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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774279

ABSTRACT

AIM: To understand the awareness of the willingness to be vaccinated and influencing factors of the new coronavirus vaccine (neo-crown vaccine) among medical personnel in North China and to provide a theoretical basis and application guidelines for the feasibility of coronavirus vaccination by medical personnel to guide the public to actively be vaccinated by taking initiative and obtaining a coronavirus vaccination as soon as possible. METHODS: From April 2021 to June 2021, medical staff in North China were selected to complete an online questionnaire survey using Questionnaire Star to analyze the willingness rate to be vaccinated with the new coronavirus vaccine, and the influencing factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 621 respondents, 85.7% were willing to be vaccinated after the launch of the new vaccine. In the questionnaire, respondents were asked to answer questions such as "Do you think it is better to receive as few vaccines as possible at the same time?," "If I get the new coronavirus vaccine, I may have serious side effects.," "The new coronavirus vaccine is safe.," "Specifically, for the new coronavirus vaccine, do you think it is safe?," and "Specifically, for the new coronavirus vaccine, do you think it is easy to administer?." These beliefs have an important influence on the vaccination of medical staff with the new coronavirus vaccine in Northern China (OR = 1.610,95% CI: 1.055 ~ 2.456; OR = 1.715,95% CI: 1.164 ~ 2.526; OR = 0.401, 95% CI: 0.212 ~ 0.760; OR = 0.352,95% CI: 0.147 ~ 0.843; OR = 3.688,95% CI: 1.281 ~ 10.502, respectively; All P values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Medical staff have a high willingness to be vaccinated with the new coronavirus vaccine, which plays a positive role in the publicity of the vaccine.

3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736087

ABSTRACT

Anti-COVID-19 vaccination may have functional implications for immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment in patients with cancer. This study was undertaken to determine whether the safety or efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy is reduced in patients with cancer during COVID-19 vaccination. A large multicenter observational study was conducted in 83 Chinese hospitals between January 28, 2021 and September 30, 2021. A total of 3552 patients were screened and 2048 eligible patients with cancer receiving PD-1 inhibitor treatment were recruited. All enrolled patients had received camrelizumab treatment alone or in conjunction with other cancer therapies. Among these, 1518 (74.1%) patients received the BBIBP-CorV vaccine and were defined as the vaccinated subgroup. The remaining 530 (25.9%) patients did not receive anti-COVID-19 vaccination and were defined as the non-vaccinated subgroup. For all participants, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of camrelizumab treatment, respectively. Propensity score match analysis with the optimal pair matching was used to compare these criteria between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated subgroups. A total of 2048 eligible patients with cancer were included (median age 59 years, 27.6% female). Most patients (98.8%) had metastatic cancer of the lung, liver or intestinal tract. Aside from the PD-1 inhibitor treatment, 55.9% of patients received additional cancer therapies. 1518 (74.1%) patients received the BBIBP-CorV vaccine with only mild side effects reported. The remaining patients did not receive COVID-19 vaccination and had a statistically greater percentage of comorbidities. After matching for age, gender, cancer stage/types, comorbidity and performance status, 1060 patients (530 pairs) were selected for propensity score match analysis. This analysis showed no significant differences in overall response rate (25.3% vs 28.9%, p=0.213) and disease control rate (64.6% vs 67.0%, p=0.437) between vaccinated and non-vaccinated subgroups. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were reported in both subgroups after camrelizumab treatment. Among vaccinated patients who experienced irAEs, the median interval between the first dose of camrelizumab treatment and the first vaccine shot was ≤16 days. Compared with the non-vaccinated subgroup, irAEs in vaccinated patients were more frequently reported as mild (grade 1 or 2 irAEs; 33.8% vs 19.8%, p<0.001) and these patients were less likely to discontinue the PD-1 inhibitor treatment (4.2% vs 20.4%, p<0.001). Severe irAEs (grade 3 irAE or higher) related to camrelizumab treatment were reported, however no significant differences in the frequency of such events were observed between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated subgroups. The COVID-19 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV, did not increase severe anti-PD-1-related adverse events nor did it reduce the clinical efficacy of camrelizumab in patients with cancer. Thus, we conclude that patients with cancer need not suspend anti-PD-1 treatment during COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
4.
Virology ; 569: 56-63, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721064

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) kappa (B.1.617.1) variant represented the main variant of concern (VOC) for the epidemic in India in May 2021. We have previously established a technology platform for rapidly preparing SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) candidate vaccines based on glycoengineered Pichia pastoris. Our previous study revealed that the wild-type RBD (WT-RBD) formulated with aluminum hydroxide and CpG 2006 adjuvant effectively induces neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice. In the present study, a glycoengineered P. pastoris expression system was used to prepare recombinant kappa-RBD candidate vaccine. Kappa-RBD formulated with CpG and alum induced BALB/c mice to produce a potent antigen-specific antibody response and neutralizing antibody titers against pseudoviruses of SARS-CoV-2 kappa, delta, lambda, beta, and omicron variants and WT. Therefore, the recombinant kappa-RBD vaccine has sufficient potency to be a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Receptors, Opioid, kappa , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomycetales , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329407

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has a severe impact on global public health, and the emerging variants threaten the efficacy of the circulating vaccines. Here, we report that a single vaccination with a non-replicated Chimpanzee adenovirus-based vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 variant (JS1-delta) elicits potent humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity in mice. Additionally, a single intranasal administration of JS1-delta provides sufficient protection against B.1.617.2 challenge in mice. This study indicates that Chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 (ChAd3) derived vector represents a promising platform for antiviral vaccine development against respiratory infections, and that JS1-delta is worth further investigation in human clinical trials.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(13): 5702-5707, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713118

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence and spread of escaping mutations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has significantly challenged our efforts in fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. A broadly neutralizing reagent against these concerning variants is thus highly desirable for the prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We herein report a covalent engineering strategy on protein minibinders for potent neutralization of the escaping variants such as B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.617.1 (Kappa), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) through in situ cross-linking with the spike receptor binding domain (RBD). The resulting covalent minibinder (GlueBinder) exhibited enhanced blockage of RBD-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (huACE2) interaction and more potent neutralization effect against the Delta variant than its noncovalent counterpart as demonstrated on authentic virus. By leveraging the covalent chemistry against escaping mutations, our strategy may be generally applicable for restoring and enhancing the potency of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and other rapidly evolving viral targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 780751, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690462

ABSTRACT

More than 200 million people have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 4 million deaths have been reported worldwide to date. Cathepsin B/cathepsin L (CTSB/L) are SARS-CoV-2 entry-associated proteases and facilitate SARS-CoV-2 to infect host cells. However, the expressions of CTSB/L in healthy individuals and cancer patients remain not fully elucidated yet. Here, we comprehensively profiled the expressions and distributions of CTSB/L in human normal tissues, cancer tissues, and cell lines. Moreover, we compared CTSB/L expressions between various cancers and matched normal tissues, and investigated their genetic alteration and prognostic values in pan-cancer. Finally, we also explored the correlation between CTSB/L expressions and immune infiltration. We found that CTSB was highly expressed in most tissues, and CTSL was highly expressed predominantly in the digestive, urinary, and respiratory systems, such as the lungs, liver and gallbladder, and kidney tissues in the translational level. Moreover, cancer patients may be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data suggested that CTSB/L are overexpressed in aerodigestive and genitourinary cancers when compared with that in matched normal tissues, and their expressions were closely related to the prognosis of some cancer types. Interestingly, CTSB/L expressions were significantly correlated with immune cell infiltration in manifold cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. In conclusion, our study shows a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of two important SARS-CoV-2 entry-related proteases, which could provide a potential indication on prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324186

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 have been thought to originate from bat, but whether the cross-species transmission occurred directly from bat to human or through an intermediate host remains elusive. In this study, we performed CoV screening of 102 samples collected from animal-selling stalls of Wuhan Huanan Market (WHM) and pharyngeal and anal swabs from13,064 bats collected at 703 locations across China, covering almost all known southern hotspots for sarbecovirus, between 2016 and 2021. This is the first systematic survey of bat CoV in China during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019. We found four non-sarbeco CoVs in samples of WHM, and 142 SARS-CoV related CoVs (SARSr-CoV) and 4 recombinant CoVs in bats, of which YN2020B-G share the highest sequence identity with SARS-CoV among all known bat CoVs, suggesting endemic SARSr-CoVs in bats in China. However, we did not find any SARS-CoV-2 related CoVs (SC2r-CoV) in any samples, including specimens collected from the only two domestic places where RaTG13 and RmYN02 were previously reported (the Tongguan caves and the karst caves around the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden), indicating that SC2r-CoVs might not actively circulate among bats in China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there are three different lineages of sarbecoviruses, L1 (SARSr-CoV), L2 (SC2r-CoV), and L-R (a novel CoV lineage from L1 and L2 recombination), in China. Of note, L-R CoVs are only found in R. pusillus. Further macroscopical analysis of the genetic diversity, host specificity for colonization and accidental infection, and geographical characteristics of available CoVs in database revealed the presence of a general geographical distribution pattern for bat sarbecoviruses, with the highest genetic diversity and sequence homology to SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 along the southwest border of China, the least in the northwest of China. Considering the receptor binding motifs for spike gene of sarbecoviruses in Indochina Peninsula show the greatest diversity, our data provide the rationale that extensive surveys in further south and southwest to or of China might be needed for finding closer ancestors of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323624

ABSTRACT

Background: Experimental biological research and clinical trials that relied on the healthcare system, access to public laboratory equipment, and adequate space were particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and mobility restrictions. The study is to analyze the influence of COVID-19 on medical research by exploring the clinical trials and articles published by medical researchers worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Routinely conducted, deferred, and terminated clinical trial statistics from the Cancer Center of Tongji Hospital were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of global medical articles published in 2020 and those from the previous five years were analyzed according to the PubMed database. To conduct subgroup analyses, the articles were classified according to type and research field. Results: The total number of publications per month in 2020 increased compared to the number of articles published in 2019. However, a decrease in the number of clinical trials was noted. Reviews and research papers increased by 7.28% and 20.60%, respectively. The number of clinical trial published decreased by 62.29%. The proportion of cancer-related publications (38.44% vs. 44.79%) decreased, whereas the proportion of immunology, pulmonology, and emergency publications (19.23% vs. 17.48%) increased. In the Cancer Center of the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic, of the 46 clinical trials analyzed, 37 (80.40%) were delayed, 8 (17.40%) were remote, and 1 (2.20%) was routine. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic had promoted the publication of medical research articles especially those related to the immunology, pulmonology, and emergency medicine. It had a pronounced negative impact on the execution and publication of clinical trials.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322152

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the clinical features and deep-learning (DL) based quantitative CT finding’s applications and evolution as well as the correlations in COVID-19. Methods: : 273 chest CT scans (median interval, 6 days) from 75 COVID-19 RT-PCT positive patients (53 moderate and 22 severe) were included. Quantification parameters, such as CT value distribution, lesion (abnormal), GGO, consolidation rates, Hellinger distance and IOU, were automatically extracted from CT images by a combination of traditional image process algorithm and DL network. Clinical characteristics were also collected and analysed. Results: : The hypertension and diabetes were more common in severity. The CRP, ESP, LDH and D-dimer were higher while LYM and LYM% lower in severity ( P < 0.05). The DL network was detected the lesions to obtain quantitively CT indicators, with fast to process a chest CT images (average time, 2.2s) and high overlap with radiologist. The hellinger, abnormal, GGO, consolidation rates and HU values were higher and the IOU lower in severity than moderate patients ( P < 0.05). The largest AUC was 0.943, using the cutoff value of 10.5% for abnormal rate. The CT score have postive correlations with CRP, D-dimer and ESR ( P < 0.05). The increased levels of ESR and D-dimer were positively correlated with abnormal, consolidation and GGO rates ( P < 0.05). Investigation for quantitative CT changes were performed in three periods: 1) 1-2 weeks, CT score and abnormal rate were increased. The GGO converted to consolidation in severity;2) 2-5 weeks, CT scores stable trend, while abnormal and GGO rates had upward trend in severity;3) > 5weeks, CT score and abnormal rate have decreased. Conclusions: : There were three phases of two patterns’ evolutionary trends in quantitative CT findings with differences in two groups, and have correlations with laboratory markers, which helpful for evaluating severity and prognosis in COVID-19 patients.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318608

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to explore and compare a novel deep learning-based quantification with the conventional semi-quantitative computed tomography (CT) scoring for the serial chest CT scans of COVID-19. Materials: and Methods: 95 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and a total of 465 serial chest CT scans were involved, including 61 moderate patients (moderate group, 319 chest CT scans) and 34 severe patients (severe group, 146 chest CT scans). Conventional CT scoring and deep learning-based quantification were performed for all chest CT scans for two study goals: 1. Correlation between these two estimations;2. Exploring the dynamic patterns using these two estimations between moderate and severe groups. Results: : The Spearman’s correlation coefficient between these two estimation methods was 0.920 ( p <0.001). predicted pulmonary involvement (CT score and percent of pulmonary lesions calculated using deep learning-based quantification) increased more rapidly and reached a higher peak on 23 rd days from symptom onset in severe group, which reached a peak on 18 th days in moderate group with faster absorption of the lesions. Conclusions: : The deep learning-based quantification for COVID-19 showed a good correlation with the conventional CT scoring and demonstrated a potential benefit in the estimation of disease severities of COVID-19.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313435

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments and especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. Methods In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. Results Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cells subsets and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, outperforming previous risk models, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. Conclusions The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309352

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the quantitative parameters of CT scans performed on pregnant women with COVID-19 who had different reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results. Methods: Pregnant women with suspected cases of COVID-19 pneumonia (confirmed by next-generation sequencing or RT-PCR) who underwent high-resolution lung CT scans were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were grouped based on the results of the RT-PCR and the first CT scan: group 1 (double positive patients;positive RT-PCR and CT scan) and group 2 (negative RT-PCR and positive CT scan). The imaging features and their distributions were extracted and compared between the two groups. Results: Seventy-eight patients were admitted to the hospital between Dec 20, 2019, and Feb 29, 2020. The mean age of the patients was 31.82 years (SD 4.1, ranged from 21 to 46 years). The cohort included 14 (17.95%) patients with a positive RT-PCR test and 64 (82.05%) with a negative RT-PCR test, there were 37 (47.44%) patients with a positive CT scan, and 41 (52.56%) patients with a negative CT scan. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of CT-based diagnosis of COVID-19 were 85.71%, 60.94%, 32.40%, 95.12% and 65.38%, respectively. COVID-19 pneumonia mainly involved the right lower lobe of the lung. There were 53 semi-quantitative and 59 quantitative parameters, which were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the quantitative parameters. However, the Hellinger distance was significantly different between the two groups, albeit with a limited diagnostic value (AUC=0.63). Conclusions: Pregnant women with pneumonia usually present with typical abnormal signs on CT. Although multidimensional CT quantitative parameters are somewhat different between groups of patients with different RT-PCR results, it is still impossible to accurately predict whether the RT-PCR will be positive, which would allow for the earlier detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308164

ABSTRACT

Background: No studies have yet reported the effect of prevention and control measures, which were implemented to combat COVID-19, on the prevention and control of common HAIs. We aimed to examine the effect of the “Normalized Epidemic Prevention and Control Requirements” (implemented in May 2020) by comparison of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and community-acquired infections (CAIs) in China during 2018, 2019, and 2020. Methods: : Data of inpatients before and after implementation of new requirements were retrospectively analyzed, including infection rate, use of alcohol-based hand cleaner, anatomical sites of infections, pathogen species, infection by multi-drug-resistant species, use of different antibiotics, and antibiotic use density. Results: : The HAI rate was significantly higher in 2020 than in 2018 and 2019 ( P< 0.05), and the CAI rate was significantly higher in 2019 and 2020 than in 2018 ( P <0.001). Lower respiratory tract infections were the most common HAI during all years, with no significant changes over time. Lower respiratory tract infections were also the most common CAI, but were significantly more common in 2018 and 2019 than 2020 ( P <0.001). There were no changes in upper respiratory tract infections among HAIs or CAIs. Most HAIs and CAIs were from Gram-negative bacteria, and the percentages of fungal infections were greater in 2019 and 2020 than 2018. MRSA infections were more common in 2020 than in 2018 and 2019 ( P< 0.05). The utilization rate and usage days of antibiotics decreased over time ( P <0.001), the culture rate of microbial specimens before antibiotics usage increased over time ( P <0.001), but antibiotic use density remained steady over time. Conclusions: : The new prevention and control requirements provided important benefits during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, their effects on HAIs were not obvious.

16.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325875

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, an essential public health measure to limit the spread of contagious diseases, has gained significant attention since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, the problem of visual social distancing compliance assessment in busy public areas, with wide field-of-view cameras, is considered. A dataset of crowd scenes with people annotations under a bird's eye view (BEV) and ground truth for metric distances is introduced, and several measures for the evaluation of social distance detection systems are proposed. A multi-branch network, BEV-Net, is proposed to localize individuals in world coordinates and identify high-risk regions where social distancing is violated. BEV-Net combines detection of head and feet locations, camera pose estimation, a differentiable homography module to map image into BEV coordinates, and geometric reasoning to produce a BEV map of the people locations in the scene. Experiments on complex crowded scenes demonstrate the power of the approach and show superior performance over baselines derived from methods in the literature. Applications of interest for public health decision makers are finally discussed. Datasets, code and pretrained models are publicly available at GitHub.

17.
World journal of clinical cases ; 10(1):104-116, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1640299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with a better prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (the so-called obesity survival paradox), but conflicting results have been found. AIM To investigate the relationship between all-cause mortality and body mass index in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS This retrospective study included patients with community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized in the First Hospital of Qinhuangdao from June 2013 to November 2018. The patients were grouped as underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m2), and overweight/obesity (≥ 24 kg/m2). The primary outcome was all-cause hospital mortality. RESULTS Among 2327 patients, 297 (12.8%) were underweight, 1013 (43.5%) normal weight, and 1017 (43.7%) overweight/obesity. The all-cause hospital mortality was 4.6% (106/2327). Mortality was lowest in the overweight/obesity group and highest in the underweight group (2.8%, vs 5.0%, vs 9.1%, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality of overweight/obesity patients was lower than normal-weight patients [odds ratio (OR) = 0.535, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.334-0.855, P = 0.009], while the all-cause mortality of underweight patients was higher than that of normal-weight patients (OR = 1.886, 95%CI: 1.161-3.066, P = 0.010). Multivariable analysis showed that abnormal neutrophil counts (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.55-3.65, P < 0.001), abnormal albumin levels (OR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.06-0.72, P = 0.014), high-risk Confusion-Urea-Respiration-Blood pressure-65 score (OR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.48-5.64, P = 0.002), and intensive care unit admission (OR = 3.11, 95%CI: 1.77-5.49, P < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION All-cause mortality of normal-weight patients was higher than overweight/ obesity patients, lower than that of underweight patients. Neutrophil counts, albumin levels, Confusion-Urea-Respiration-Blood pressure-65 score, and intensive care unit admission were independently associated with mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

18.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(10):4703, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1619209

ABSTRACT

Using the method of sewage epidemiology, the occurrence characteristics and changes of two typical psychoactive drugs methamphetamine and ketamine in the domestic sewage of a city in Guangdong Province during and before and after the new crown epidemic in 2020 were studied, and the mobile phone signaling data was used to analyze The total population, structural characteristics and their change laws were combined to analyze the changes in the consumption of the two drugs during the epidemic and before and after the epidemic. The results show that the actual population of the city during the epidemic decreased by about 45% compared with before the epidemic. The total consumption of various drugs has dropped by about 75% compared to before the epidemic. The significant decline in total consumption was largely caused by the actual population decline during the epidemic. In fact, the per capita consumption levels of methamphetamine and ketamine in the city during the epidemic Compared with the pre-epidemic drop of less than 50%. Taking into account the strict control measures during the epidemic, this decline shows that the abuse of these two psychotropic substances is extremely stubborn;after the epidemic, the consumption of the two drugs and their concentrations in the environment have increased significantly. It has basically returned to the level before the epidemic, which further proves the stubbornness of psychotropic substance abuse.

19.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:87-87, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1594453

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (AIDP) also known as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) associated with a COVID-19 infection. B Introduction: b Severe infection of the SARS-CoV2 virus is characterized by acute respiratory failure with multiple organ system dysfunction. 206: COVID-19-ASSOCIATED ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING POLYNEUROPATHY (GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME). [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294549

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, an essential public health measure to limit the spread of contagious diseases, has gained significant attention since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, the problem of visual social distancing compliance assessment in busy public areas, with wide field-of-view cameras, is considered. A dataset of crowd scenes with people annotations under a bird's eye view (BEV) and ground truth for metric distances is introduced, and several measures for the evaluation of social distance detection systems are proposed. A multi-branch network, BEV-Net, is proposed to localize individuals in world coordinates and identify high-risk regions where social distancing is violated. BEV-Net combines detection of head and feet locations, camera pose estimation, a differentiable homography module to map image into BEV coordinates, and geometric reasoning to produce a BEV map of the people locations in the scene. Experiments on complex crowded scenes demonstrate the power of the approach and show superior performance over baselines derived from methods in the literature. Applications of interest for public health decision makers are finally discussed. Datasets, code and pretrained models are publicly available at GitHub.

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