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1.
Crit Care Med ; 50(8): 1198-1209, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of health information technology (HIT) for early detection of patient deterioration on patient mortality and length of stay (LOS) in acute care hospital settings. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Daily, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from 1990 to January 19, 2021. STUDY SELECTION: We included studies that enrolled patients hospitalized on the floor, in the ICU, or admitted through the emergency department. Eligible studies compared HIT for early detection of patient deterioration with usual care and reported at least one end point of interest: hospital or ICU LOS or mortality at any time point. DATA EXTRACTION: Study data were abstracted by two independent reviewers using a standardized data extraction form. DATA SYNTHESIS: Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool data. Among the 30 eligible studies, seven were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 23 were pre-post studies. Compared with usual care, HIT for early detection of patient deterioration was not associated with a reduction in hospital mortality or LOS in the meta-analyses of RCTs. In the meta-analyses of pre-post studies, HIT interventions demonstrated a significant association with improved hospital mortality for the entire study cohort (odds ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.70-0.87]) and reduced hospital LOS overall. CONCLUSIONS: HIT for early detection of patient deterioration in acute care settings was not significantly associated with improved mortality or LOS in the meta-analyses of RCTs. In the meta-analyses of pre-post studies, HIT was associated with improved hospital mortality and LOS; however, these results should be interpreted with caution. The differences in patient outcomes between the findings of the RCTs and pre-post studies may be secondary to confounding caused by unmeasured improvements in practice and workflow over time.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Medical Informatics , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay
2.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(10): 1105-1109, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434038

ABSTRACT

Delirium is reported to be one of the manifestations of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. COVID-19 hospitalized patients are at a higher risk of delirium. Pathophysiology behind the association of delirium and COVID-19 is uncertain. We analyzed the association of delirium occurrence with outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, across all age groups, at Mayo Clinic hospitals.A retrospective study of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients at Mayo Clinic between March 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 was performed. Occurrence of delirium and outcomes of mortality, length of stay, readmission, and 30-day mortality after hospital discharge were measured. Chi-square test, student t-test, survival analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed to measure and compare outcomes of delirium group adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, and COVID-19 severity with no-delirium group.A total of 4351 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Delirium occurrence in the overall study population was noted to be 22.4%. The highest occurrence of delirium was also noted in patients with critical COVID-19 illness severity. A statistically significant OR 4.35 (3.27-5.83) for in-hospital mortality and an OR 4.54 (3.25-6.38) for 30-day mortality after discharge in the delirium group were noted. Increased hospital length of stay, 30-day readmission, and need for skilled nursing facility on discharge were noted in the delirium group. Delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is a marker for increased mortality and morbidity. In this group, outcomes appear to be much worse when patients are older and have a critical severity of COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Delirium/complications , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
J Surg Res ; 260: 38-45, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urgent guidance is needed on the safety for providers of percutaneous tracheostomy in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) with a period of apnea in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 is safe and can be performed for the usual indications in the intensive care unit. METHODS: This study involves an observational case series at a single-center medical intensive care unit at a level-1 trauma center in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were assessed for tracheostomy. Success of a modified technique included direct visualization of tracheal access by bronchoscopy and a blind dilation and tracheostomy insertion during a period of patient apnea to reduce aerosolization. Secondary outcomes include transmission rate of COVID-19 to providers and patient complications. RESULTS: From April 6th, 2020 to July 21st, 2020, 2030 patients were admitted to the hospital with COVID-19, 615 required intensive care unit care (30.3%), and 254 patients required mechanical ventilation (12.5%). The mortality rate for patients requiring mechanical ventilation was 29%. Eighteen patients were assessed for PDT, and 11 (61%) underwent the procedure. The majority had failed extubation at least once (72.7%), and the median duration of intubation before tracheostomy was 15 d (interquartile range 13-24). The median positive end-expiratory pressure at time of tracheostomy was 10.8. The median partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio on the day of tracheostomy was 142.8 (interquartile range 104.5-224.4). Two patients had bleeding complications. At 1-week follow-up, eight patients still required ventilator support (73%). At the most recent follow-up, eight patients (73%) have been liberated from the ventilator, one patient (9%) died as a result of respiratory/multiorgan failure, and two were discharged on the ventilator (18%). Average follow-up was 20 d. None of the surgeons performing PDT have symptoms of or have tested positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: and relevance: PDT for patients with COVID-19 is safe for health care workers and patients despite higher positive end-expiratory pressure requirements and should be performed for the same indications as other causes of respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/standards , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/instrumentation , Tracheostomy/methods , Tracheostomy/standards , Treatment Outcome
4.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(12): e0290, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine delirium occurrence rate, duration, and severity in patients admitted to the ICU with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Retrospective data extraction study from March 1, 2020, to June 7, 2020. Delirium outcomes were assessed for up to the first 14 days in ICU. SETTING: Two large, academic centers serving the state of Indiana. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test from March 1, 2020, to June 7, 2020, were included. Individuals younger than 18 years of age, without any delirium assessments, or without discharge disposition were excluded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcomes were delirium rates and duration, and the secondary outcome was delirium severity. Two-hundred sixty-eight consecutive patients were included in the analysis with a mean age of 58.4 years (sd, 15.6 yr), 40.3% were female, 44.4% African American, 20.7% Hispanic, and a median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 18 (interquartile range, 13-25). Delirium without coma occurred in 29.1% of patients, delirium prior to coma in 27.9%, and delirium after coma in 23.1%. The first Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU assessment was positive for delirium in 61.9%. Hypoactive delirium was the most common subtype (87.4%). By day 14, the median number of delirium/coma-free were 5 days (interquartile range, 4-11 d), and median Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU-7 score was 6.5 (interquartile range, 5-7) indicating severe delirium. Benzodiazepines were ordered for 78.4% of patients in the cohort. Mechanical ventilation was associated with greater odds of developing delirium (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.1-22.2; p = 0.033) even after adjusting for sedative medications. There were no between-group differences in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium without coma occurred in 29.1% of patients admitted to the ICU. Delirium persisted for a median of 5 days and was severe. Mechanical ventilation was significantly associated with odds of delirium even after adjustment for sedatives. Clinical attention to manage delirium duration and severity, and deeper understanding of the virus' neurologic effects is needed for patients with coronavirus disease 2019.

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