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1.
Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng ; 120312022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949888

ABSTRACT

Phantoms are essential tools for assessing and verifying performance in computed tomography (CT). Realistic patient-based lung phantoms that accurately represent textures and densities are essential in developing and evaluating novel CT hardware and software. This study introduces PixelPrint, a 3D-printing solution to create patient-specific lung phantoms with accurate contrast and textures. PixelPrint converts patient images directly into printer instructions, where density is modeled as the ratio of filament to voxel volume to emulate local attenuation values. For evaluation of PixelPrint, phantoms based on four COVID-19 pneumonia patients were manufactured and scanned with the original (clinical) CT scanners and protocols. Density and geometrical accuracies between phantom and patient images were evaluated for various anatomical features in the lung, and a radiomic feature comparison was performed for mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 pneumonia patient-based phantoms. Qualitatively, CT images of the patient-based phantoms closely resemble the original CT images, both in texture and contrast levels, with clearly visible vascular and parenchymal structures. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) comparing attenuation demonstrated differences below 15 HU. Manual size measurements performed by an experienced thoracic radiologist revealed a high degree of geometrical correlation between identical patient and phantom features, with differences smaller than the intrinsic spatial resolution of the images. Radiomic feature analysis revealed high correspondence, with correlations of 0.95-0.99 between patient and phantom images. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of 3D-printed patient-based lung phantoms with accurate geometry, texture, and contrast that will enable protocol optimization, CT research and development advancements, and generation of ground-truth datasets for radiomic evaluations.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336840

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Radiomics and other modern clinical decision-support algorithms are emerging as the next frontier for diagnostic and prognostic medical imaging. However, heterogeneities in image characteristics due to variations in imaging systems and protocols hamper the advancement of reproducible feature extraction pipelines. There is a growing need for realistic patient-based phantoms that accurately mimic human anatomy and disease manifestations to provide consistent ground-truth targets when comparing different feature extraction or image cohort normalization techniques. Materials and Methods PixelPrint was developed for 3D-printing lifelike lung phantoms for computed tomography (CT) by directly translating clinical images into printer instructions that control the density on a voxel-by-voxel basis. CT datasets of three COVID-19 pneumonia patients served as input for 3D-printing lung phantoms. Five radiologists rated patient and phantom images for imaging characteristics and diagnostic confidence in a blinded reader study. Linear mixed models were utilized to evaluate effect sizes of evaluating phantom as opposed to patient images. Finally, PixelPrint’s reproducibility was evaluated by producing four phantoms from the same clinical images. Results Estimated mean differences between patient and phantom images were small (0.03-0.29, using a 1-5 scale). Effect size assessment with respect to rating variabilities revealed that the effect of having a phantom in the image is within one-third of the inter- and intra-reader variabilities. PixelPrint’s production reproducibility tests showed high correspondence among four phantoms produced using the same patient images, with higher similarity scores between high-dose scans of the different phantoms than those measured between clinical-dose scans of a single phantom. Conclusions We demonstrated PixelPrint’s ability to produce lifelike 3D-printed CT lung phantoms reliably. These can provide ground-truth targets for validating the generalizability of inference-based decision-support algorithms between different health centers and imaging protocols, as well as for optimizing scan protocols with realistic patient-based phantoms.

3.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200152, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155981

ABSTRACT

Routine screening CT for the identification of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pneumonia is currently not recommended by most radiology societies. However, the number of CT examinations performed in persons under investigation for COVID-19 has increased. We also anticipate that some patients will have incidentally detected findings that could be attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, requiring radiologists to decide whether or not to mention COVID-19 specifically as a differential diagnostic possibility. We aim to provide guidance to radiologists in reporting CT findings potentially attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, including standardized language to reduce reporting variability when addressing the possibility of COVID-19. When typical or indeterminate features of COVID-19 pneumonia are present in endemic areas as an incidental finding, we recommend contacting the referring providers to discuss the likelihood of viral infection. These incidental findings do not necessarily need to be reported as COVID-19 pneumonia. In this setting, using the term viral pneumonia can be a reasonable and inclusive alternative. However, if one opts to use the term COVID-19 in the incidental setting, consider the provided standardized reporting language. In addition, practice patterns may vary, and this document is meant to serve as a guide. Consultation with clinical colleagues at each institution is suggested to establish a consensus reporting approach. The goal of this expert consensus is to help radiologists recognize findings of COVID-19 pneumonia and aid their communication with other health care providers, assisting management of patients during this pandemic. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license.

4.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(11): 1358-1365, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908299

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an illness caused by a novel coronavirus that has rapidly escalated into a global pandemic leading to an urgent medical effort to better characterize this disease biologically, clinically, and by imaging. In this review, we present the current approach to imaging of COVID-19 pneumonia. We focus on the appropriate use of thoracic imaging modalities to guide clinical management. We also describe radiologic findings that are considered typical, atypical, and generally not compatible with COVID-19. Furthermore, we review imaging examples of COVID-19 imaging mimics, such as organizing pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonia, and other viral infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Imaging/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an illness caused by a novel coronavirus that has rapidly escalated into a global pandemic leading to an urgent medical effort to better characterize this disease biologically, clinically and by imaging. In this review, we present the current approach to imaging of COVID-19 pneumonia. We focus on the appropriate utilization of thoracic imaging modalities to guide clinical management. We will also describe radiologic findings that are considered typical, atypical and generally not compatible with of COVID-19 infection. Further, we review imaging examples of COVID-19 imaging mimics, such as organizing pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonia and other viral infections.

6.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(4): 219-227, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612519

ABSTRACT

Routine screening CT for the identification of COVID-19 pneumonia is currently not recommended by most radiology societies. However, the number of CTs performed in persons under investigation (PUI) for COVID-19 has increased. We also anticipate that some patients will have incidentally detected findings that could be attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, requiring radiologists to decide whether or not to mention COVID-19 specifically as a differential diagnostic possibility. We aim to provide guidance to radiologists in reporting CT findings potentially attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, including standardized language to reduce reporting variability when addressing the possibility of COVID-19. When typical or indeterminate features of COVID-19 pneumonia are present in endemic areas as an incidental finding, we recommend contacting the referring providers to discuss the likelihood of viral infection. These incidental findings do not necessarily need to be reported as COVID-19 pneumonia. In this setting, using the term "viral pneumonia" can be a reasonable and inclusive alternative. However, if one opts to use the term "COVID-19" in the incidental setting, consider the provided standardized reporting language. In addition, practice patterns may vary, and this document is meant to serve as a guide. Consultation with clinical colleagues at each institution is suggested to establish a consensus reporting approach. The goal of this expert consensus is to help radiologists recognize findings of COVID-19 pneumonia and aid their communication with other healthcare providers, assisting management of patients during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , Consensus , Humans , North America , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States
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