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Cell Rep ; 37(4): 109892, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458753


The main viral protease (3CLpro) is indispensable for SARS-CoV-2 replication. We delineate the human protein substrate landscape of 3CLpro by TAILS substrate-targeted N-terminomics. We identify more than 100 substrates in human lung and kidney cells supported by analyses of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Enzyme kinetics and molecular docking simulations of 3CLpro engaging substrates reveal how noncanonical cleavage sites, which diverge from SARS-CoV, guide substrate specificity. Cleaving the interactors of essential effector proteins, effectively stranding them from their binding partners, amplifies the consequences of proteolysis. We show that 3CLpro targets the Hippo pathway, including inactivation of MAP4K5, and key effectors of transcription, mRNA processing, and translation. We demonstrate that Spike glycoprotein directly binds galectin-8, with galectin-8 cleavage disengaging CALCOCO2/NDP52 to decouple antiviral-autophagy. Indeed, in post-mortem COVID-19 lung samples, NDP52 rarely colocalizes with galectin-8, unlike in healthy lungs. The 3CLpro substrate degradome establishes a foundational substrate atlas to accelerate exploration of SARS-CoV-2 pathology and drug design.

COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Humans , Substrate Specificity
J Proteome Res ; 19(12): 4735-4746, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065786


According to the 2020 Metrics of the HUPO Human Proteome Project (HPP), expression has now been detected at the protein level for >90% of the 19 773 predicted proteins coded in the human genome. The HPP annually reports on progress made throughout the world toward credibly identifying and characterizing the complete human protein parts list and promoting proteomics as an integral part of multiomics studies in medicine and the life sciences. NeXtProt release 2020-01 classified 17 874 proteins as PE1, having strong protein-level evidence, up 180 from 17 694 one year earlier. These represent 90.4% of the 19 773 predicted coding genes (all PE1,2,3,4 proteins in neXtProt). Conversely, the number of neXtProt PE2,3,4 proteins, termed the "missing proteins" (MPs), was reduced by 230 from 2129 to 1899 since the neXtProt 2019-01 release. PeptideAtlas is the primary source of uniform reanalysis of raw mass spectrometry data for neXtProt, supplemented this year with extensive data from MassIVE. PeptideAtlas 2020-01 added 362 canonical proteins between 2019 and 2020 and MassIVE contributed 84 more, many of which converted PE1 entries based on non-MS evidence to the MS-based subgroup. The 19 Biology and Disease-driven B/D-HPP teams continue to pursue the identification of driver proteins that underlie disease states, the characterization of regulatory mechanisms controlling the functions of these proteins, their proteoforms, and their interactions, and the progression of transitions from correlation to coexpression to causal networks after system perturbations. And the Human Protein Atlas published Blood, Brain, and Metabolic Atlases.

Proteome , Proteomics , Databases, Protein , Genome, Human , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Proteome/genetics
Mol Syst Biol ; 16(7): e9610, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680519


The novel SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a global challenge on healthcare and society. For understanding the susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cell type-specific expression of the host cell surface receptor is necessary. The key protein suggested to be involved in host cell entry is angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we report the expression pattern of ACE2 across > 150 different cell types corresponding to all major human tissues and organs based on stringent immunohistochemical analysis. The results were compared with several datasets both on the mRNA and protein level. ACE2 expression was mainly observed in enterocytes, renal tubules, gallbladder, cardiomyocytes, male reproductive cells, placental trophoblasts, ductal cells, eye, and vasculature. In the respiratory system, the expression was limited, with no or only low expression in a subset of cells in a few individuals, observed by one antibody only. Our data constitute an important resource for further studies on SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry, in order to understand the biology of the disease and to aid in the development of effective treatments to the viral infection.

Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , Blood Vessels/metabolism , Conjunctiva/metabolism , Enterocytes/metabolism , Female , Gallbladder/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Organ Specificity , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Testis/metabolism