Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
J Virol ; 96(8): e0194621, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861580

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that remains one of the main contributors to chronic liver disease worldwide. Studies over the last 30 years have demonstrated that HCV contains a highly structured RNA genome and many of these structures play essential roles in the HCV life cycle. Despite the importance of riboregulation in this virus, most of the HCV RNA genome remains functionally unstudied. Here, we report a complete secondary structure map of the HCV RNA genome in vivo, which was studied in parallel with the secondary structure of the same RNA obtained in vitro. Our results show that HCV is folded extensively in the cellular context. By performing comprehensive structural analyses on both in vivo data and in vitro data, we identify compact and conserved secondary and tertiary structures throughout the genome. Genetic and evolutionary functional analyses demonstrate that many of these elements play important roles in the virus life cycle. In addition to providing a comprehensive map of RNA structures and riboregulatory elements in HCV, this work provides a resource for future studies aimed at identifying therapeutic targets and conducting further mechanistic studies on this important human pathogen. IMPORTANCE HCV has one of the most highly structured RNA genomes studied to date, and it is a valuable model system for studying the role of RNA structure in protein-coding genes. While previous studies have identified individual cases of regulatory RNA structures within the HCV genome, the full-length structure of the HCV genome has not been determined in vivo. Here, we present the complete secondary structure map of HCV determined both in cells and from corresponding transcripts generated in vitro. In addition to providing a comprehensive atlas of functional secondary structural elements throughout the genomic RNA, we identified a novel set of tertiary interactions and demonstrated their functional importance. In terms of broader implications, the pipeline developed in this study can be applied to other long RNAs, such as long noncoding RNAs. In addition, the RNA structural motifs characterized in this study broaden the repertoire of known riboregulatory elements.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral , Hepacivirus , RNA, Viral , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , RNA, Untranslated/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics
2.
Adv Virus Res ; 112: 1-29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763516

ABSTRACT

Reverse genetics is the prospective analysis of how genotype determines phenotype. In a typical experiment, a researcher alters a viral genome, then observes the phenotypic outcome. Among RNA viruses, this approach was first applied to positive-strand RNA viruses in the mid-1970s and over nearly 50 years has become a powerful and widely used approach for dissecting the mechanisms of viral replication and pathogenesis. During this time the global health importance of two virus groups, flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) and betacoronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, family Coronaviridae), have dramatically increased, yet these viruses have genomes that are technically challenging to manipulate. As a result, several new techniques have been developed to overcome these challenges. Here I briefly review key historical aspects of positive-strand RNA virus reverse genetics, describe some recent reverse genetic innovations, particularly as applied to flaviviruses and coronaviruses, and discuss their benefits and limitations within the larger context of rigorous genetic analysis.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus , RNA Viruses , Flavivirus/genetics , Genome, Viral , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses , RNA Viruses/genetics , Reverse Genetics/methods , Virus Replication/genetics
3.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 12(8): 1325-1332, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345534

ABSTRACT

Non-covalent inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 having a pyridinone core were previously reported with IC50 values as low as 0.018 µM for inhibition of enzymatic activity and EC50 values as low as 0.8 µM for inhibition of viral replication in Vero E6 cells. The series has now been further advanced by consideration of placement of substituted five-membered-ring heterocycles in the S4 pocket of Mpro and N-methylation of a uracil ring. Free energy perturbation calculations provided guidance on the choice of the heterocycles, and protein crystallography confirmed the desired S4 placement. Here we report inhibitors with EC50 values as low as 0.080 µM, while remdesivir yields values of 0.5-2 µM in side-by-side testing with infectious SARS-CoV-2. A key factor in the improvement is enhanced cell permeability, as reflected in PAMPA measurements. Compounds 19 and 21 are particularly promising as potential therapies for COVID-19, featuring IC50 values of 0.044-0.061 µM, EC50 values of ca. 0.1 µM, good aqueous solubility, and no cytotoxicity.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(26)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284758

ABSTRACT

Translation of open reading frame 1b (ORF1b) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift (-1 PRF) promoted by an RNA pseudoknot. The extent to which SARS-CoV-2 replication may be sensitive to changes in -1 PRF efficiency is currently unknown. Through an unbiased, reporter-based high-throughput compound screen, we identified merafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial, as a -1 PRF inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2. Frameshift inhibition by merafloxacin is robust to mutations within the pseudoknot region and is similarly effective on -1 PRF of other betacoronaviruses. Consistent with the essential role of -1 PRF in viral gene expression, merafloxacin impedes SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells, thereby providing proof-of-principle for targeting -1 PRF as a plausible and effective antiviral strategy for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Chlorocebus aethiops , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/genetics , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells
5.
Cell ; 184(1): 76-91.e13, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064906

ABSTRACT

Identification of host genes essential for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may reveal novel therapeutic targets and inform our understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Here we performed genome-wide CRISPR screens in Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), bat CoV HKU5 expressing the SARS-CoV-1 spike, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike. We identified known SARS-CoV-2 host factors, including the receptor ACE2 and protease Cathepsin L. We additionally discovered pro-viral genes and pathways, including HMGB1 and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, that are SARS lineage and pan-coronavirus specific, respectively. We show that HMGB1 regulates ACE2 expression and is critical for entry of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and NL63. We also show that small-molecule antagonists of identified gene products inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in monkey and human cells, demonstrating the conserved role of these genetic hits across species. This identifies potential therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and reveals SARS lineage-specific and pan-CoV host factors that regulate susceptibility to highly pathogenic CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Gene Regulatory Networks , HEK293 Cells , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization
6.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900769

ABSTRACT

Translation of open reading frame 1b (ORF1b) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) promoted by an RNA pseudoknot. The extent to which SARS-CoV-2 replication may be sensitive to changes in -1 PRF efficiency is currently unknown. Through an unbiased, reporter-based high-throughput compound screen, we identified merafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial, as a -1 PRF inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2. Frameshift inhibition by merafloxacin is robust to mutations within the pseudoknot region and is similarly effective on -1 PRF of other beta coronaviruses. Importantly, frameshift inhibition by merafloxacin substantially impedes SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells, thereby providing the proof of principle of targeting -1 PRF as an effective antiviral strategy for SARS-CoV-2.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL