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1.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 12(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602102

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can place an immense psychological strain on the infected patient. The psychological distress can linger after the initial recovery from the infection. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of provisional post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with cured COVID-2019. Methods: The baseline survey was conducted from 10 to 25 February 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, and depression and anxiety levels were assessed, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. A follow-up survey was conducted 1 month post-discharge. PTSD symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) and patients’ perception of supportive care during hospitalization was investigated using a self-developed questionnaire. Results: In total, 114 patients completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Of these, 41 (36.0%) met the cut-off score for provisional PTSD diagnosis according to the IES-6. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54–14.37], educational level of high school or below (OR = 15.49, 95% CI 1.13–212.71), higher anxiety levels (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12–1.61) and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17–0.96) predicted a higher risk for provisional PTSD. Conclusions: PTSD is commonly seen in patients with COVID-19 1 month post-discharge. Female patients, and patients with lower educational levels, higher anxiety levels and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization may be more likely to develop PTSD in the near future. Enhancing emotional support during hospitalization could help to prevent PTSD in patients with COVID-19. HIGHLIGHTS More than one-third ofpatients met the diagnostic criteria of probable PTSD 1 month post-discharge. Providing timely emotional support during hospitaliza-tion may be one of the key measures for preventing PTSD in patients with COVID-19.

2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1915576, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284836

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can place an immense psychological strain on the infected patient. The psychological distress can linger after the initial recovery from the infection. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of provisional post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with cured COVID-2019. Methods: The baseline survey was conducted from 10 to 25 February 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, and depression and anxiety levels were assessed, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. A follow-up survey was conducted 1 month post-discharge. PTSD symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) and patients' perception of supportive care during hospitalization was investigated using a self-developed questionnaire. Results: In total, 114 patients completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Of these, 41 (36.0%) met the cut-off score for provisional PTSD diagnosis according to the IES-6. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-14.37], educational level of high school or below (OR = 15.49, 95% CI 1.13-212.71), higher anxiety levels (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.61) and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.96) predicted a higher risk for provisional PTSD. Conclusions: PTSD is commonly seen in patients with COVID-19 1 month post-discharge. Female patients, and patients with lower educational levels, higher anxiety levels and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization may be more likely to develop PTSD in the near future. Enhancing emotional support during hospitalization could help to prevent PTSD in patients with COVID-19.


Antecedentes: El COVID-19 ha supuesto una inmensa carga psicológica para el paciente infectado. El malestar psicológico puede persistir aún después de la recuperación inicial de la infección.Objetivos: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia y los factores predictores del trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT) provisional en pacientes recuperados de COVID-2019.Métodos: El cuestionario inicial se realizó en pacientes con el COVID-19 desde el 10 de febrero del 2020 hasta el 25 de febrero del 2020 en un hospital designado. Se consideraron las variables demográficas y clínicas, además, se evaluaron los niveles de depresión y ansiedad mediante el cuestionario de salud del paciente de 9 elementos y el cuestionario del trastorno de ansiedad generalizada de 7 elementos, respectivamente. Un cuestionario de seguimiento fue realizado un mes después del alta. Los síntomas de TEPT fueron medidos por el Cuestionario de Eventos de Impacto 6 (IES-6 por sus siglas en ingles) y el nivel de percepción de los pacientes sobre el cuidado de soporte durante la hospitalización fue investigado utilizando un cuestionario auto-administrado.Resultados: Ciento catorce pacientes completaron tanto el cuestionario inicial como el de seguimiento. Cuarenta y un (36.0%) pacientes cumplieron con el punto de corte para el diagnóstico provisional de TEPT según el IES-6. El sexo femenino (OR = 4.69, 95% CI: 1.54-14.37), un nivel de educación secundaria o inferior (OR = 15.49, 95% CI: 1.13-212.71), niveles elevados de ansiedad (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.12-1.61) y una menor percepción de soporte emocional durante la hospitalización (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.96) fueron factores predictores de riesgo elevado para el desarrollo provisional de TEPT.Conclusiones: El TEPT es observado con frecuencia en pacientes con COVID-19 un mes después del alta. Las pacientes de sexo femenino, los pacientes con un nivel de educación bajo, los pacientes con un nivel elevado de ansiedad y una menor percepción de apoyo emocional durante la hospitalización podrían tener mayor probabilidad de desarrollar TEPT en el futuro cercano. El reforzamiento del apoyo emocional durante la hospitalización podría ayudar a prevenir el TEPT en pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Survivors/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 585537, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211866

ABSTRACT

Objective: Little is known about the factors affecting the recovery of mental health in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this study is to look into the change of psychological distress and to explore the role of negative appraisals in the improvement of psychological distress in COVID-19 patients after they recovered from the infection. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal survey on patients with COVID-19 infection in Changsha. The 9-item Patient Health scale, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, and a newly developed measure, the COVID-19 Impact Scale (CIS) were applied to assess patients' depression, anxiety, and negative appraisal toward COVID-19 infection during their hospitalization and 1 month post-discharge. Results: Seventy-two patients were included in the analysis. A significant decrease in anxiety and depression levels was observed after patients were discharged from hospital. Two meaningful factors of the CIS were extracted based on factor analysis, namely "health impact," and "social impact." The change of social impact explained the 12.7 and 10.5% variance in the depression and anxiety symptom improvement, respectively. Conclusions: Change in negative appraisals, especially the appraisals related to COVID-19 social impact may play a vital role in the relief of psychological distress of infected patients. Therefore, a cognitive and social care perspective might be considered when promoting the mental health recovery and readjustment to society among COVID-19 patients.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 603273, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145595

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, intensive care unit (ICU) healthcare workers were responsible for the critical infected patients. However, few studies focused on the mental health of ICU healthcare workers. This study aimed to investigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on ICU healthcare workers in China. Methods: We distributed the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and seven-item General Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) online to ICU healthcare workers in China. Respondents were divided into frontline and second-line according to whether they have contact with COVID-19 patients. Depressive and anxiety symptoms of all respondents were evaluated based on their questionnaire scores. Results: There were 731 ICU healthcare workers finally enrolled in our study, including 303 (41.5%) male, 383 (52.4%) doctors, and 617 (84.4%) aged 26-45 years. All in all, 482 (65.9%) ICU healthcare workers reported symptoms of depression, while 429 (58.7%) reported anxiety. There was no significant difference between frontline (n = 325) and second-line (n = 406) respondents in depression (P = 0.15) and anxiety severity (P = 0.56). Logistic regression analysis showed that being female, ICU work time >5 years, and night duty number ≥10 were risk factors of developing depressive and anxiety symptoms. Income reduction was separately identified as risk of anxiety. Additionally, ICU work time >5 years was also identified as risk of developing moderate-severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: Frontline ICU work was not associated with higher risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic remission period in China. Actions like controlling night duty number, ensuring vacation, and increasing income should be taken to relieve mental health problem. Furthermore, we should pay close attention to those who had worked long years in ICU.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
5.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110365, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isolation form on the recovery of psychological distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after being discharged from hospital. METHODS: Baseline survey was conducted from February 10, 2020 to February 25, 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital on the discharge day. After discharge, patients were free to choose whether isolate in a centralized isolation site (i.e. designated hotel) or their own home for another two weeks. A follow-up survey was conducted at the end of the 2-week post-discharge isolation. Depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health were assessed at both time points using the 9-item patient health questionnaire, 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale and self-rated health scores, respectively. RESULTS: Fifty centrally isolated and 45 home isolated patients completed both the baseline and the follow-up assessments. Significant effects of time and time by isolation form were found on depression and anxiety levels, with a significant decrease in depression and anxiety shown in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. Besides, a significant time effect was identified on self-rated health with significant improvement found in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation is superior to centralized isolation in the recovery of COVID-19-associated depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health. More attention needs to be paid to the psychological well-being of centrally isolated patients. A sustained and integrated rehabilitation plan is warranted for patients with COVID-19 to achieve both physical and psychological recovery.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Patient Discharge , Patient Isolation/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aftercare , China/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Residence Characteristics , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
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