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1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e171, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133093

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) asymptomatic cases are hard to identify, impeding transmissibility estimation. The value of COVID-19 transmissibility is worth further elucidation for key assumptions in further modelling studies. Through a population-based surveillance network, we collected data on 1342 confirmed cases with a 90-days follow-up for all asymptomatic cases. An age-stratified compartmental model containing contact information was built to estimate the transmissibility of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. The difference in transmissibility of a symptomatic and asymptomatic case depended on age and was most distinct for the middle-age groups. The asymptomatic cases had a 66.7% lower transmissibility rate than symptomatic cases, and 74.1% (95% CI 65.9-80.7) of all asymptomatic cases were missed in detection. The average proportion of asymptomatic cases was 28.2% (95% CI 23.0-34.6). Simulation demonstrated that the burden of asymptomatic transmission increased as the epidemic continued and could potentially dominate total transmission. The transmissibility of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases is high and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases play a significant role in outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Middle Aged , Computer Simulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections
2.
Methods Inf Med ; 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) was discovered in December 2019, it has spread worldwide. Early isolation and medical observation management of cases and their close contacts are the key to controlling the spread of the epidemic. However, traditional medical observation requires medical staff to measure body temperature and other vital signs face to face and record them manually. There is a general shortage of human and personal protective equipment and a high risk of occupational exposure, which seriously threaten the safety of medical staff. METHODS: We designed an intelligent crowd isolation medical observation management system framework based on the Internet of Things using wireless telemetry and big data cloud platform remote management technology. Through a smart wearable device with built-in sensors, vital sign data and geographical locations of medical observation subjects are collected and automatically uploaded to the big data monitoring platform on demand. According to the comprehensive analysis of the set threshold parameters, abnormal subjects are screened out, and activity tracking and health status monitoring for medical observation and management objectives are performed through monitoring and early warning management and post-event data traceability. In the trial of this system, the subjects wore the wristwatches designed in this study and real-time monitoring was conducted throughout the whole process. Additionally, for comparison, the traditional method was also used for these people. Medical staff came to measure their temperature twice a day. The subjects were 1,128 returned overseas Chinese from Europe. RESULTS: Compared with the traditional vital sign detection method, the system designed in this study has the advantages of a fast response, low error, stability, and good endurance. It can monitor the temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and heart rate of the monitored subject in real time. The system designed in this study and the traditional vital sign detection method were both used to monitor 1,128 close contacts with COVID-19. There were six cases of abnormal body temperature that were missed by traditional manual temperature measurement in the morning and evening, and these six cases (0.53%) were sent to the hospital for further diagnosis. The abnormal body temperature of these six cases was not found in time when the medical staff came to check the temperature on a twice-a-day basis. The system designed in this study, however, can detect the abnormal body temperature of all these six people. The sensitivity and specificity of our system were both 100%. CONCLUSION: The system designed in this study can monitor the body temperature, blood oxygen, blood pressure, heart rate, and geographical location of the monitoring subject in real time. It can be extended to COVID-19 medical observation isolation points, shelter hospitals, infectious disease wards, and nursing homes.

3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(8): 839-845, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010475

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought great challenges to the traditional medical model. During the outbreak of COVID-19 in Shanghai, China, from March to May, 2022, there was a significant increase in the number of pediatric cases due to high transmissibility, immune escape, and vaccine breakthrough capacity of Omicron variants. The designated hospitals for children with COVID-19 served as a connecting link between children's specialized hospitals and mobile cabin hospitals. From April 7 to June 2, 2022, a total of 871 children with COVID-19 were admitted to Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (South Branch), a designated hospital for children with COVID-19. Among these patients, 568 (65.2%) were children under 3 years old, 870 (99.9%) were mild or moderate, and 1 was severe. This article reports the experience in the management of pediatric cases in this designated hospital, which included the following aspects: establishing an optimal case-admission process; strengthening multidisciplinary standardized diagnosis and treatment; optimizing the management, warning, and rescue system for severe COVID-19; implementing family-centered nursing care; formulating an individualized traditional Chinese medicine treatment regimen; optimizing the discharge process and strengthening bed turnover; implementing strict whole-process control to reduce the risk of nosocomial infection; constructing a structured medical record system and using information platforms to adapt to the work mode of large-volume cases; conducting scientific research and sharing the experience in diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 296, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted great public health efforts across the world. Few studies, however, have described the potential impact of these measures on other important infectious diseases. METHODS: The incidence of 19 major infectious diseases in Zhejiang Province was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System from January 2017 to October 2020. The entire epidemic control phase was divided into three stages. The government deployed the first level response from 24 January to 2 March (the most rigorous measures). When the outbreak of COVID-19 was under control, the response level changed to the second level from 3 to 23 March, and then the third level response was implemented after 24 March. We compared the epidemiological characteristics of 19 major infectious diseases during different periods of the COVID-19 epidemic and previous years. RESULTS: A total of 1,814,881 cases of 19 infectious diseases were reported in Zhejiang from January 2017 to October 2020, resulting in an incidence rate of 8088.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. After the non-pharmaceutical intervention, the incidence of 19 infectious diseases dropped by 70.84%, from 9436.32 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 2751.51 cases per 1,000,000 person-years, with the large decrease in the first response period of influenza. However, we observed that the daily incidence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and leptospirosis increased slightly (from 1.11 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.82 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for SFTS and 0.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.24 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for leptospirosis). There was no significant difference in the distribution of epidemiological characteristic of most infectious diseases before and during the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. CONCLUSION: Our study summarizes the epidemiological characteristics of 19 infectious diseases and indicates that the rigorous control measures for COVID-19 are also effective for majority of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence
5.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(10):981-984, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1726088

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in October 2021.

6.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(10): 1343-1350, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368408

ABSTRACT

Importance: Much remains unknown about the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. How the severity of the index case and timing of exposure is associated with disease in close contacts of index patients with COVID-19 and clinical presentation in those developing disease is not well elucidated. Objectives: To investigate the association between the timing of exposure and development of disease among close contacts of index patients with COVID-19 and to evaluate whether the severity of the index case is associated with clinical presentation in close contacts who develop COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used a large, population-based cohort of 730 individuals (index patients) who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 8 to July 30, 2020, along with a contact tracing surveillance program. Field workers visited 8852 close contacts of the index patients and evaluated them for COVID-19 through August 2020. A timeline was constructed to characterize different exposure periods between index patients and their contacts. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the attack rate of COVID-19, defined as the total number of new COVID-19 cases diagnosed among contacts of index patients divided by the total number of exposed contacts. A secondary outcome was asymptomatic clinical presentation among infected contacts. Relative risks were calculated to investigate risk factors for COVID-19 among contacts and asymptomatic clinical presentation among infected contacts. Results: Among 8852 close contacts (4679 male contacts [52.9%]; median age, 41 years [interquartile range, 28-54 years]) of 730 index patients (374 male patients [51.2%]; median age, 46 years [interquartile range, 36-56 years]), contacts were at highest risk of COVID-19 if they were exposed between 2 days before and 3 days after the index patient's symptom onset, peaking at day 0 (adjusted relative risk [ARR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5). Compared with being exposed to an asymptomatic index patient, the risk of COVID-19 among contacts was higher when they were exposed to index patients with mild (ARR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.8-9.1) and moderate (ARR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.9-9.7) cases of COVID-19. As index case severity increased, infected contacts were less likely to be asymptomatic (exposed to patient with mild COVID-19: ARR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; exposed to patient with moderate COVID-19: ARR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that individuals with COVID-19 were most infectious a few days before and after symptom onset. Infected contacts of asymptomatic index patients were less likely to present with COVID-19 symptoms, suggesting that quantity of exposure may be associated with clinical presentation in close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
Epidemics ; 36: 100483, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306958

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most countries are dependent on nonpharmaceutical public health interventions such as social distancing, contact tracing, and case isolation to mitigate COVID-19 spread until medicines or vaccines widely available. Minimal research has been performed on the independent and combined impact of each of these interventions based on empirical case data. METHODS: We obtained data from all confirmed COVID-19 cases from January 7th to February 22nd 2020 in Zhejiang Province, China, to fit an age-stratified compartmental model using human contact information before and during the outbreak. The effectiveness of social distancing, contact tracing, and case isolation was studied and compared in simulation. We also simulated a two-phase reopening scenario to assess whether various strategies combining nonpharmaceutical interventions are likely to achieve population-level control of a second-wave epidemic. RESULTS: Our study sample included 1,218 symptomatic cases with COVID-19, of which 664 had no inter-province travel history. Results suggest that 36.5 % (95 % CI, 12.8-57.1) of contacts were quarantined, and approximately five days (95 % CI, 2.2-11.0) were needed to detect and isolate a case. As contact networks would increase after societal and economic reopening, avoiding a second wave without strengthening nonpharmaceutical interventions compared to the first wave it would be exceedingly difficult. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous attention and further improvement of nonpharmaceutical interventions are needed in second-wave prevention. Specifically, contact tracing merits further attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Contact Tracing , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11317, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249213

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan, Zhejiang has become the province with the largest number of cases. The aim of this article is to present Zhejiang province's experience of establishing an accurate and smart control mechanism for epidemic prevention and control and resumption of work and production using a 'five-colour epidemic chart'. The number of confirmed cases, proportion of local cases, and occurrence of clustered outbreaks were used as evaluation indicators to calculate the county-level epidemic risk and were assigned different weight coefficients; the absence of cases for 3 and 7 consecutive days was used as the adjustment index. When the first chart was published on February 9, there were 1 very-high-risk, 12 high-risk, and 12 low-risk counties. Under the five-colour chart, Zhejiang began to adopt precise measures to prevent and control the epidemic and resume work and production. By February 24, the low-risk counties had expanded to 82, with no high-risk and very-high-risk counties. The epidemic situation in Zhejiang province has been effectively controlled. The experience of epidemic prevention and control in Zhejiang is worthy to be emulated and learned by other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Color , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemics , Humans , Quarantine , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data
9.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-543375.v1

ABSTRACT

Background To date, whether the immune response for SARS-CoV-2 infection among people living with HIV(PLWH) is different from HIV-naïve individuals is still not clear.Methods In this cohort study, COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital in Wuhan between January 15 and April 1, 2020, were enrolled. Patients were categorized into PLWH and HIV-naïve group. All patients were followed up regularly (every fifteen days) until November 30, 2020, and the immune response towards SARS-CoV-2 was observed.Results Totally, 18 PLWH and 185 HIV-naïve individuals with COVID-19 were enrolled. The positive conversion rates of IgG were 56% in PLWH and 88% in HIV-naïve patients respectively, and the peak was on the 45th day after COVID-19 onset. However, the positive rate of IgG dropped to 12% in PLWH and 33% among HIV-naïve individuals by the end of the study. The positive conversion rate of IgG among asymptomatic carriers is significantly lower than that among moderate patients (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.05–0.65) and PLWH had a lower IgG seroconversion rate compared to the HIV-naive group (AOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05–0.90). Patients with lower lymphocyte counts at onset had a higher positive conversion rate (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09–0.90) and longer duration for IgG (AHR = 4.01, 95% CI: 1.78–9.02).Conclusions The positive conversion rate of IgG for SARS-CoV-2 was relatively lower and quickly lost in PLWH, which meant PLWH was in a disadvantaged situation when affected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
10.
arxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2103.09390v1

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 infection cases have surged globally, causing devastations to both the society and economy. A key factor contributing to the sustained spreading is the presence of a large number of asymptomatic or hidden spreaders, who mix among the susceptible population without being detected or quarantined. Here we propose an effective non-pharmacological intervention method of detecting the asymptomatic spreaders in contact-tracing networks, and validated it on the empirical COVID-19 spreading network in Singapore. We find that using pure physical spreading equations, the hidden spreaders of COVID-19 can be identified with remarkable accuracy. Specifically, based on the unique characteristics of COVID-19 spreading dynamics, we propose a computational framework capturing the transition probabilities among different infectious states in a network, and extend it to an efficient algorithm to identify asymptotic individuals. Our simulation results indicate that a screening method using our prediction outperforms machine learning algorithms, e.g. graph neural networks, that are designed as baselines in this work, as well as random screening of infection's closest contacts widely used by China in its early outbreak. Furthermore, our method provides high precision even with incomplete information of the contract-tracing networks. Our work can be of critical importance to the non-pharmacological interventions of COVID-19, especially with increasing adoptions of contact tracing measures using various new technologies. Beyond COVID-19, our framework can be useful for other epidemic diseases that also feature asymptomatic spreading


Subject(s)
Encephalitis, Arbovirus , COVID-19
12.
PeerJ ; 8: e10350, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monitoring the reproduction number (Rt ) of the disease could help determine whether there is sustained transmission in a population, but areas with similar epidemic trends could have different transmission dynamics given the risk from imported cases varied across regions. In this study, we examined the Rt of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by taking different dynamics of imported cases into account and compared the transmissibility of COVID-19 at different intervention periods in Hangzhou and Shenzhen. METHODS: We obtained the daily aggregated counts of laboratory-confirmed imported and local cases of COVID-19 infections in Hangzhou and Shenzhen from January 1 to March 13, 2020. Daily Rt and piecewise Rt before and after Wuhan lockdown were estimated, accounting for imported cases. RESULTS: Since the epidemic of COVID-19 in Shenzhen was dominated by imported cases, Rt was around 0.1 to 0.7 before the Wuhan lockdown. After the lockdown of Wuhan and the initialization of measures in response to the outbreak, local transmission was well-controlled as indicated by a low estimated value of piecewise Rt , 0.15 (95% CI [0.09-0.21]). On the contrary, Rt obtained for Hangzhou ranged from 1.2 to 4.9 with a piecewise Rt of 2.55 (95% CI [2.13-2.97]) before the lockdown of Wuhan due to the surge in local cases. Because of the Wuhan lockdown and other outbreak response measures, Rt dropped below unity in mid-February. CONCLUSIONS: Even though Shenzhen had more cases than Hangzhou, local transmission did not sustain probably due to limited transmission from imported cases owing to the reduction in local susceptibles as residents left the city during Chunyun. The lockdown measures and local outbreak responses helped reduce the local transmissibility.

13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(12): 1665-1671, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738931

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence of whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be transmitted as an aerosol (ie, airborne) has substantial public health implications. Objective: To investigate potential transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infection with epidemiologic evidence from a COVID-19 outbreak. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a community COVID-19 outbreak in Zhejiang province. On January 19, 2020, 128 individuals took 2 buses (60 [46.9%] from bus 1 and 68 [53.1%] from bus 2) on a 100-minute round trip to attend a 150-minute worship event. The source patient was a passenger on bus 2. We compared risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among at-risk individuals taking bus 1 (n = 60) and bus 2 (n = 67 [source patient excluded]) and among all other individuals (n = 172) attending the worship event. We also divided seats on the exposed bus into high-risk and low-risk zones according to the distance from the source patient and compared COVID-19 risks in each zone. In both buses, central air conditioners were in indoor recirculation mode. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or by viral genome sequencing results. Attack rates for SARS-CoV-2 infection were calculated for different groups, and the spatial distribution of individuals who developed infection on bus 2 was obtained. Results: Of the 128 participants, 15 (11.7%) were men, 113 (88.3%) were women, and the mean age was 58.6 years. On bus 2, 24 of the 68 individuals (35.3% [including the index patient]) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 after the event. Meanwhile, none of the 60 individuals in bus 1 were infected. Among the other 172 individuals at the worship event, 7 (4.1%) subsequently received a COVID-19 diagnosis. Individuals in bus 2 had a 34.3% (95% CI, 24.1%-46.3%) higher risk of getting COVID-19 compared with those in bus 1 and were 11.4 (95% CI, 5.1-25.4) times more likely to have COVID-19 compared with all other individuals attending the worship event. Within bus 2, individuals in high-risk zones had moderately, but nonsignificantly, higher risk for COVID-19 compared with those in the low-risk zones. The absence of a significantly increased risk in the part of the bus closer to the index case suggested that airborne spread of the virus may at least partially explain the markedly high attack rate observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study and case investigation of a community outbreak of COVID-19 in Zhejiang province, individuals who rode a bus to a worship event with a patient with COVID-19 had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than individuals who rode another bus to the same event. Airborne spread of SARS-CoV-2 seems likely to have contributed to the high attack rate in the exposed bus. Future efforts at prevention and control must consider the potential for airborne spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Community-Acquired Infections , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/methods , Air Pollution , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-59060.v1

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been causing a global health emergency. Although previous studies investigated COVID-19 at different omics levels, the molecular hallmarks of COVID-19, especially in those patients without comorbidities, have not been fully investigated. Here, we presented a trans-omics landscape for COVID-19 based on integrative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and lipidomic profiles from blood samples of 231 COVID-19 patients, ranging from asymptomatic to critically ill, importantly excluding those with any comorbidities. Notably, we found neutrophils heterogeneity existed between asymptomatic and critically ill patients. Expression discordance of inflammatory cytokines at mRNA and protein levels in asymptomatic patients could possibly be explained by post-transcriptional regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs. Neutrophils over-activation, induced arginine depletion, and tryptophan metabolites accumulation contributed to T/NK cell dysfunction in critical patients. Anti-virus interferons were gradually suppressed along with disease severity. Overall, our study systematically revealed multi-omics characteristics of COVID-19, and the data we generated could hopefully help illuminate COVID-19 pathogenesis and provide valuable clues about potential therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness
16.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.17.20155150

ABSTRACT

System-wide molecular characteristics of COVID-19, especially in those patients without comorbidities, have not been fully investigated. We compared extensive molecular profiles of blood samples from 231 COVID-19 patients, ranging from asymptomatic to critically ill, importantly excluding those with any comorbidities. Amongst the major findings, asymptomatic patients were characterized by highly activated anti-virus interferon, T/natural killer (NK) cell activation, and transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory cytokine mRNAs. However, given very abundant RNA binding proteins (RBPs), these cytokine mRNAs could be effectively destabilized hence preserving normal cytokine levels. In contrast, in critically ill patients, cytokine storm due to RBPs inhibition and tryptophan metabolites accumulation contributed to T/NK cell dysfunction. A machine-learning model was constructed which accurately stratified the COVID-19 severities based on their multi-omics features. Overall, our analysis provides insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis and identifies targets for intervening in treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(6): ofaa231, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the pathogen causing novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), efficiently spreads from person to person in close contact settings. Transmission among casual contacts in settings such as during social gatherings is not well understood. METHODS: We report several transmission events to both close and casual contacts from a cluster of 7 COVID-19 cases occurring from mid-January to early February 2020. A total of 539 social and family contacts of the index patient's, including members of a 2-day wedding and a family party, were contacted and screened through epidemiologic surveys. The clinical progression of all cases is described. RESULTS: We estimate the secondary attack rate among close contacts to be 29% (2 of 7) and for the casual contacts to be 0.6% (3 of 473). The incubation period of our case cluster was 4-12 days (median, 7 days). CONCLUSIONS: Transmission efficiency among close contacts was higher than among casual contacts; however, transmission from second-generation cases may help spread the virus during the incubation period.

19.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.03.22.20041061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There is little information about the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) during pregnancy. This study aimed to determine the clinical features and the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with Covid-19. METHODS In this retrospective analysis from five hospitals, we included pregnant women with Covid-19 from January 1 to February 20, 2020. The primary composite endpoints were admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Secondary endpoints included the clinical severity of Covid-19, neonatal mortality, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and the incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of pregnant women and newborns. RESULTS Thirty-three pregnant women with Covid-19 and 28 newborns were identified. One (3%) pregnant woman needed the use of mechanical ventilation. No pregnant women admitted to the ICU. There were no moralities among pregnant women or newborns. The percentages of pregnant women with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms were 13 (39.4%),19(57.6%), and 1(3%). One (3.6%) newborn developed ARDS and was admitted to the NICU. The rate of perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was 3.6%. CONCLUSIONS This report suggests that pregnant women are not at increased risk for severe illness or mortality with Covid-19 compared with the general population. The SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy might not be associated with as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes that are seen with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection during pregnancy. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program.)


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness , Death
20.
preprints.org; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-202002.0373.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral respiratory disease and whether pregnant women are at increased risk of infection is unknown. Viral pneumonia is an important indirect cause of maternal death. Little is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and their newborn infant, and we sought to explored whether the SARS-CoV-2 can be intrauterine vertically transmitted. Study Design: The study was a case series study conducted in the obstetric ward of Tongji Hospital affiliated to Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, China. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological profiles of the SARS-CoV-2 infection case series. A systematic testing procedure for SARS-CoV-2 infection using oropharyngeal swab, placenta tissue, vaginal mucus, and breast milk of mothers. and oropharyngeal swab, umbilical cord blood, and serum of newborns was conducted. Results: We have conducted the most thorough virological assessment to date, and we include a longer clinical observation in mother-infant dyads during hospitalization. The clinical course and outcomes of three pregnant women who acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection late pregnancy are described in mother-infant dyads. Two had caesarean delivery in their third trimester. All patients showed an uneventful perinatal course, and a successful outcome. No infants became infected by vertical transmission or during delivery. Conclusion: No evidence to suggest the potential risk of intrauterine vertical transmission in the case series and further in-depth study is needed. Both the pregnancy woman and infant showed fewer adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Diseases , Death , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral
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