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1.
Heliyon ; : e13119, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2179061

ABSTRACT

Social distancing has been essential during the COVID-19 pandemic to slow the spread of the disease. Online learning ensures students can participate in learning activities while also maintaining a physical distance from other students. Although online learning was used to prevent the spread of COVID-19, the development of online learning has also been promoted. Here, we sought to explore the perceptions and responses of students to online learning during the pandemic using a cross-sectional study. Electronic questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical analyses were performed for 1614 valid questionnaires and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, COVID-19 had more effect on female students, such as fear of COVID-19 (2.4 times higher than the number of male students) and length of time spent learning (H = 42.449, P < 0.05). However, the higher the students' grades were, the less the impact of COVID-19. For the style of lessons, all students would prefer shorter lessons (P < 0.05). Female and fifth-grade students were more prefer combined online and face-to-face learning, and male and freshmen students were more likely to prefer face-to-face learning after the pandemic. More than 50% of students thought the main advantage of online learning was convenience, with low efficiency being a disadvantage. The main factors negatively influencing online learning were eyestrain, poor network connections, and poor learning environments at home. In conclusion, synchronous online and face-to-face learning may become more common in future curricula, however the efficiency of online learning and the female students more attentions.

2.
Computer Communications ; 199:168-176, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165187

ABSTRACT

In the absence of effective treatment for COVID-19, disease prevention and control have become a top priority across the world. However, the general lack of effective cooperation between communities makes it difficult to suppress the community spread of the global pandemic;hence repeated outbreaks of COVID-19 have become the norm. To address this problem, this paper considers community cooperation in disease monitoring and designs a joint epidemic monitoring mechanism, in which adjacent communities cooperate to enhance their monitoring capability. In this work, we formulate the epidemiological monitoring process as a coalitional game. Then, we propose a Shapley value-based payoffs distribution scheme for the coalitional game. A comprehensive analytical framework is developed to evaluate the advantages and sustainability of the cooperation between communities. Experimental results show that the proposed mechanism performs much better than the conventional non-cooperative monitoring design and can greatly increase each community's payoffs.

3.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 150:108358, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165106

ABSTRACT

A sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective detection for SARS-CoV-2 was urgently needed due to the rapid spread of COVID-19. Here, a "signal-on” magnetic-assisted PEC immunosensor was constructed for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein based on Z-scheme heterojunction. Fe3O4@SiO2@Au was used to connect the capture antibody to act as a capture probe (Fe3O4@SiO2@Au/Ab1). It can extract target analytes selectively in complex samples and multiple electrode rinsing and assembly steps were avoided effectively. CdTe QDs sensitized TiO2 coated on the surface of SiO2 spheres to form Z-scheme heterojunction (SiO2@TiO2@CdTe QDs), which broadened the optical absorption range and inhibited the quick recombination of photogenerated electron/hole of the composite. With fascinating photoelectric conversion performance, SiO2@TiO2@CdTe QDs were utilized as a signal label, thus further realizing signal amplification. The migration mechanism of photogenerated electrons was further deduced by active material quenching experiment and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement. The elaborated immunosensor can detect SARS-CoV-2 N protein in the linear range of 0.005–50 ng mL−1 with a low detection limit of 1.8 pg mL−1 (S/N = 3). The immunosensor displays extraordinary sensitivity, strong anti-interference, and high reproducibility in detecting SARS-CoV-2 N protein, which envisages its potential application in the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(6): 503-515, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. RESULTS: The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/administration & dosage , Glucagon-Like Peptides/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/adverse effects , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptides/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incretins/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Weight Loss/drug effects
5.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 46(10): 102049, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104585

ABSTRACT

Acute appendicitis is a common abdominal surgical emergency worldwide. Abraham Groves performed the first documented open appendectomy in 1883. Although appendectomy is still the most effective treatment in cases of acute appendicitis, it causes a range of complications and carries the risk of negative appendectomy. In the awake of covid-19, the latest guidelines recommend antibiotic therapy as an acceptable first line treatment for acute appendicitis. However, patients treated with antibiotics have a recurrence risk of up to 30% at 1 year. Endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) has emerged as promising non-invasive treatment modality for acute uncomplicated appendicitis (AUA) which involves cannulation, appedicography, appendiceal stone extraction, appendiceal lumen irrigation, and stent insertion. ERAT aims to relieve the cause of appendicitis (e.g., obstruction or stenosis of the appendiceal lumen) and thus effectively prevent the recurrence of appendicitis. In addition, it can make a definitive diagnosis of acute appendicitis during endoscopic retrograde appendicography. Studies have shown that 93.8 to 95% of AUA patients did not have a recurrence following ERAT. In this study, we aim to summarize the current body of evidence on ERAT to situate it alongside currently established therapies for acute appendicitis, in particular, AUA.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Humans , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/surgery , Acute Disease , Appendectomy , Endoscopy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Talanta ; : 124051, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2086748

ABSTRACT

The global corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been announced a pandemic outbreak, and has threatened human life and health seriously. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as its causative pathogen, is widely detected in the screening of COVID-19 patients, infected people and contaminated substances. Lateral flow assay (LFA) is a popular point-of-care detection method, possesses advantages of quick response, simple operation mode, portable device, and low cost. Based on the above advantages, LFA has been widely developed for detecting SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarized the articles about the sandwich mode LFA detecting SARS-CoV-2, classified according to the target detection objects indicating genes, nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and specific antibodies of SARS-CoV-2. In each part, LFA is further classified and summarized according to different signal detection types. Additionally, the properties of the targets were introduced to clarify their detection significance. The review is expected to provide a helpful guide for LFA sensitization and marker selection of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066493

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak and spread of COVID-19, a deep investigation of SARS-CoV-2 is urgent. Direct usage of this virus for scientific research could provide reliable results and authenticity. However, it is strictly constrained and unrealistic due to its high pathogenicity and infectiousness. Considering its biosafety, different systems and technologies have been employed in immunology and biomedical studies. In this study, phage display technology was used to construct a nonpathogenic model for COVID-19 research. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 was fused with the M13 phage capsid p3 protein and expressed on the M13 phages. After validation of its successful expression, its potential as the standard for qPCR quantification and affinity with antibodies were confirmed, which may show the possibility of using this nonpathogenic bacteriophage to replace the pathogenic virus in scientific research concerning SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the model was used to develop a system for the classification and identification of different samples using ATR-FTIR, which may provide an idea for the development and evaluation of virus monitoring equipment in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Bacteriophage M13/genetics , Bacteriophage M13/metabolism , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism
9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1233: 340486, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060277

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has posed a huge challenge to rapid and accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the early stage of infection. In this work, we developed a novel magnetic/fluorescent dual-modal lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on multifunctional nanobeads for rapid and accurate determination of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP). The multifunctional nanobeads were fabricated by using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a mediate shell to combine superparamagnetic Fe3O4 core with dual quantum dot shells (MagDQD). The core-shell structure of MagDQD label with high loading density of quantum dots (QDs) and superior magnetic content realized LFIA with dual quantitative analysis modal from the assemblies of individual single nanoparticles. The LFIA integrated the advantages of magnetic signal and fluorescent signal, resulting excellent accuracy for quantitative analysis and high elasticity of the overall detection. In addition, magnetic signal and fluorescent signal both had high sensitivity with the limit of detection (LOD) as 0.235 ng mL-1 and 0.012 ng mL-1, respectively. The recovery rates of the methods in simulated saliva samples were 91.36%-103.60% (magnetic signal) and 94.39%-104.38% (fluorescent signal). The results indicate the method has a considerable potential to be an effective tool for diagnose SARS-CoV-2 in the early stage of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Polyethyleneimine , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Magnetic Phenomena
10.
Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045638

ABSTRACT

Rapid, convenient and accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently needed to timely diagnosis of coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) and control of the epidemic. In this study, a signal-off photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was constructed for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein detection based on a magnetic all-solid-state Z-scheme heterojunction (Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@CdS/Au, FSTCA). Integrating the advantages of magnetic materials and all-solid-state Z-scheme heterostructures, FSTCA was implemented to ligate the capture antibody to form magnetic capture probe (FSTCA/Ab1). It can simplify the separation and washing process to improve reproducibility and stability, while allowing immune recognition to be performed in the liquid phase instead of the traditional solid-liquid interface to improve anti-interference. Besides, the heterojunction inhibited the recombination of photogenerated electron/hole (e-/h+) and promoted the light absorption to provide superior photoelectric substrate signal. The mechanism of photogenerated e−/h+ transfer of FSTCA were investigated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. SiO2 spheres loaded with Au NPs utilized as an efficient signal quencher. The steric hindrance effect of SiO2@Au labeled detection antibodies (SiO2@Au-Ab2) conjugates significantly diminished light absorption and hindered the transfer of photogenerated electrons, further amplifying the signal change value. Based on the above merits, the elaborated immunosensor had a wide linear range of 10 pg mL−1 -100 ng mL−1 and a low detection limit down to 2.9 pg mL−1 (S/N = 3). The fabricated PEC immunosensor demonstrated strong anti-interference, easy operation, and high sensitivity, showing enormous potential in clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Graphical

11.
J Ambient Intell Humaniz Comput ; : 1-14, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943323

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes an optimal structured deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) based on the marine predator algorithm (MPA) to construct a novel automatic diagnosis platform that may help radiologists identify COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients based on CT scan categorization and analysis. The goal is met with the help of three modifications based on the regular MPA. First, a novel encoding scheme based on Internet Protocol (IP) addresses is proposed, followed by introducing an Enfeebled layer to build a variable-length DCNN. Finally, the learning process divides big datasets into smaller chunks that are randomly evaluated. The proposed model is compared to the COVID-CT and SARS-CoV-2 datasets to undertake a complete evaluation. Following that, the performance of the developed model (DCNN-IPMPA) is compared to that of a typical DCNN and seven variable-length models using five well-known comparison metrics, as well as the receiver operating characteristic and precision-recall curves. The results show that the DCNN-IPMPA outperforms other benchmarks, with a final accuracy of 97.21% on the SARS-CoV-2 dataset and 97.94% on the COVID-CT dataset. Also, timing analysis indicates that the DCNN processing time is the best among all benchmarks as expected; however, DCNN-IPMPA represents a competitive result compared to the standard DCNN.

13.
Virol Sin ; 37(3): 380-389, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730151

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic poses a global health emergency. Cellular entry of the causative agent SARS-CoV-2 is mediated by its spike protein interacting with cellular receptor-human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, by using lentivirus based pseudotypes bearing spike protein, we demonstrated that entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells was dependent on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and phosphoinositides played essential roles during this process. In addition, we showed that the intracellular domain and the catalytic activity of ACE2 were not required for efficient virus entry. Finally, we showed that the current predominant Delta variant, although with high infectivity and high syncytium formation, also entered cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results provide new insights into SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry and present proof of principle that targeting viral entry could be an effective way to treat different variant infections.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Clathrin/metabolism , Endocytosis , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(3)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686941

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the progression of visual fatigue induced by visual display terminal (VDT) using automatically detected blink features. A total of 23 subjects were recruited to participate in a VDT task, during which they were required to watch a 120-min video on a laptop and answer a questionnaire every 30 min. Face video recordings were captured by a camera. The blinking and incomplete blinking images were recognized by automatic detection of the parameters of the eyes. Then, the blink features were extracted including blink number (BN), mean blink interval (Mean_BI), mean blink duration (Mean_BD), group blink number (GBN), mean group blink interval (Mean_GBI), incomplete blink number (IBN), and mean incomplete blink interval (Mean_IBI). The results showed that BN and GBN increased significantly, and that Mean_BI and Mean_GBI decreased significantly over time. Mean_BD and Mean_IBI increased and IBN decreased significantly only in the last 30 min. The blink features automatically detected in this study can be used to evaluate the progression of visual fatigue.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , Asthenopia/diagnosis , Blinking , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Video Recording
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(1): 73-108, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622955

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world and became a global pandemic in 2020. One promising drug target for SARS-CoV-2 is the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). This study was designed to explore the expression status, prognostic significance and molecular functions of TMPRSS2 in lung cancer. TMPRSS2 expression was investigated using the TIMER, Oncomine, UALCAN, GEO, HPA and TCGA databases. The prognostic value of TMPRSS2 was examined using Cox regression and a nomogram. KEGG, GO and GSEA were performed to investigate the cellular function of TMPRSS2 in lung cancer. The relationship between TMPRSS2 and immune infiltration was determined using the TIMER and CIBERSORT algorithms. TMPRSS2 mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in lung cancer. Decreased TMPRSS2 expression and increased DNA methylation of TMPRSS2 were associated with various clinicopathological parameters in patients with lung cancer. Low TMPRSS2 mRNA expression also correlated with poor outcome in lung cancer patients. Moreover, a nomogram was constructed and exhibited good predictive power for the overall survival of lung cancer patients. KEGG and GO analyses and GSEA implied that multiple immune- and metabolism-related pathways were significantly linked with TMPRSS2 expression. Intriguingly, TMPRSS2 expression associated with immune cell infiltration in lung cancer. More importantly, TMPRSS2 expression was markedly decreased in SARS-CoV-infected cells. These findings indicate that TMPRSS2 may be a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for lung cancer through metabolic pathways and immune cell infiltration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Immune System/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Young Adult
16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 79: 114-121, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic which may compromise the management of vascular emergencies. An uncompromised treatment for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) during such a health crisis represents a challenge. This study aimed to demonstrate the treatment outcomes of rAAA and the perioperative prevention of cross-infection under the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In cases of rAAA during the pandemic, a perioperative workflow was applied to expedite coronavirus testing and avoid pre-operative delay, combined with a strategy for preventing cross-infection. Data of rAAA treated in 11 vascular centers between January-March 2020 collected retrospectively were compared to the corresponding period in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Eight, 12, and 14 rAAA patients were treated in 11 centers in January-March 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. An increased portion were treated at local hospitals with a comparable outcome compared with large centers in Guangzhou. With EVAR-first strategy, 85.7% patients with rAAA in 2020 underwent endovascular repair, similar to that in 2018 and 2019. The surgical outcomes during the pandemic were not inferior to that in 2018 and 2019. The average length of ICU stay was 1.8 ± 3.4 days in 2020, tending to be shorter than that in 2018 and 2019, whereas the length of hospital stay was similar among 3 years. The in-hospital mortality of 2018, 2019, and 2020 was 37.5%, 25.0%, and 14.3%, respectively. Three patients undergoing emergent surgeries were suspected of COVID-19, though turned out to be negative after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience for emergency management of rAAA and infection prevention for healthcare providers is effective in optimizing emergent surgical outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Rupture/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnosis , Aortic Rupture/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , China , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Workflow
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 677025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403470

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global crisis; however, our current understanding of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains limited. Herein, we performed RNA sequencing using peripheral blood from acute and convalescent patients and interrogated the dynamic changes of adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection over time. Our results revealed numerous alterations in these cohorts in terms of gene expression profiles and the features of immune repertoire. Moreover, a machine learning method was developed and resulted in the identification of five independent biomarkers and a collection of biomarkers that could accurately differentiate and predict the development of COVID-19. Interestingly, the increased expression of one of these biomarkers, UCHL1, a molecule related to nervous system damage, was associated with the clustering of severe symptoms. Importantly, analyses on immune repertoire metrics revealed the distinct kinetics of T-cell and B-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with B-cell response plateaued in the acute phase and declined thereafter, whereas T-cell response can be maintained for up to 6 months post-infection onset and T-cell clonality was positively correlated with the serum level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Together, the significantly altered genes or biomarkers, as well as the abnormally high levels of B-cell response in acute infection, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 through mediating inflammation and immune responses, whereas prolonged T-cell response in the convalescents might help these patients in preventing reinfection. Thus, our findings could provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of host immune response to COVID-19 and facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies and effective vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/chemistry , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/immunology
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(16): 2249-2254, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343564

ABSTRACT

The enhanced osteoblast differentiation is beneficial to the prevention of osteoporosis. In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (LRP-S2A) with the potential of promoting osteoblast differentiation was obtained from the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum, a traditional herb for treatment of postmenopausal metabolic disorders. Structural identification indicated that LRP-S2A, with a relative molecular weight of 2.65 × 106 Da and an uronic acid content of 41.8%, contained Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc and GlcA in a molar ratio of 1.00 : 2.07 : 0.57 : 2.59 : 4.33 and was composed of a backbone consisting of 6-O-Me-α-(1→4)-D-GlcpA, 2-O-acetyl-α-(1→4)-D-Glcp, α-(1→2,4)-L-Rhap, ß-(1→3)-D-Galp andα-(1→3,5)-L-Araf, and some branches consisting of 6-O-Me-α-(1→4)-D-GlcpA and terminal α-L-Araf. These results suggested that LRP-S2A with the potential of promoting osteoblast differentiation was a new acidic polysaccharide.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Lycium/chemistry , Osteoblasts/cytology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Weight , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Uronic Acids/analysis
19.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(8): e10239, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335457

ABSTRACT

Understanding the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying potential therapeutics are global imperatives. Using a quantitative systems pharmacology approach, we identified a set of repurposable and investigational drugs as potential therapeutics against COVID-19. These were deduced from the gene expression signature of SARS-CoV-2-infected A549 cells screened against Connectivity Map and prioritized by network proximity analysis with respect to disease modules in the viral-host interactome. We also identified immuno-modulating compounds aiming at suppressing hyperinflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients, based on the transcriptome of ACE2-overexpressing A549 cells. Experiments with Vero-E6 cells infected by SARS-CoV-2, as well as independent syncytia formation assays for probing ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell fusion using HEK293T and Calu-3 cells, showed that several predicted compounds had inhibitory activities. Among them, salmeterol, rottlerin, and mTOR inhibitors exhibited antiviral activities in Vero-E6 cells; imipramine, linsitinib, hexylresorcinol, ezetimibe, and brompheniramine impaired viral entry. These novel findings provide new paths for broadening the repertoire of compounds pursued as therapeutics against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Salmeterol Xinafoate/pharmacology , Vero Cells
20.
Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics ; 23(11):1841-1860, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319115

ABSTRACT

Previous research has overlooked the influence of non-mega sport events on local residents' perceptions of quality of life and their attitude toward the hosting of events;in particular, there is a major research void in understanding residents' opinions in Chinese cities that are making escalated efforts in staging small to medium size sport events. This study examined the relationships among the perceived impacts of sport event, quality of life, and event support of local residents at a marathon event in China. Findings revealed that perceived psychological and social impacts by local residents were found to be positively predictive of their quality of life and event support, perceived economic impact had no significant influence, perceived environmental impact was significant in facilitating residents' quality of life although it was not influential of their support for the event directly. Implications are discussed furtherly.

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