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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322457

ABSTRACT

Background: Arterial and venous thrombosis are reported to be common in critically ill COVID-19 patients.Method and Results: This is a national multicenter retrospective observational study involving all consecutive adult COVID-19 patients who required intensive care units (ICU) admission between 23 January 2020 and 30 April 2020 in Singapore. 111 patients were included and the venous and arterial thrombotic rates in ICU were 1.8% (n=2) and 9.9% (n=11), respectively. Major bleeding rate was 14.8% (n=16). Conclusions: Critically ill COVID-19 patients in Singapore have lower venous thromboembolism but higher arterial thrombosis rates and bleeding manifestations than other reported cohorts.

2.
eNeurologicalSci ; 25: 100373, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587851

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100275.].

4.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):37-38, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1338985

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveArterial and venous thrombosis are reported to be common in critically ill COVID-19 patients.This study aims to describe the thrombotic and bleeding rates in COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) in Singapore.DesignRetrospective observational study involving all consecutive adult COVID-19 patients who required ICU admission between 23 January 2020 and 30 April 2020.SettingNational multicenter study involving all eight public hospitals in Singapore.Patients111 consecutive COVID-19 patients who required ICU admission were included.Measurements and Main ResultsPrimary outcome was any venous or arterial thrombotic events occurred in ICU. Other measures included (1) the overall, venous and arterial thrombotic events throughout the hospitalisation, (2) major and minor bleeding events. The overall thrombotic rate in ICU was 11.7% (n=13), with 1.8% (n=2) venous and 9.9% (n=11) arterial events. The overall thrombotic rates throughout hospitalisation, censored at 30 April 2020, increased to 18.0% (n=20) with 6.3% (n=7) venous and 11.7% (n=13) arterial events. Major and minor bleeding rates were 14.8% (n=16) and 3.7% (n=4), respectively. Two-third of the patients received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in ICU.ConclusionsCritically ill COVID-19 patients in Singapore have lower VTE but higher arterial thrombosis rates with higher bleeding manifestations than other reported cohorts. Standard thromboprophylaxis may be sufficient to prevent thrombotic complications in patients with similar demographics.

5.
eNeurologicalSci ; 23: 100336, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188538

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100275.].

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7477, 2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169408

ABSTRACT

We aim to describe a case series of critically and non-critically ill COVID-19 patients in Singapore. This was a multicentered prospective study with clinical and laboratory details. Details for fifty uncomplicated COVID-19 patients and ten who required mechanical ventilation were collected. We compared clinical features between the groups, assessed predictors of intubation, and described ventilatory management in ICU patients. Ventilated patients were significantly older, reported more dyspnea, had elevated C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase. A multivariable logistic regression model identified respiratory rate (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.47) and neutrophil count (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.34-4.26) on admission as independent predictors of intubation with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.928 (95% CI 0.828-0.979). Median APACHE II score was 19 (IQR 17-22) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio before intubation was 104 (IQR 89-129). Median peak FiO2 was 0.75 (IQR 0.6-1.0), positive end-expiratory pressure 12 (IQR 10-14) and plateau pressure 22 (IQR 18-26) in the first 24 h of ventilation. Median duration of ventilation was 6.5 days (IQR 5.5-13). There were no fatalities. Most COVID-19 patients in Singapore who required mechanical ventilation because of ARDS were extubated with no mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Area Under Curve , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(3): 333-343, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The proportion of asymptomatic carriers and transmission risk factors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among household and non-household contacts remains unclear. In Singapore, extensive contact tracing by the Ministry of Health for every diagnosed COVID-19 case, and legally enforced quarantine and intensive health surveillance of close contacts provided a rare opportunity to determine asymptomatic attack rates and SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk factors among community close contacts of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved all close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Singapore, identified between Jan 23 and April 3, 2020. Household contacts were defined as individuals who shared a residence with the index COVID-19 case. Non-household close contacts were defined as those who had contact for at least 30 min within 2 m of the index case. All patients with COVID-19 in Singapore received inpatient treatment, with access restricted to health-care staff. All close contacts were quarantined for 14 days with thrice-daily symptom monitoring via telephone. Symptomatic contacts underwent PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. Secondary clinical attack rates were derived from the prevalence of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 among close contacts. Consenting contacts underwent serology testing and detailed exposure risk assessment. Bayesian modelling was used to estimate the prevalence of missed diagnoses and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive cases. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk factors. FINDINGS: Between Jan 23 and April 3, 2020, 7770 close contacts (1863 household contacts, 2319 work contacts, and 3588 social contacts) linked to 1114 PCR-confirmed index cases were identified. Symptom-based PCR testing detected 188 COVID-19 cases, and 7582 close contacts completed quarantine without a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Among 7518 (96·8%) of the 7770 close contacts with complete data, the secondary clinical attack rate was 5·9% (95% CI 4·9-7·1) for 1779 household contacts, 1·3% (0·9-1·9) for 2231 work contacts, and 1·3% (1·0-1·7) for 3508 social contacts. Bayesian analysis of serology and symptom data obtained from 1150 close contacts (524 household contacts, 207 work contacts, and 419 social contacts) estimated that a symptom-based PCR-testing strategy missed 62% (95% credible interval 55-69) of COVID-19 diagnoses, and 36% (27-45) of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection were asymptomatic. Sharing a bedroom (multivariable odds ratio [OR] 5·38 [95% CI 1·82-15·84]; p=0·0023) and being spoken to by an index case for 30 min or longer (7·86 [3·86-16·02]; p<0·0001) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmission among household contacts. Among non-household contacts, exposure to more than one case (multivariable OR 3·92 [95% CI 2·07-7·40], p<0·0001), being spoken to by an index case for 30 min or longer (2·67 [1·21-5·88]; p=0·015), and sharing a vehicle with an index case (3·07 [1·55-6·08]; p=0·0013) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Among both household and non-household contacts, indirect contact, meal sharing, and lavatory co-usage were not independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmission. INTERPRETATION: Targeted community measures should include physical distancing and minimising verbal interactions. Testing of all household contacts, including asymptomatic individuals, is warranted. FUNDING: Ministry of Health of Singapore, National Research Foundation of Singapore, and National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Singapore/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136645
9.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 14, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Arterial and venous thrombosis are reported to be common in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHOD AND RESULTS: This is a national multicenter retrospective observational study involving all consecutive adult COVID-19 patients who required intensive care units (ICU) admission between 23 January 2020 and 30 April 2020 in Singapore. One hundred eleven patients were included and the venous and arterial thrombotic rates in ICU were 1.8% (n = 2) and 9.9% (n = 11), respectively. Major bleeding rate was 14.8% (n = 16). CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill COVID-19 patients in Singapore have lower venous thromboembolism but higher arterial thrombosis rates and bleeding manifestations than other reported cohorts.

13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(6): 669-677, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. We evaluated the extent of environmental contamination in the ICU and correlated this with patient and disease factors, including the impact of different ventilatory modalities. METHODS: In this observational study, surface environmental samples collected from ICU patient rooms and common areas were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Select samples from the common area were tested by cell culture. Clinical data were collected and correlated to the presence of environmental contamination. Results were compared to historical data from a previous study in general wards. RESULTS: In total, 200 samples from 20 patient rooms and 75 samples from common areas and the staff pantry were tested. The results showed that 14 rooms had at least 1 site contaminated, with an overall contamination rate of 14% (28 of 200 samples). Environmental contamination was not associated with day of illness, ventilatory mode, aerosol-generating procedures, or viral load. The frequency of environmental contamination was lower in the ICU than in general ward rooms. Eight samples from the common area were positive, though all were negative on cell culture. CONCLUSION: Environmental contamination in the ICU was lower than in the general wards. The use of mechanical ventilation or high-flow nasal oxygen was not associated with greater surface contamination, supporting their use and safety from an infection control perspective. Transmission risk via environmental surfaces in the ICUs is likely to be low. Nonetheless, infection control practices should be strictly reinforced, and transmission risk via droplet or airborne spread remains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Decontamination/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patients' Rooms , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Risk Factors
15.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(3): 663-674, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886991

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 are known to be at risk of developing both venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis, due to an excessive immuno-thrombogenic response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overlapping syndromes of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy with consumptive coagulopathy and microangiopathy can be seen in critically ill patients as well. Blood was collected from 12 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with severe COVID-19 who were on either mechanical ventilation or on high flow oxygen with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of <300 mmHg. Laboratory tests were performed for parameters of haemostasis, clot waveform analysis and anti-phospholipid antibodies. CWA parameters were raised with elevated aPTT median Min1 (clot velocity) 9.3%/s (IQR 7.1-9.9%/s), elevated PT median Min1 10.3%/s (IQR 7.1-11.1%/s), elevated aPTT median Min2 (clot acceleration) 1.5%/s2 (IQR 1.0-1.6%/s2), elevated PT median Min2 5.2%/s2 (3.6-5.7%/s2), elevated aPTT median Max2 (clot deceleration) 1.3%/s2 (IQR 0.8-1.4%/s2) elevated PT median Max2 3.8%/s2 (IQR 2.6-4.2%/s2), increased aPTT median Delta change (decreased light transmission due to increased clot formation) 87.8% (IQR 70.2-91.8%) and PT median Delta change 33.0%. This together with raised median Factor VIII levels of 262.5%, hyperfibrinogenemia (median fibrinogen levels 7.5 g/L), increased median von Willebrand factor antigen levels 320% and elevated median D-dimer levels 1.7 µg/dl support the diagnosis of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy. A lupus anticoagulant was present in 50% of patients. Our laboratory findings further support the view that severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a state of hypercoagulability.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Thrombophilia/virology , Adult , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/blood
18.
eNeurologicalSci ; 21: 100275, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778825

ABSTRACT

We describe the clinical, laboratory and radiological features of 3 critically ill patients with COVID-19 who developed severe encephalopathy. The first patient did not regain consciousness when sedation was removed at the end of 2 weeks of intensive care. He had received treatment with convalescent plasma. His clinical examination was remarkable for intact brainstem reflexes, roving eye movements, later transient ocular flutter; and then what appeared to be slow ocular dipping. He had no coherent volitional response to the environment. The second patient recovered with measurable cognitive deficits after a prolonged period of encephalopathy. He had received combination treatment with interferon beta 1b and lopinavir/ritonavir. The third patient remained in persistent, severe agitated delirium and died 3 months into his illness. The MRI of the 3 patients showed multifocal abnormalities predominantly in the cerebral white matter, with varying involvement of the grey matter, brainstem and spinal cord. Case 1's MRI changes were consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The patients also displayed blood markers, to varying degree, of autoimmunity and hypercoagulability. We were not able to convincingly show, from microbiological as well as immunological evaluation, if the effects of COVID-19 on these patients' nervous system were a direct consequence of the virus, proinflammatory-thrombotic state or a combination. Patient 1 responded partially to empirical, albeit delayed, therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins. Patient 2 recovered with no specific treatment. These cases illustrate the need to understand the full spectrum of encephalopathy associated with COVID-19 so as to better guide its management.

19.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 9(7): e1160, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A wide range of duration of viral RNA shedding in patients infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been observed. We aimed to investigate factors associated with prolonged and intermittent viral RNA shedding in a retrospective cohort of symptomatic COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data from hospitalised COVID-19 patients from a single centre with two consecutive negative respiratory reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results were extracted from electronic medical records. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis was used to assess the effect of clinical characteristics on the duration and pattern of shedding. Plasma levels of immune mediators were measured using Luminex multiplex microbead-based immunoassay. RESULTS: There were 201 symptomatic patients included. Median age was 49 years (interquartile range 16-61), and 52.2% were male. Median RNA shedding was 14 days (IQR 9-18). Intermittent shedding was observed in 77 (38.3%). We did not identify any factor associated with prolonged or intermittent viral RNA shedding. Duration of shedding was inversely correlated with plasma levels of T-cell cytokines IL-1ß and IL-17A at the initial phase of infection, and patients had lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines during intermittent shedding. CONCLUSIONS: Less active T-cell responses at the initial phase of infection were associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding, suggesting that early immune responses are beneficial to control viral load and prevent viral RNA shedding. Intermittent shedding is common and may explain re-detection of viral RNA in recovered patients.

20.
Physiotherapy ; 109: 1-3, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622515

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the role of physiotherapy for patients with COVID-19 infection has been highlighted by various international guidelines. Despite that, clinical information regarding the rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19 infection remains limited. In this case series, we provide a novel insight into the physiotherapy management in patients infected with COVID-19 in Singapore. The main findings are: (1) Respiratory physiotherapy interventions were not indicated in the majority of the patients with COVID-19 in this case series; (2) During rehabilitation, exertional or position-related desaturation is a common feature observed in critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection locally. This clinical phenomenon of exertional or positional-related desaturation has significantly slowed down the progression of rehabilitation in our patients. As such, it can potentially result in a significant burden on healthcare resources to provide rehabilitation to these patients. Based on these findings, we have highlighted several recommendations for the provision of rehabilitation in patients who are critically ill with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Physical Therapy Modalities , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Exertion/physiology , Posture/physiology , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore
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