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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689222

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-684336

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease Methods We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial involving moderate COVID-19 patients according to study protocol Patients were assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2, every 48 h for three consecutive dosages, in addition to standard treatment (experimental group), or standard treatment alone (control group) The end point was the time to discharge from the hospital This study is registered with chictr org cn, ChiCTR2000030262 Findings A total of thirty-three eligible COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020, eleven were assigned to the IFN-κ plus TFF2 group, and twenty-two to the control group Safety and efficacy were evaluated for both groups No treatment-associated severe adverse effects (SAE) were observed in the group treated with aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2, and no significant differences in the safety evaluations were observed between experimental and control groups CT imaging was performed in all patients with the median improvement time of 5 0 days (IQR 3 0–9 0) in the experimental group versus 8 5 days (IQR 3 0–17 0) in the control group (p<0 05) In addition, the experimental group had a significant shorten median time in cough relief (4 5 days [IQR 2 0–7 0]) than the control group did (10 0 days [IQR 6 0–21 0])(p<0 005), in viral RNA reversion of 6 0 days (IQR 2 0–13 0) in the experimental group vs 9 5 days (IQR 3 0–23 0) in the control group (p < 0 05), and in the median hospitalization stays of 12 0 days (IQR 7 0–20 0) in the experimental group vs 15 0 days (IQR 10 0–25 0) in the control group (p<0 001), respectively Interpretation Aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 is a safe treatment and is likely to significantly facilitate clinical improvement, including cough relief, CT imaging improvement, and viral RNA reversion, thereby achieves an early release from hospitalization These data support to explore a scale-up trial with IFN-κ plus TFF2 Funding National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission

4.
J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Med. Sci. ; 5(40): 559-565, 20200528.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-647861

ABSTRACT

Objective • To explore the common clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)-infected local patients in Shanghai and their related influencing factors. Methods • A total of 320 patients admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from January to March 2020 and diagnosed as having coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) were selected. Clinical data of the patients were collected to analyze their characteristics. Using the statistical operation formula of R language, the correlation analysis of hospitalization days, days of increased hypersensitive C-reactive protein concentration (allergic days), days of lung CT improvement (CT days), and days required for nucleic acid turning negative with the main clinical manifestations and laboratory data was carried out. The correlation factors affecting the above four variables were analyzed. Results • Among the 320 patients, the proportions of mild type, moderate type, serious type and critical type were 6.25%, 83.44%, 6.88% and 3.44%, respectively; 91.25% of them had a history of exposure to Hubei. The proportions of fever, cough, sputum and fatigue were 79.06%, 46.56%, 21.56% and 15.31%, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-2(IL-2) and IL-6 were positively correlated with the above four variables, respectively (all P<0.05), albumin concentration was negatively correlated with allergic days (P=0.018), and CD4+ cell count was negatively correlated with CT days and days required for nucleic acid turning negative (both P<0.05). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that procalcitonin (PCT) concentration was negatively correlated with hospitalization days, CT days and allergic days (both P<0.05), and disease type was positively correlated with hospitalization days, allergic days, CT days and days required for nucleic acid turning negative (all P<0.05). Conclusion • Moderate type is common in the local patients in Shanghai; fever, cough and fatigue are common symptoms, and most of the patients are accompanied by lung CT abnormalities. The therapeutic effect and prognosis of these patients are closely related to disease type, concentrations of PCT and IL-6, as well as CD4+ cell count.

5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e146, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635047

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented an unprecedented challenge to the health-care system across the world. The current study aims to identify the determinants of illness severity of COVID-19 based on ordinal responses. A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients from four hospitals in three provinces in China was established, and 598 patients were included from 1 January to 8 March 2020, and divided into moderate, severe and critical illness group. Relative variables were retrieved from electronic medical records. The univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were fitted to identify the independent predictors of illness severity. The cohort included 400 (66.89%) moderate cases, 85 (14.21%) severe and 113 (18.90%) critical cases, of whom 79 died during hospitalisation as of 28 April. Patients in the age group of 70+ years (OR = 3.419, 95% CI: 1.596-7.323), age of 40-69 years (OR = 1.586, 95% CI: 0.824-3.053), hypertension (OR = 3.372, 95% CI: 2.185-5.202), ALT >50 µ/l (OR = 3.304, 95% CI: 2.107-5.180), cTnI >0.04 ng/ml (OR = 7.464, 95% CI: 4.292-12.980), myohaemoglobin>48.8 ng/ml (OR = 2.214, 95% CI: 1.42-3.453) had greater risk of developing worse severity of illness. The interval between illness onset and diagnosis (OR = 1.056, 95% CI: 1.012-1.101) and interval between illness onset and admission (OR = 1.048, 95% CI: 1.009-1.087) were independent significant predictors of illness severity. Patients of critical illness suffered from inferior survival, as compared with patients in the severe group (HR = 14.309, 95% CI: 5.585-36.659) and in the moderate group (HR = 41.021, 95% CI: 17.588-95.678). Our findings highlight that the identified determinants may help to predict the risk of developing more severe illness among COVID-19 patients and contribute to optimising arrangement of health resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , Child , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Function Tests , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
6.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humans are generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, which has caused a global pandemic of COVID-19. The screening of infected people in the population still mainly depends on clinical symptoms. However, there is limited research on the characteristics of clinical symptoms in different populations, especially in imported cases. METHODS: To retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 494 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated hospital in Shanghai from January 20, 2020, to March 31, 2020, we compared the clinical manifestations in different populations and their influencing factors in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: (1) Of the 494 patients, 453 (91.7%) had different symptoms at admission, and 39 (7.89%) patients were asymptomatic. (2) We compared the symptoms of patients according to different stratifications and found the following results: a. The proportion of dyspnea was significantly higher in male patients than in female patients (P < 0.05). b. The proportions of a stuffy nose, sore throat, and olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were significantly higher in children than in adult patients (P < 0.05). c. The proportions of fever, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and fatigue were significantly higher in local cases than in imported cases. In comparison, the proportions of nasal congestion, stuffy nose, sore throat, headache, and olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were significantly lower in imported cases than in imported cases (P < 0.05). d. The proportions of chest tightness, shortness of breath, and dyspnea were significantly higher in severely ill patients than in those with mild symptoms (P < 0.05). (3) Thirty-one asymptomatic patients were significantly younger than symptomatic patients, and they had a higher proportion of imported cases, white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte (LYM) count levels, and fewer abnormal CT cases than the group of symptomatic patients (P < 0.05). (4) The number of days since the onset of the disease needed for the symptoms to disappear was associated with the epidemiological history (imported cases), the number of days until the pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test turned negative, the days of hospitalization, the days of onset, and the WBC and LYM count levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The majority of COVID-19 patients (91.7%) had early symptoms. whereas 7.89% of COVID-19 patients were asymptomatic. Younger patients had fewer symptoms, mainly the upper respiratory symptoms, and the illness condition was milder, which was more common in imported cases. Elderly male patients had severe symptoms when admitted. The number of days needed for the patient's symptoms to disappear was closely related to the number of days necessary for the pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test to turn negative.

7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1537-1545, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611841

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is prevalent around the world. We aimed to describe epidemiological features and clinical course in Shanghai. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 325 cases admitted at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, between January 20 and February 29, 2020. Results: 47.4% (154/325) had visited Wuhan within 2 weeks of illness onset. 57.2% occurred in 67 clusters; 40% were situated within 53 family clusters. 83.7% developed fever during the disease course. Median times from onset to first medical care, hospitalization and negative detection of nucleic acid by nasopharyngeal swab were 1, 4 and 8 days. Patients with mild disease using glucocorticoid tended to have longer viral shedding in blood and feces. At admission, 69.8% presented with lymphopenia and 38.8% had elevated D-dimers. Pneumonia was identified in 97.5% (314/322) of cases by chest CT scan. Severe-critical patients were 8% with a median time from onset to critical disease of 10.5 days. Half required oxygen therapy and 7.1% high-flow nasal oxygen. The case fatality rate was 0.92% with median time from onset to death of 16 days. Conclusion: COVID-19 cases in Shanghai were imported. Rapid identification, and effective control measures helped to contain the outbreak and prevent community transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Status Indicators , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
9.
Biosci Trends ; 14(3): 161-167, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593589

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a serious public health threat to the whole world, and the number of infected is still rising dramatically at this moment. Several studies have confirmed that cytokine storms play a critical role in causing a case to worsen from mild to severe or critical. The current treatment for cytokine storms is limited, so the international medical community is focusing on a specific and effective remedy. Jaktinib hydrochloride is a broad spectrum JAK inhibitor. It can inhibit cytokine-induced immune activation by multiple mechanisms and also slow viral proliferation by inhibiting AAK1 without causing unacceptable toxicity. Jaktinib hydrochloride has great potential for the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
10.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 52(2): 397-406, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest computed tomography (CT) has shown tremendous clinical potential for screening, diagnosis, and surveillance of COVID-19. However, safety concerns are warranted due to repeated exposure of X-rays over a short period of time. Recent advances in MRI suggested that ultrashort echo time MRI (UTE-MRI) was valuable for pulmonary applications. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of UTE-MRI for assessing COVID-19. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: In all, 23 patients with COVID-19 and with an average interval of 2.81 days between hospital admission and image examination. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T; Respiratory-gated three-dimensional radial UTE pulse sequence. ASSESSMENT: Image quality score. Patient- and lesion-based interobserver and intermethod agreement for identifying the representative image findings of COVID-19. STATISTICAL TESTS: Wilcoxon-rank sum test, Kendall's coefficient of concordance (Kendall's W), intraclass coefficients (ICCs), and weighted kappa statistics. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the image quality of CT and UTE-MRI (CT vs. UTE-MRI: 4.3 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.5, P = 0.09). Moreover, both patient- and lesion-based interobserver agreement of CT and UTE-MRI for evaluating the image signs of COVID-19 were determined as excellent (ICC: 0.939-1.000, P < 0.05; Kendall's W: 0.894-1.000, P < 0.05.). In addition, the intermethod agreement of two image modalities for assessing the representative findings of COVID-19 including affected lobes, total severity score, ground glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, GGO with consolidation, the number of crazy paving pattern, and linear opacities, as well as pseudocavity were all determined as substantial or excellent (kappa: 0.649-1.000, P < 0.05; ICC: 0.913-1.000, P < 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: Pulmonary MRI with UTE is valuable for assessing the representative image findings of COVID-19 with a high concordance to CT. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;52:397-406.

11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1380-1388, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436947

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern.Objectives: We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China.Methods: A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China.Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients.Conclusions: Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Infection ; 48(4): 577-584, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a simple algorithm to help early identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection patients with severe progression tendency. METHODS: The univariable and multivariable analysis were computed to identify the independent predictors of COVID-19 progression. The prediction model was established in a retrospective training set of 322 COVID-19 patients and was re-evaluated in a prospective validation set of 317 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The multivariable analysis identified age (OR = 1.061, p = 0.028), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR = 1.006, p = 0.037), and CD4 count (OR = 0.993, p = 0.006) as the independent predictors of COVID-19 progression. Consequently, the age-LDH-CD4 algorithm was derived as (age × LDH)/CD4 count. In the training set, the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of age-LDH-CD4 model was significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.85, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively). In the prospective validation set, the AUROC of age-LDH-CD4 model was also significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.75, 0.81, and 0.82, respectively). The age-LDH-CD4 ≥ 82 has high sensitive (81%) and specific (93%) for the early identification of COVID-19 patients with severe progression tendency. CONCLUSIONS: The age-LDH-CD4 model is a simple algorithm for early identifying patients with severe progression tendency following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and warrants further validation.

13.
Nature ; 583(7816): 437-440, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326050

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in Wuhan (Hubei province, China)1; it soon spread across the world. In this ongoing pandemic, public health concerns and the urgent need for effective therapeutic measures require a deep understanding of the epidemiology, transmissibility and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here we analysed clinical, molecular and immunological data from 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai. The genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2, assembled from 112 high-quality samples together with sequences in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) dataset, showed a stable evolution and suggested that there were two major lineages with differential exposure history during the early phase of the outbreak in Wuhan. Nevertheless, they exhibited similar virulence and clinical outcomes. Lymphocytopenia, especially reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts upon hospital admission, was predictive of disease progression. High levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 during treatment were observed in patients with severe or critical disease and correlated with decreased lymphocyte count. The determinants of disease severity seemed to stem mostly from host factors such as age and lymphocytopenia (and its associated cytokine storm), whereas viral genetic variation did not significantly affect outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/blood , Interleukin-8/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/complications , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virulence/genetics , Virus Shedding , Young Adult , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
14.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 215-219, 2020 May 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-242643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the treatment of patients with moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 30 treatment-naïve patients with confirmed COVID-19 after informed consent at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The patients were randomized 1:1 to HCQ group and the control group. Patients in HCQ group were given HCQ 400 mg per day for 5 days plus conventional treatments, while those in the control group were given conventional treatment only. The primary endpoint was negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in respiratory pharyngeal swab on days 7 after randomization. This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and registered online (NCT04261517). RESULTS: One patient in HCQ group developed to severe during the treatment. On day 7, nucleic acid of throat swabs was negative in 13 (86.7%) cases in the HCQ group and 14 (93.3%) cases in the control group (P>0.05). The median duration from hospitalization to virus nucleic acid negative conservation was 4 (1,9) days in HCQ group, which is comparable to that in the control group [2 (1,4) days, Z=1.27, P>0.05]. The median time for body temperature normalization in HCQ group was 1 (0,2) day after hospitalization, which was also comparable to that in the control group [1 (0,3) day]. Radiological progression was shown on CT images in 5 cases (33.3%) of the HCQ group and 7 cases (46.7%) of the control group, and all patients showed improvement in follow-up examinations. Four cases (26.7%) of the HCQ group and 3 cases (20%) of the control group had transient diarrhea and abnormal liver function (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of COVID-19 moderate patients is good. Larger sample size study are needed to investigate the effects of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Subsequent research should determine better endpoint and fully consider the feasibility of experiments such as sample size.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Hydroxychloroquine , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
15.
Radiology ; 295(1): 210-217, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13063

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe chest CT findings of patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia have not previously been described in detail.PurposeTo investigate the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of emerging 2019-nCoV pneumonia in humans.Materials and MethodsFifty-one patients (25 men and 26 women; age range 16-76 years) with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction underwent thin-section CT. The imaging findings, clinical data, and laboratory data were evaluated.ResultsFifty of 51 patients (98%) had a history of contact with individuals from the endemic center in Wuhan, China. Fever (49 of 51, 96%) and cough (24 of 51, 47%) were the most common symptoms. Most patients had a normal white blood cell count (37 of 51, 73%), neutrophil count (44 of 51, 86%), and either normal (17 of 51, 35%) or reduced (33 of 51, 65%) lymphocyte count. CT images showed pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) in 39 of 51 (77%) patients and GGO with reticular and/or interlobular septal thickening in 38 of 51 (75%) patients. GGO with consolidation was present in 30 of 51 (59%) patients, and pure consolidation was present in 28 of 51 (55%) patients. Forty-four of 51 (86%) patients had bilateral lung involvement, while 41 of 51 (80%) involved the posterior part of the lungs and 44 of 51 (86%) were peripheral. There were more consolidated lung lesions in patients 5 days or more from disease onset to CT scan versus 4 days or fewer (431 of 712 lesions vs 129 of 612 lesions; P < .001). Patients older than 50 years had more consolidated lung lesions than did those aged 50 years or younger (212 of 470 vs 198 of 854; P < .001). Follow-up CT in 13 patients showed improvement in seven (54%) patients and progression in four (31%) patients.ConclusionPatients with fever and/or cough and with conspicuous ground-glass opacity lesions in the peripheral and posterior lungs on CT images, combined with normal or decreased white blood cells and a history of epidemic exposure, are highly suspected of having 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia.© RSNA, 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1039-1043, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-10492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A patient's infectivity is determined by the presence of the virus in different body fluids, secretions, and excreta. The persistence and clearance of viral RNA from different specimens of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analyzed the clearance time and factors influencing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in different samples from patients with COVID-19, providing further evidence to improve the management of patients during convalescence. METHODS: The clinical data and laboratory test results of convalescent patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to from January 20, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for patients' oropharyngeal swab, stool, urine, and serum samples were collected and analyzed. Convalescent patients refer to recovered non-febrile patients without respiratory symptoms who had two successive (minimum 24 h sampling interval) negative RT-PCR results for viral RNA from oropharyngeal swabs. The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 292 confirmed cases, 66 patients recovered after treatment and were included in our study. In total, 28 (42.4%) women and 38 men (57.6%) with a median age of 44.0 (34.0-62.0) years were analyzed. After in-hospital treatment, patients' inflammatory indicators decreased with improved clinical condition. The median time from the onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs in convalescent patients was 9.5 (6.0-11.0) days. By February 10, 2020, 11 convalescent patients (16.7%) still tested positive for viral RNA from stool specimens and the other 55 patients' stool specimens were negative for 2019-nCoV following a median duration of 11.0 (9.0-16.0) days after symptom onset. Among these 55 patients, 43 had a longer duration until stool specimens were negative for viral RNA than for throat swabs, with a median delay of 2.0 (1.0-4.0) days. Results for only four (6.9%) urine samples were positive for viral nucleic acid out of 58 cases; viral RNA was still present in three patients' urine specimens after throat swabs were negative. Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients' stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010). The duration of viral RNA detection from oropharyngeal swabs and fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (15 days vs. 8.0 days, respectively; t = 2.550, P = 0.013) and the duration of viral RNA detection in fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (20 days vs. 11 days, respectively; t = 4.631, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in inflammatory indicators between patients with positive fecal viral RNA test results and those with negative results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In brief, as the clearance of viral RNA in patients' stools was delayed compared to that in oropharyngeal swabs, it is important to identify viral RNA in feces during convalescence. Because of the delayed clearance of viral RNA in the glucocorticoid treatment group, glucocorticoids are not recommended in the treatment of COVID-19, especially for mild disease. The duration of RNA detection may relate to host cell immunity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Adult , Aged , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8973

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, novel coronavirus infected pneumonia emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. In severe novel coronavirus pneumonia cases, the number of platelets, their dynamic changes during the treatment, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were a concern. We sought to describe the platelet feature of these cases. Single-center case series of the 30 hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in Huizhou municipal central hospital from January 2020 to February 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, blood routine results, other laboratory results, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of severe patients and nonsevere patients were compared. Univariate analysis showed that: age, platelet peaks, and PLR at peak platelet were the influencing factors in severe patients, multivariate analysis showed that the PLR value at peak platelet during treatment was an independent influencing factor in severe patients. The average hospitalization day of patients with platelet peaks during treatment was longer than those without platelet peaks (P < .05). The average age of patients with platelet peaks during treatment was older than those without platelet peaks (P < .05). The patients with significantly elevated platelets during treatment had longer average hospitalization days. And the higher PLR of patients during treatment had longer average hospitalization days. Single-center case series of the 30 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Huizhou Municipal Central Hospital, presumed that the number of platelets and their dynamic changes during the treatment may have a suggestion on the severity and prognosis of the disease. The patient with markedly elevated platelets and longer average hospitalization days may be related to the cytokine storm. The PLR of patients means the degree of cytokine storm, which might provide a new indicator in the monitoring in patients with COVID-19.

18.
J Infect ; 80(5): e1-e6, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P <0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P <0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR = 0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Radiology ; 295(1): 210-217, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-465

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe chest CT findings of patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia have not previously been described in detail.PurposeTo investigate the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of emerging 2019-nCoV pneumonia in humans.Materials and MethodsFifty-one patients (25 men and 26 women; age range 16-76 years) with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction underwent thin-section CT. The imaging findings, clinical data, and laboratory data were evaluated.ResultsFifty of 51 patients (98%) had a history of contact with individuals from the endemic center in Wuhan, China. Fever (49 of 51, 96%) and cough (24 of 51, 47%) were the most common symptoms. Most patients had a normal white blood cell count (37 of 51, 73%), neutrophil count (44 of 51, 86%), and either normal (17 of 51, 35%) or reduced (33 of 51, 65%) lymphocyte count. CT images showed pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) in 39 of 51 (77%) patients and GGO with reticular and/or interlobular septal thickening in 38 of 51 (75%) patients. GGO with consolidation was present in 30 of 51 (59%) patients, and pure consolidation was present in 28 of 51 (55%) patients. Forty-four of 51 (86%) patients had bilateral lung involvement, while 41 of 51 (80%) involved the posterior part of the lungs and 44 of 51 (86%) were peripheral. There were more consolidated lung lesions in patients 5 days or more from disease onset to CT scan versus 4 days or fewer (431 of 712 lesions vs 129 of 612 lesions; P < .001). Patients older than 50 years had more consolidated lung lesions than did those aged 50 years or younger (212 of 470 vs 198 of 854; P < .001). Follow-up CT in 13 patients showed improvement in seven (54%) patients and progression in four (31%) patients.ConclusionPatients with fever and/or cough and with conspicuous ground-glass opacity lesions in the peripheral and posterior lungs on CT images, combined with normal or decreased white blood cells and a history of epidemic exposure, are highly suspected of having 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia.© RSNA, 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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