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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244259

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the biological effects on circulating monocytes after challenge with SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein. Whole blood collected from seven ostensibly healthy healthcare workers was incubated for 15 min with 2 and 20 ng/mL final concentration of recombinant spike protein of Ancestral, Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants. Samples were analyzed with Sysmex XN and DI-60 analyzers. Cellular complexity (i.e., the presence of granules, vacuoles and other cytoplasmic inclusions) increased in all samples challenged with the recombinant spike protein of the Ancestral, Alpha, and Delta variants, but not in those containing Omicron. The cellular content of nucleic acids was constantly decreased in most samples, achieving statistical significance in those containing 20 ng/mL of Alpha and Delta recombinant spike proteins. The heterogeneity of monocyte volumes significantly increased in all samples, achieving statistical significance in those containing 20 ng/mL of recombinant spike protein of the Ancestral, Alpha and Delta variants. The monocyte morphological abnormalities after spike protein challenge included dysmorphia, granulation, intense vacuolization, platelet phagocytosis, development of aberrant nuclei, and cytoplasmic extrusions. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein triggers important monocyte morphological abnormalities, more evident in cells challenged with recombinant spike protein of the more clinically severe Alpha and Delta variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2023 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231375
3.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327999
4.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 133(5)2023 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324505
5.
Immunol Res ; 2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320949

ABSTRACT

It is well established that neurological and non-neurological autoimmune disorders can be triggered by viral infections. It remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 infection induces similar conditions and whether they show a distinctive phenotype. We retrospectively identified patients with acute inflammatory CNS conditions referred to our laboratory for antibody testing during the pandemic (March 1 to August 31, 2020). We screened SARS-COV-2 IgA/IgG in all sera by ELISA and confirmed the positivity with additional assays. Clinical and paraclinical data of SARS-COV-2-IgG seropositive patients were compared to those of seronegative cases matched for clinical phenotype, geographical zone, and timeframe. SARS-CoV-2-IgG positivity was detected in 16/339 (4%) sera, with paired CSF positivity in 3/16. 5 of these patients had atypical demyelinating disorders and 11 autoimmune encephalitis syndromes. 9/16 patients had a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 6 of them were symptomatic. In comparison with 32 consecutive seronegative controls, SARS-CoV-2-IgG-positive patients were older, frequently presented with encephalopathy, had lower rates of CSF pleocytosis and other neurological autoantibodies, and were less likely to receive immunotherapy. When SARS-CoV-2 seropositive versus seronegative cases with demyelinating disorders were compared no differences were seen. Whereas seropositive encephalitis patients less commonly showed increased CSF cells and protein, our data suggest that an antecedent symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection can be detected in patients with autoimmune neurological conditions. These cases are rare, usually do not have specific neuroglial antibodies.

7.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 2022 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316635
8.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 133(4)2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298926

ABSTRACT

Post­viral syndrome is a well­known medical condition characterized by different levels of physical, cognitive, and emotional impairment that may persist with fluctuating severity after recovering from an acute viral infection. Unsurprisingly, COVID­19 may also be accompanied by medium- and long­term clinical sequelae after recovering from a SARS­CoV­2 infection. Although many clinical definitions have been provided, "long­COVID" can be defined as a condition occurring in patients with a history of SARS­CoV­2 infection, developing 3 months from the symptoms onset, persisting for at least 2 months, and not explained by alternative diagnoses. According to recent global analyses, the cumulative prevalence of long­COVID seems to range between 9% and 63%, and is up to 6­fold higher than that of similar postviral infection conditions. Long­COVID primarily encompasses the presence of at least 1 symptom, such as fatigue, dyspnea, cognitive impairment / brain fog, postexertional malaise, memory issues, musculoskeletal pain / spasms, cough, sleep disturbances, tachycardia / palpitations, altered smell / taste perception, headache, chest pain, and depression. The most important demographic and clinical predictors to date are female sex, older age, cigarette smoking, pre­existing medical conditions, lack of COVID­19 vaccination, infection with pre­Omicron SARS­CoV­2 variants, number of acute phase symptoms, viral load, severe / critical COVID­19 illness, as well as invasive mechanical ventilation. Concerning the care for long­COVID patients, the greatest challenge is the fact that this syndrome cannot be considered a single clinical entity, and thus it needs an integrated multidisciplinary management, specifically tailored to the type and severity of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Disease Progression
9.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(8): 1361-1362, 2023 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298924
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294928

ABSTRACT

Hemostasis reflects a homeostatic mechanism that aims to balance out pro-coagulant and anti-coagulant forces to maintain blood flow within the circulation. Simplistically, a relative excess of procoagulant forces can lead to thrombosis, and a relative excess of anticoagulant forces can lead to bleeding. There are a wide variety of congenital disorders associated with bleeding or thrombosis. In addition, there exist a vast array of autoimmune diseases that can also lead to either bleeding or thrombosis. For example, autoantibodies generated against clotting factors can lead to bleeding, of which acquired hemophilia A is the most common. As another example, autoimmune-mediated antibodies against phospholipids can generate a prothrombotic milieu in a condition known as antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS). Moreover, there exist various autoimmunity promoting environments that can lead to a variety of antibodies that affect hemostasis. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents perhaps the contemporary example of such a state, with potential development of a kaleidoscope of such antibodies that primarily drive thrombosis, but may also lead to bleeding on rarer occasions. We provide here a narrative review to discuss the interaction between various autoimmune diseases and hemostasis.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Hemostasis , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants , Autoantibodies , Hemorrhage/complications
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(4)2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301025

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected over 600 million individuals and caused nearly 7 million deaths worldwide (10 January 2023). Patients with renal disease undergoing hemodialysis are among those most adversely affected, with an increased predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. This systematic review aimed to pool evidence assessing the humoral response of hemodialysis patients (HDP) post-mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. A systematic search of the literature was performed through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases, as well as medRxiv and bioRxiv preprint servers up to 10 January 2023. Cohort and case-control studies were included if they reported an immune response in one group of patients undergoing hemodialysis who received mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination compared with another group of patients receiving the same vaccine but not on hemodialysis. The methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was not deemed appropriate due to the high heterogeneity between studies. From the 120 studies identified, nine (n = 1969 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 8/9, 88%) were of high or medium methodological quality (≥6/9 stars). The results revealed that HDP developed lower antibody levels across all timepoints post-vaccination when compared with controls. Patients with chronic kidney disease elicited the highest antibody immune response, followed by HDP and, lastly, kidney transplant recipients. Overall, post-vaccination antibody titers were comparatively lower than in the healthy population. Current results imply that robust vaccination strategies are needed to address waning immune responses in vulnerable populations.

13.
Acta Biomed ; 94(2): e2023072, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299753
14.
Immunol Res ; 2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299752
15.
Acta Biomed ; 94(2): e2023056, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study was planned to estimate the contribution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related mortality on excess deaths recorded in Italy since the beginning of the pandemic. METHODS: Official data on weekly number of COVID-19 related deaths in Italy were retrieved from the website of the Italian Ministry of Health, whilst information on weekly relative age-standardised mortality rates (rASMRs) in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic was downloaded from the UK Office for National Statistics website. Univariate and multivariate correlation was conducted to explore the association between these two variables throughout the pandemic. RESULTS: Significant univariate correlation was found between rASMR and number of official COVID-19 related deaths throughout the pandemic period. Such correlation was especially high during predominance of pre-Alpha and Alpha variants, remained significant during Delta variant predominance, but become no longer significant during Omicron variant predominance. In multivariable analysis, we estimated that COVID-19 may have contributed to 72% of the excess mortality recorded in Italy throughout the pandemic. The impact was higher during pre-Alpha and Alpha periods (i.e., 78% and 89%, respectively), decreased to 41% during Delta variant predominance, and became no longer significant after emergence of the Omicron variant. CONCLUSIONS: These results would suggest that COVID-19 may have largely contributed to excess mortality in Italy until the recent emergence of the Omicron variant, by which time previous loss of vulnerable people and radical changes in delivering healthcare may have paradoxically contributed to improve the cumulative death rate in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Italy/epidemiology
16.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269220

ABSTRACT

D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product encompassing multiple cross-linked D domains and/or E domains present in the original fibrinogen molecule, whose generation is only theoretically possible when hemostasis and fibrinolysis pathways are concomitantly activated. D-dimer measurement has now become a pillar in the diagnosis/exclusion and prognostication of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), when incorporated into validated clinical algorithms and especially using age-adjusted diagnostic thresholds. Although emerging evidence is also supporting its use for predicting the duration of anticoagulant therapy in certain categories of patients, the spectrum of clinical applications is constantly expanding beyond traditional thrombotic pathologies to the diagnosis of acute aortic dissection, acute intestinal ischemia and cerebral venous thrombosis among others, embracing also clinical management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent findings attest that D-dimer elevations are commonplace in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) infection (especially in those with thrombosis), its value predicts the clinical severity (up to death) of COVID-19 and remains more frequently increased in COVID-19 patients with post-discharge clinical sequelae. Further, D-dimer-based anticoagulant escalation may be associated with a lower risk of death in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and, finally, D-dimer elevation post-COVID-19 vaccination mirrors an increased risk of developing vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT).

17.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269213
18.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258854

ABSTRACT

This review is an integral part of the special issue for the 60 years of the journal Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). The aim of the review is to highlight the role of the clinical laboratory since the emergence of the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), which causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with special focus on the contribution of the journal in generating knowledge in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. As of October 30, 2022, a total of 186 CCLM publications were dedicated to COVID-19. Of importance, major International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) guidelines related to the diagnosis of COVID-19 were published in CCLM. Between early-2020 and late October 2022, COVID-19 publications represented around 27% of all articles in CCLM, highlighting the willingness of the editorial board to help the field in order to better describe and diagnose this new emerging disease. First launched in 1963 under the name "Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie", the Journal was entirely devoted to clinical chemistry in the strict sense. The various topics published in relation to COVID-19 including its diagnosis, its impact on biochemical or hematological measures, as well as biosafety measures, is the perfect example that shows that the journal has greatly diversified over time.

20.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(8): 1506-1510, 2023 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Given that SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests will represent a pillar for supporting or surrogating molecular testing in the endemic period, we report here the clinical performance of the new SNIBE Maglumi SARS-CoV-2 antigen fully-automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (MAG-CLIA SARS-CoV-2 Ag). METHODS: The study population consisted of 181 subjects (mean age 61 ± 21 years; 92 females) undergoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing at the local diagnostic facility, from December 2022 to February 2023. Routine diagnostic practice involved the collection of a double nostril nasopharyngeal swab, analyzed in duplicate with SARS-CoV-2 antigen (MAG-CLIA SARS-CoV-2 Ag) and molecular (Altona Diagnostics RealStar SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Kit) tests. RESULTS: A significant Spearman's correlation was found between MAG-CLIA SARS-CoV-2 Ag and mean Ct values of SARS-CoV-2 E and S genes (r=-0.95; p<0.001). In all nasopharyngeal samples, the area under the curve (AUC) of MAG-CLIA SARS-CoV-2 Ag was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.90), with 0.71 sensitivity and 1.00 specificity at 7 ng/L cut-off, increasing to 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00) AUC and 0.96 sensitivity (with 0.97 specificity) in high viral load samples. When SARS-CoV-2 N protein concentration was replaced with raw instrumental readings (i.e., relative light units [RLU]), the AUC in all samples increased to 0.94. A RLU value of 945 was associated with 88.4% accuracy, 0.85 sensitivity, 0.95 specificity, 0.77 negative predictive value (NPV) and 0.97 positive predictive value (PPV), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found satisfactory analytical performance of MAG-CLIA SARS-CoV-2 Ag, which could be used as surrogate of molecular testing for identifying high viral load samples. Broadening the reportable range of values may generate even better performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunologic Tests , Area Under Curve , Immunoassay , Sensitivity and Specificity
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