal effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 was estimated. The human safety of KrCl* excimer devices was also evaluated based on measured irradiance and estimated exposure durations. Our results show all LP devices emitted UV radiation primarily at 254 nm as expected. Both KrCl* excimers emitted far UVC irradiation at 222 nm as advertised but also emitted at longer, more hazardous wavelengths (228 to 262 nm). All LP devices emitted strong UVC irradiance, which was estimated to achieve three log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 sec of exposure at reasonable working distances. KrCl* excimers, however, emitted much lower irradiance than needed for effective disinfection of SARS-CoV-2 (>90% inactivation) within the typical exposure times. UV fluence from KrCl* excimer devices for employees was below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) under the reported device usage and work shifts. However, photosensitive individuals, human susceptibility, or exposure to multiple UV sources throughout a worker's day, were not accounted for in this study. Caution should be used when determining the acceptability of UV exposure to workers in this occupational setting and future work should focus on UVGI sources in public settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Public Health , Ultraviolet Rays
4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(22): e0153221, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494943

ABSTRACT

Effective disinfection technology to combat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can help reduce viral transmission during the ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic and in the future. UV devices emitting UVC irradiation (200 to 280 nm) have proven to be effective for virus disinfection, but limited information is available for SARS-CoV-2 due to the safety requirements of testing, which is limited to biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratories. In this study, inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in thin-film buffered aqueous solution (pH 7.4) was determined across UVC irradiation wavelengths of 222 to 282 nm from krypton chloride (KrCl*) excimers, a low-pressure mercury-vapor lamp, and two UVC light-emitting diodes. Our results show that all tested UVC devices can effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2, among which the KrCl* excimer had the best disinfection performance (i.e., highest inactivation rate). The inactivation rate constants of SARS-CoV-2 across wavelengths are similar to those for murine hepatitis virus (MHV) from our previous investigation, suggesting that MHV can serve as a reliable surrogate of SARS-CoV-2 with a lower BSL requirement (BSL2) during UV disinfection tests. This study provides fundamental information on UVC's action on SARS-CoV-2 and guidance for achieving reliable disinfection performance with UVC devices. IMPORTANCE UV light is an effective tool to help stem the spread of respiratory viruses and protect public health in commercial, public, transportation, and health care settings. For effective use of UV, there is a need to determine the efficiency of different UV wavelengths in killing pathogens, specifically SARS-CoV-2, to support efforts to control the ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic and future coronavirus-caused respiratory virus pandemics. We found that SARS-CoV-2 can be inactivated effectively using a broad range of UVC wavelengths, and 222 nm provided the best disinfection performance. Interestingly, 222-nm irradiation has been found to be safe for human exposure up to thresholds that are beyond those effective for inactivating viruses. Therefore, applying UV light from KrCl* excimers in public spaces can effectively help reduce viral aerosol or surface-based transmissions.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Animals , Bacteriophage phi 6/radiation effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Disinfection/instrumentation , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays
5.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; : acs.estlett.1c00178-acs.estlett.1c00178, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1156811
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