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1.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(12): 3080-3089, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with macro- and micro-thromboses, which are triggered by endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, and uncontrolled inflammatory response. Conventional antithrombotic agents are under assessment in dozens of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with COVID-19, with preliminary results not demonstrating benefit in several studies. OBJECTIVES: Given the possibility that more novel agents with antithrombotic effects may have a potential utility for management of patients with COVID-19, we assessed ongoing RCTs including these agents with their potential mechanism of action in this population. METHODS: We searched clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify RCTs of novel antithrombotic agents in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Based on a systematic literature search, 27 RCTs with 10 novel antithrombotic agents (including nafamostat, dociparstat, rNAPc2, and defibrotide) were identified. The results from these trials have not been disseminated yet. The studied drugs in the ongoing or completed RCTs include agents affecting the coagulation cascade, drugs affecting endothelial activation, and mixed acting agents. Their postulated antithrombotic mechanisms of action and their potential impact on patient management are summarized. CONCLUSION: Some novel antithrombotic agents have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, which may help reduce the viral load or fibrosis, and improve oxygenation. Results from ongoing RCTs will elucidate their actual role in the management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents , Antiviral Agents , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Arrhythm ; 37(6): 1389-1426, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520246

ABSTRACT

The consensus of the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) on stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) has been published in 2017 which provided useful clinical guidance for cardiologists, neurologists, geriatricians, and general practitioners in Asia-Pacific region. In these years, many important new data regarding stroke prevention in AF were reported. The Practice Guidelines subcommittee members comprehensively reviewed updated information on stroke prevention in AF, and summarized them in this 2021 focused update of the 2017 consensus guidelines of the APHRS on stroke prevention in AF. We highlighted and focused on several issues, including the importance of AF Better Care (ABC) pathway, the advantages of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for Asians, the considerations of use of NOACs for Asian patients with AF with single 1 stroke risk factor beyond gender, the role of lifestyle factors on stroke risk, the use of oral anticoagulants during the "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) pandemic, etc. We fully realize that there are gaps, unaddressed questions, and many areas of uncertainty and debate in the current knowledge of AF, and the physician's decision remains the most important factor in the management of AF.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(16): 1635-1654, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systemic inflammation, endothelial activation, and multiorgan manifestations. Lipid-modulating agents may be useful in treating patients with COVID-19. These agents may inhibit viral entry by lipid raft disruption or ameliorate the inflammatory response and endothelial activation. In addition, dyslipidemia with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels portend worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Upon a systematic search, 40 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with lipid-modulating agents were identified, including 17 statin trials, 14 omega-3 fatty acids RCTs, 3 fibrate RCTs, 5 niacin RCTs, and 1 dalcetrapib RCT for the management or prevention of COVID-19. From these 40 RCTs, only 2 have reported preliminary results, and most others are ongoing. This paper summarizes the ongoing or completed RCTs of lipid-modulating agents in COVID-19 and the implications of these trials for patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fibric Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Niacin/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Fibric Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipid Regulating Agents/pharmacology , Lipid Regulating Agents/therapeutic use , Niacin/pharmacology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Sulfhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(12): 3080-3089, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with macro- and micro-thromboses, which are triggered by endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, and uncontrolled inflammatory response. Conventional antithrombotic agents are under assessment in dozens of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with COVID-19, with preliminary results not demonstrating benefit in several studies. OBJECTIVES: Given the possibility that more novel agents with antithrombotic effects may have a potential utility for management of patients with COVID-19, we assessed ongoing RCTs including these agents with their potential mechanism of action in this population. METHODS: We searched clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify RCTs of novel antithrombotic agents in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Based on a systematic literature search, 27 RCTs with 10 novel antithrombotic agents (including nafamostat, dociparstat, rNAPc2, and defibrotide) were identified. The results from these trials have not been disseminated yet. The studied drugs in the ongoing or completed RCTs include agents affecting the coagulation cascade, drugs affecting endothelial activation, and mixed acting agents. Their postulated antithrombotic mechanisms of action and their potential impact on patient management are summarized. CONCLUSION: Some novel antithrombotic agents have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, which may help reduce the viral load or fibrosis, and improve oxygenation. Results from ongoing RCTs will elucidate their actual role in the management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents , Antiviral Agents , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Europace ; 23(6): 937-947, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411958

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Age, sex, and cardiovascular disease have been linked to thromboembolic complications and poorer outcomes in COVID-19. We hypothesize that CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores may predict thromboembolic events and mortality in COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: COVID-19 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 1 March to 20 April 2020 who completed at least 1-month follow-up or died were studied. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were calculated. Given the worse prognosis of male patients in COVID-19, a modified CHA2DS2-VASc score (CHA2DS2-VASc-M) in which 1 point was given to male instead of female was also calculated. The associations of these scores with laboratory results, thromboembolic events, and death were analysed. A total of 3042 patients (mean age 62.3 ± 20.3 years, 54.9% male) were studied and 115 (3.8%) and 626 (20.6%) presented a definite thromboembolic event or died, respectively, during the study period [median follow 59 (50-66) days]. Higher score values were associated with more marked abnormalities of inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers. Mortality was significantly higher with increasing scores for CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and CHA2DS2-VASc-M (P < 0.001 for trend). The CHA2DS2-VASc-M showed the best predictive value for mortality [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.820, P < 0.001 for comparisons]. All scores had poor predictive value for thromboembolic events (AUC 0.497, 0.490, and 0.541, respectively). CONCLUSION: The CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and CHA2DS2-VASc-M scores are significantly associated with all-cause mortality but not with thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients. They are simple scoring systems in everyday use that may facilitate initial 'quick' prognostic stratification in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
6.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13679, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has a wide spectrum of cardiovascular sequelae including myocarditis and pericarditis; however, the prevalence and clinical impact are unclear. We investigated the prevalence of new-onset myocarditis/pericarditis and associated adverse cardiovascular events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from a global federated health research network. Patients were included based on a diagnosis of COVID-19 and new-onset myocarditis or pericarditis. Patients with COVID-19 and myocarditis/pericarditis were 1:1 propensity score matched for age, sex, race and comorbidities to patients with COVID-19 but without myocarditis/pericarditis. The outcomes of interest were 6-month all-cause mortality, hospitalisation, cardiac arrest, incident heart failure, incident atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction, comparing patients with and without myocarditis/pericarditis. Of 718,365 patients with COVID-19, 35,820 (5.0%) developed new-onset myocarditis and 10,706 (1.5%) developed new-onset pericarditis. Six-month all-cause mortality was 3.9% (n = 702) in patients with myocarditis and 2.9% (n = 523) in matched controls (p < .0001), odds ratio 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.53). Six-month all-cause mortality was 15.5% (n = 816) for pericarditis and 6.7% (n = 356) in matched controls (p < .0001), odds ratio 2.55 (95% CI: 2.24-2.91). Receiving critical care was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality for patients with myocarditis and pericarditis. Patients with pericarditis seemed to associate with more new-onset cardiovascular sequelae than those with myocarditis. This finding was consistent when looking at pre-COVID-19 data with pneumonia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 who present with myocarditis/pericarditis associate with increased odds of major adverse events and new-onset cardiovascular sequelae.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Pericarditis/complications , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 176, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain if prior use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in COVID-19 outpatients with multimorbidity impacts prognosis, especially if cardiometabolic diseases are present. Clinical outcomes 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis were compared between outpatients with cardiometabolic disease receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct-acting OAC (DOAC) therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: A study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. Adult outpatients with cardiometabolic disease (i.e. diabetes mellitus and any disease of the circulatory system) treated with VKAs or DOACs at time of COVID-19 diagnosis between 20-Jan-2020 and 15-Feb-2021 were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance cohorts receiving VKAs and DOACs. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation (MV) necessity, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH)/gastrointestinal bleeding, and the composite of any arterial or venous thrombotic event(s) at 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 2275 patients were included. After PSM, 1270 patients remained in the study (635 on VKAs; 635 on DOACs). VKA-treated patients had similar risks and 30-day event-free survival than patients on DOACs regarding all-cause mortality, ICU admission/MV necessity, and ICH/gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of any arterial or venous thrombotic event was 43% higher in the VKA cohort (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.98; Log-Rank test p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 outpatients with cardiometabolic diseases, prior use of DOAC therapy compared to VKA therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis demonstrated lower risk of arterial or venous thrombotic outcomes, without increasing the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Treatment Outcome
8.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(10): 136, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the INTERASPIRE scientific protocol-an international survey of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). RECENT FINDINGS: This international survey is being conducted through National Societies of Cardiology in selected countries from each of the six WHO regions and has the following overall aims: (i) describe prevalence of cardiometabolic and renal risk factors together with biomarkers in CHD patients; (ii) describe current risk factor management through lifestyle changes and cardioprotective drug therapies; (iii) provide an objective assessment of clinical implementation of preventive care by comparison with the lifestyle and risk factor targets defined in international and national guidelines; (iv) investigate the reasons for variation in preventive cardiology practice between regions and countries; and (v) promote the principles of best preventive cardiology practice. This international survey will provide a unique picture of CHD patients; their cardiometabolic, renal and biomarker status; lifestyle and therapeutic management; and the quality of preventive care provided in all WHO regions.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Coronary Disease , Coronary Disease/prevention & control , Humans , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
10.
Eur J Intern Med ; 91: 53-58, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The elderly multi-morbid patient is at high risk of adverse outcomes with COVID-19 complications, and in the general population, the development of incident AF is associated with worse outcomes in such patients. There is therefore the need to identify those patients with COVID-19 who are at highest risk of developing incident AF. We therefore investigated incident AF risks in a large prospective population of elderly patients with/without incident COVID-19 cases and baseline cardiovascular/non-cardiovascular multi-morbidities. We used two approaches: main effect modeling and secondly, a machine-learning (ML) approach, accounting for the complex dynamic relationships among comorbidity variables. METHODS: We studied a prospective elderly US cohort of 280,592 patients from medical databases in an 8-month investigation of with/without newly incident COVID19 cases. Incident AF outcomes were examined in relationship to diverse multi-morbid conditions, COVID-19 status and demographic variables, with ML accounting for the dynamic nature of changing multimorbidity risk factors. RESULTS: Multi-morbidity contributed to the onset of confirmed COVID-19 cases with cognitive impairment (OR 1.69; 95%CI 1.52-1.88), anemia (OR 1.41; 95%CI 1.32-1.50), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.35; 95%CI 1.27-1.44) and vascular disease (OR 1.30; 95%CI 1.21-1.39) having the highest associations. A main effect model (C-index value 0.718) showed that COVID-19 had the highest association with incident AF cases (OR 3.12; 95%CI 2.61-3.710, followed by congestive heart failure (1.72; 95%CI 1.50-1.96), then coronary artery disease (OR 1.43; 95%CI 1.27-1.60) and valvular disease (1.42; 95%CI 1.26-1.60). The ML algorithm demonstrated improved discriminatory validity incrementally over the statistical main effect model (training: C-index 0.729, 95%CI 0.718-0.740; validation: C-index 0.704, 95%CI 0.687-0.72). Calibration of the ML based formulation was satisfactory and better than the main-effect model. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the clinical utility for the ML based formulation was better than the 'treat all' strategy and the main effect model. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 status has major implications for incident AF in a cohort with diverse cardiovascular/non-cardiovascular multi-morbidities. Our ML approach accounting for dynamic multimorbidity changes had good prediction for new onset AF amongst incident COVID19 cases.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Aged , Algorithms , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Machine Learning , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3826-3836, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316884

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients had documented thrombotic complications and ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms related to immune-mediated thrombosis, the renin angiotensin system and the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiac and brain tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. Simultaneously, significant strains on global healthcare delivery, including ischemic stroke management, have made treatment of stroke in the setting of COVID-19 particularly challenging. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestation, and pathophysiology of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 to bridge the gap from bench to bedside and clinical practice during the most challenging global health crisis of the last decades.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
13.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1231-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may experience venous thrombosis while data regarding arterial thrombosis are sparse. METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in 5 hospitals including 373 patients with Covid-19-related pneumonia. Demographic data, laboratory findings including coagulation tests and comorbidities were reported. During the follow-up any arterial or venous thrombotic events and death were registered. RESULTS: Among 373 patients, 75 (20%) had a thrombotic event and 75 (20%) died. Thrombotic events included 41 venous thromboembolism and 34 arterial thrombosis. Age, cardiovascular disease, intensive care unit treatment, white blood cells, D-dimer, albumin and troponin blood levels were associated with thrombotic events. In a multivariable regression logistic model, intensive care unit treatment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.0; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.8-12.6; p < 0.001); coronary artery disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-5.0; p = 0.022); and albumin levels (OR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; p = 0.014) were associated with ischemic events. Age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, intensive care unit treatment, in-hospital thrombotic events, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, and albumin levels were associated with mortality. A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that in-hospital thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.72; 95% CI 1.59-4.65; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.035; 95% CI 1.014-1.057; p = 0.001), and albumin (HR: 0.447; 95% CI 0.277-0.723; p = 0.001) predicted morality. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 patients experience an equipollent rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events, that are associated with poor survival. Early identification and appropriate treatment of Covid-19 patients at risk of thrombosis may improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Mortality/trends , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
14.
Thromb Res ; 205: 1-7, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) use before hospitalization due to COVID-19 diagnosis would potentially impact the severity and clinical outcomes thereafter. We compared 30-day hospitalization/re-hospitalization and clinical outcomes between patients on chronic DOAC therapy and patients not on oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: We used data from TriNetX, a global federated health research network. Patients aged ≥18 years who were treated with DOACs at time of COVID-19 diagnosis between 20 January 2020 and 28 February 2021 were included, and matched with patients not on OAC therapy from the same period. All patients were followed-up at 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, hospitalization/re-hospitalization, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). RESULTS: 738,423 patients were included. After propensity score matching (PSM), 26,006 patients remained in the study (13,003 on DOACs; 13,003 not on OAC). DOAC-treated patients (mean age 67.1 ± 15.4 years, 52.2% male) had higher relative risks (RRs) and lower 30-days event-free survival as compared to patients not on OAC for all-cause mortality (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.44; Log-Rank test p = 0.010), hospitalization/re-hospitalization (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.64-1.82; Log-Rank test p < 0.001) and VTE (RR 4.51, 95% CI 3.91-5.82; Log-Rank test p < 0.001), but not for ICH (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.54-1.51; Log-Rank test p = 0.513). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients, previous DOAC therapy at time of diagnosis was not associated with improved clinical outcomes or lower hospitalization/re-hospitalization rate compared to patients not taking OAC therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
15.
Am J Med ; 134(5): e354-e355, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269221
16.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(4): 330-339, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262139

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To consolidate evidence to determine (i) the association between cardiovascular risk factors and health outcomes with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19); and (ii) the impact of COVID-19 on cardiovascular health. METHODS AND RESULTS: An umbrella review of systematic reviews was conducted. Fourteen medical databases and pre-print servers were searched from 1 January 2020 to 5 November 2020. The review focused on reviews rated as moderate or high-quality using the AMSTAR 2 tool. Eighty-four reviews were identified; 31 reviews were assessed as moderate quality and one was high-quality. The following risk factors were associated with higher mortality and severe COVID-19: renal disease [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for mortality 3.07 (2.43-3.88)], diabetes mellitus [OR 2.09 (1.80-2.42)], hypertension [OR 2.50 (2.02-3.11)], smoking history [risk ratio (RR) 1.26 (1.20-1.32)], cerebrovascular disease [RR 2.75 (1.54-4.89)], and cardiovascular disease [OR 2.65 (1.86-3.78)]. Liver disease was associated with higher odds of mortality [OR 2.81 (1.31-6.01)], but not severe COVID-19. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 [RR 1.80 (1.14-2.85)], but not mortality. Obesity associated with higher odds of mortality [OR 2.18 (1.10-4.34)], but there was an absence of evidence for severe COVID-19. In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, the following incident cardiovascular complications were identified: acute heart failure (2%), myocardial infarction (4%), deep vein thrombosis (7%), myocardial injury (10%), angina (10%), arrhythmias (18%), pulmonary embolism (19%), and venous thromboembolism (25%). CONCLUSION: Many of the risk factors identified as associated with adverse outcomes with COVID-19 are potentially modifiable. Primary and secondary prevention strategies that target cardiovascular risk factors may improve outcomes for people following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/classification , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Preventive Health Services/methods , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with COVID-19, cardiovascular complications are common and associated with poor prognosis. Among these, an association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and COVID-19 has been described; however, the extent of this relationship is unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of AF in COVID-19 patients and its impact on all-cause mortality. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed and reported according to PRISMA guidelines, and a protocol for this study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021227950). PubMed and EMBASE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A random-effects model was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Overall, 31 studies were included in the analysis, with a total number of 187,716 COVID-19 patients. The prevalence of AF was found to be as high as 8% of patients with COVID-19 (95% CI: 6.3-10.2%, 95% prediction intervals (PI): 2.0-27.1%), with a high degree of heterogeneity between studies; a multiple meta-regression model including geographical location, age, hypertension, and diabetes showed that these factors accounted for more than a third of the heterogeneity. AF COVID-19 patients were less likely to be female but more likely older, hypertensive, and with a critical status than those without AF. Patients with AF showed a significant increase in the risk of all-cause mortality (OR: 3.97, 95% CI: 2.76-5.71), with a high degree of heterogeneity. A sensitivity analysis focusing on new-onset AF showed the consistency of these results. CONCLUSIONS: Among COVID-19 patients, AF is found in 8% of patients. AF COVID-19 patients are older, more hypertensive, and more likely to have a critical status. In COVID-19 patients, AF is associated with a 4-fold higher risk of death. Further studies are needed to define the best treatment strategies to improve the prognosis of AF COVID-19 patients.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(15): 1903-1921, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235916

ABSTRACT

Endothelial injury and microvascular/macrovascular thrombosis are common pathophysiological features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, the optimal thromboprophylactic regimens remain unknown across the spectrum of illness severity of COVID-19. A variety of antithrombotic agents, doses, and durations of therapy are being assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that focus on outpatients, hospitalized patients in medical wards, and patients critically ill with COVID-19. This paper provides a perspective of the ongoing or completed RCTs related to antithrombotic strategies used in COVID-19, the opportunities and challenges for the clinical trial enterprise, and areas of existing knowledge, as well as data gaps that may motivate the design of future RCTs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Thromboembolism/virology
19.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 326-331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence suggests patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop thrombosis and thrombosis-related complications. Some previous evidence has suggested COVID-19-associated strokes are more severe with worse outcomes for patients, but further studies are needed to confirm these findings. The aim of this study was to determine the association between COVID-19 and mortality for patients with ischaemic stroke in a large multicentre study. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records of inpatients from 50 healthcare organizations, predominately from the USA. Patients with ischaemic stroke within 30 days of COVID-19 were identified. COVID-19 was determined from diagnosis codes or a positive test result identified with CO-VID-19-specific laboratory codes between January 20, 2020, and October 1, 2020. Historical controls with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19 were identified in the period January 20, 2019, to October 1, 2019. 1:1 propensity score matching was used to balance the cohorts with and without CO-VID-19 on characteristics including age, sex, race and comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for all-cause 60-day mortality by COVID-19 status were produced. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 954 inpatients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19. During the same time period in 2019, there were 48,363 inpatients with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19 (historical controls). Compared to patients with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19, patients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19 had a lower mean age, had a lower prevalence of white patients, a higher prevalence of black or African American patients and a higher prevalence of hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver disease, neoplasms, and mental disorders due to known physiological conditions. After propensity score matching, there were 952 cases and 952 historical controls; cases and historical controls were better balanced on all included characteristics (all p > 0.05). After propensity score matching, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the survival probability was significantly lower in ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 (78.3% vs. 91.0%, log-rank test p < 0.0001). The odds of 60-day mortality were significantly higher for patients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19 compared to the propensity score-matched historical controls (odds ratio: 2.51 [95% confidence interval 1.88-3.34]). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 had significantly higher 60-day all-cause mortality compared to propensity score-matched historical controls (ischaemic stroke patients without COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 245-261, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed a tremendous strain on healthcare services. This study, prepared by a large international panel of stroke experts, assesses the rapidly growing research and personal experience with COVID-19 stroke and offers recommendations for stroke management in this challenging new setting: modifications needed for prehospital emergency rescue and hyperacute care; inpatient intensive or stroke units; posthospitalization rehabilitation; follow-up including at-risk family and community; and multispecialty departmental developments in the allied professions. SUMMARY: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 uses spike proteins binding to tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptors, most often through the respiratory system by virus inhalation and thence to other susceptible organ systems, leading to COVID-19. Clinicians facing the many etiologies for stroke have been sobered by the unusual incidence of combined etiologies and presentations, prominent among them are vasculitis, cardiomyopathy, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial dysfunction. International standards of acute stroke management remain in force, but COVID-19 adds the burdens of personal protections for the patient, rescue, and hospital staff and for some even into the postdischarge phase. For pending COVID-19 determination and also for those shown to be COVID-19 affected, strict infection control is needed at all times to reduce spread of infection and to protect healthcare staff, using the wealth of well-described methods. For COVID-19 patients with stroke, thrombolysis and thrombectomy should be continued, and the usual early management of hypertension applies, save that recent work suggests continuing ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Prothrombotic states, some acute and severe, encourage prophylactic LMWH unless bleeding risk is high. COVID-19-related cardiomyopathy adds risk of cardioembolic stroke, where heparin or warfarin may be preferable, with experience accumulating with DOACs. As ever, arteritis can prove a difficult diagnosis, especially if not obvious on the acute angiogram done for clot extraction. This field is under rapid development and may generate management recommendations which are as yet unsettled, even undiscovered. Beyond the acute management phase, COVID-19-related stroke also forces rehabilitation services to use protective precautions. As with all stroke patients, health workers should be aware of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and/or distress developing in their patients and caregivers. Postdischarge outpatient care currently includes continued secondary prevention measures. Although hoping a COVID-19 stroke patient can be considered cured of the virus, those concerned for contact safety can take comfort in the increasing use of telemedicine, which is itself a growing source of patient-physician contacts. Many online resources are available to patients and physicians. Like prior challenges, stroke care teams will also overcome this one. Key Messages: Evidence-based stroke management should continue to be provided throughout the patient care journey, while strict infection control measures are enforced.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Stroke/diagnosis
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