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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020033

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe successful scale-up of a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection testing and treatment programme is essential to achieve TB elimination. However, poor adherence compromises its therapeutic effectiveness. Novel rifapentine-based regimens and treatment support based on behavioural science theory may improve treatment adherence and completion.Methods and analysisA pragmatic multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of novel short-course rifapentine-based regimens for TB prevention and additional theory-based treatment support on treatment adherence against standard-of-care. Participants aged between 16 and 65 who are eligible to start TB preventive therapy will be recruited in England. 920 participants will be randomised to one of six arms with allocation ratio of 5:5:6:6:6:6: daily isoniazid +rifampicin for 3 months (3HR), routine treatment support (control);3HR, additional treatment support;weekly isoniazid +rifapentine for 3 months (3HP), routine treatment support;weekly 3HP, additional treatment support ;daily isoniazid +rifapentine for 1 month (1HP), routine treatment support;daily 1HP, additional treatment support. Additional treatment support comprises reminders using an electronic pillbox, a short animation, and leaflets based on the perceptions and practicalities approach. The primary outcome is adequate treatment adherence, defined as taking ≥90% of allocated doses within the pre-specified treatment period, measured by electronic pillboxes. Secondary outcomes include safety and TB incidence within 12 months. We will conduct process evaluation of the trial interventions and assess intervention acceptability and fidelity and mechanisms for effect and estimate the cost-effectiveness of novel regimens. The protocol was developed with patient and public involvement, which will continue throughout the trial.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval has been obtained from The National Health Service Health Research Authority (20/LO/1097). All participants will be required to provide written informed consent. We will share the results in peer-reviewed journals.Trial registration numberEudraCT 2020-004444-29.

2.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(12): 5428-5433, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019142

ABSTRACT

Pharmacometric analyses of time series viral load data may detect drug effects with greater power than approaches using single time points. Because SARS-CoV-2 viral load rapidly rises and then falls, viral dynamic models have been used. We compared different modelling approaches when analysing Phase II-type viral dynamic data. Using two SARS-CoV-2 datasets of viral load starting within 7 days of symptoms, we fitted the slope-intercept exponential decay (SI), reduced target cell limited (rTCL), target cell limited (TCL) and TCL with eclipse phase (TCLE) models using nlmixr. Model performance was assessed via Bayesian information criterion (BIC), visual predictive checks (VPCs), goodness-of-fit plots, and parameter precision. The most complex (TCLE) model had the highest BIC for both datasets. The estimated viral decline rate was similar for all models except the TCL model for dataset A with a higher rate (median [range] day-1 : dataset A; 0.63 [0.56-1.84]; dataset B: 0.81 [0.74-0.85]). Our findings suggest simple models should be considered during pharmacodynamic model development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Viral Load
5.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 106, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317129

ABSTRACT

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of hospital-acquired TB infection due to persistent exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in healthcare settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an international system of infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions to interrupt the cycle of nosocomial TB transmission. The guidelines on TB IPC have proposed a comprehensive hierarchy of three core practices, comprising: administrative controls, environmental controls, and personal respiratory protection. However, the implementation of most recommendations goes beyond minimal physical and organisational requirements and thus cannot be appropriately introduced in resource-constrained settings and areas of high TB incidence. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) the lack of knowledge, expertise and practice on TB IPC is a major barrier to the implementation of essential interventions. HCWs often underestimate the risk of airborne Mtb dissemination during tidal breathing. The lack of required expertise and funding to design, install and maintain the environmental control systems can lead to inadequate dilution of infectious particles in the air, and in turn, increase the risk of TB dissemination. Insufficient supply of particulate respirators and lack of direction on the re-use of respiratory protection is associated with unsafe working practices and increased risk of TB transmission between patients and HCWs. Delayed diagnosis and initiation of treatment are commonly influenced by the effectiveness of healthcare systems to identify TB patients, and the availability of rapid molecular diagnostic tools. Failure to recognise resistance to first-line drugs contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant Mtb strains, including multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mtb. Future guideline development must consider the social, economic, cultural and climatic conditions to ensure that recommended control measures can be implemented in not only high-income countries, but more importantly low-income, high TB burden settings. Urgent action and more ambitious investments are needed at both regional and national levels to get back on track to reach the global TB targets, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/transmission , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/prevention & control , Incidence , Risk Factors
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 349-359, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prognostic models to predict the risk of clinical deterioration in acute COVID-19 cases are urgently required to inform clinical management decisions. METHODS: We developed and validated a multivariable logistic regression model for in-hospital clinical deterioration (defined as any requirement of ventilatory support or critical care, or death) among consecutively hospitalised adults with highly suspected or confirmed COVID-19 who were prospectively recruited to the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium (ISARIC4C) study across 260 hospitals in England, Scotland, and Wales. Candidate predictors that were specified a priori were considered for inclusion in the model on the basis of previous prognostic scores and emerging literature describing routinely measured biomarkers associated with COVID-19 prognosis. We used internal-external cross-validation to evaluate discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility across eight National Health Service (NHS) regions in the development cohort. We further validated the final model in held-out data from an additional NHS region (London). FINDINGS: 74 944 participants (recruited between Feb 6 and Aug 26, 2020) were included, of whom 31 924 (43·2%) of 73 948 with available outcomes met the composite clinical deterioration outcome. In internal-external cross-validation in the development cohort of 66 705 participants, the selected model (comprising 11 predictors routinely measured at the point of hospital admission) showed consistent discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility across all eight NHS regions. In held-out data from London (n=8239), the model showed a similarly consistent performance (C-statistic 0·77 [95% CI 0·76 to 0·78]; calibration-in-the-large 0·00 [-0·05 to 0·05]); calibration slope 0·96 [0·91 to 1·01]), and greater net benefit than any other reproducible prognostic model. INTERPRETATION: The 4C Deterioration model has strong potential for clinical utility and generalisability to predict clinical deterioration and inform decision making among adults hospitalised with COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, EU Platform for European Preparedness Against (Re-)emerging Epidemics, NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at University of Liverpool, NIHR HPRU in Respiratory Infections at Imperial College London.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Decision Rules , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Clinical Deterioration , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(2): e132-e136, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067993

ABSTRACT

Contact tracing is central to the public health response to COVID-19, but the approach taken has received criticism for failing to make enough of an impact on disease transmission. We discuss what can be learned from contact tracing in other infections, and how the natural history of COVID-19 should shape the strategies used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Public Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Thorax ; 76(4): 396-398, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919095

ABSTRACT

Large numbers of people are being discharged from hospital following COVID-19 without assessment of recovery. In 384 patients (mean age 59.9 years; 62% male) followed a median 54 days post discharge, 53% reported persistent breathlessness, 34% cough and 69% fatigue. 14.6% had depression. In those discharged with elevated biomarkers, 30.1% and 9.5% had persistently elevated d-dimer and C reactive protein, respectively. 38% of chest radiographs remained abnormal with 9% deteriorating. Systematic follow-up after hospitalisation with COVID-19 identifies the trajectory of physical and psychological symptom burden, recovery of blood biomarkers and imaging which could be used to inform the need for rehabilitation and/or further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Eur Respir J ; 56(6)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796596

ABSTRACT

The number of proposed prognostic models for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is growing rapidly, but it is unknown whether any are suitable for widespread clinical implementation.We independently externally validated the performance of candidate prognostic models, identified through a living systematic review, among consecutive adults admitted to hospital with a final diagnosis of COVID-19. We reconstructed candidate models as per original descriptions and evaluated performance for their original intended outcomes using predictors measured at the time of admission. We assessed discrimination, calibration and net benefit, compared to the default strategies of treating all and no patients, and against the most discriminating predictors in univariable analyses.We tested 22 candidate prognostic models among 411 participants with COVID-19, of whom 180 (43.8%) and 115 (28.0%) met the endpoints of clinical deterioration and mortality, respectively. Highest areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were achieved by the NEWS2 score for prediction of deterioration over 24 h (0.78, 95% CI 0.73-0.83), and a novel model for prediction of deterioration <14 days from admission (0.78, 95% CI 0.74-0.82). The most discriminating univariable predictors were admission oxygen saturation on room air for in-hospital deterioration (AUROC 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.81), and age for in-hospital mortality (AUROC 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.81). No prognostic model demonstrated consistently higher net benefit than these univariable predictors, across a range of threshold probabilities.Admission oxygen saturation on room air and patient age are strong predictors of deterioration and mortality among hospitalised adults with COVID-19, respectively. None of the prognostic models evaluated here offered incremental value for patient stratification to these univariable predictors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Deterioration , Hospital Mortality , Models, Theoretical , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis
12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 97(5): 392-393, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report on the clinical characteristics and outcome of 18 people living with HIV (PLWH) hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a London teaching hospital. METHODS: The hospital notes of 18 PLWH hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection were retrospectively reviewed alongside data concerning their HIV demographics from an established HIV Database. RESULTS: The majority (16/18) had positive PCR swabs for SARS-CoV-2, and two had negative swabs but typical COVID-19 imaging and history. Most were male (14/18, 78%), median age 63 years (range 47-77 years). Two-thirds were migrants, nine (50%) of Black, Asian and minority ethnicity (BAME). All were diagnosed with HIV for many years (range 8-31 years), and all had an undetectable HIV viral load (<40 copies/mL). The median CD4 prior to admission was 439 (IQR 239-651), and 10/16 (63%) had a CD4 nadir below 200 cells/mm3. Almost all (17/18) had been diagnosed with at least one comorbidity associated with SARS-CoV-2 prior to admission. 3/18 patients died. None received mechanical ventilation. Hospital stay and clinical course did not appear prolonged (median 9 days). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that PLWH may not necessarily have prolonged or complex admissions to hospital when compared with the general hospital and national population admitted with COVID-19. Many had low nadir CD4 counts and potentially impaired functional immune restoration. The PLWH group was younger than generally reported for COVID-19, and the majority were male with multiple complex comorbidities. These patients had frequent contact with hospital settings increasing potential for nosocomial acquisition and increased risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
13.
15.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 19(1): 21, 2020 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342798

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has currently overtaken every other health issue throughout the world. There are numerous ways in which this will impact existing public health issues. Here we reflect on the interactions between COVID-19 and tuberculosis (TB), which still ranks as the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease globally. There may be grave consequences for existing and undiagnosed TB patients globally, particularly in low and middle income countries (LMICs) where TB is endemic and health services poorly equipped. TB control programmes will be strained due to diversion of resources, and an inevitable loss of health system focus, such that some activities cannot or will not be prioritised. This is likely to lead to a reduction in quality of TB care and worse outcomes. Further, TB patients often have underlying co-morbidities and lung damage that may make them prone to more severe COVID-19. The symptoms of TB and COVID-19 can be similar, with for example cough and fever. Not only can this create diagnostic confusion, but it could worsen the stigmatization of TB patients especially in LMICs, given the fear of COVID-19. Children with TB are a vulnerable group especially likely to suffer as part of the "collateral damage". There will be a confounding of symptoms and epidemiological data through co-infection, as happens already with TB-HIV, and this will require unpicking. Lessons for COVID-19 could be learned from the vast experience of running global TB control programmes, while the astonishingly rapid and relatively well co-ordinated response to COVID-19 demonstrates how existing programmes could be significantly improved.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Africa , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Developing Countries , Humans , Lung/pathology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/therapy , United Kingdom
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