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1.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 14(4):2244-2255, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935224

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 epidemic quickly under control in China in the early stage of 2020, global cooperation/ communications may pose great challenges to epidemic control and prevention in the country. Large-scale spread by asymptomatic carriers was a concern. We obtained data on new cluster outbreak regions with COVID-19 caused by asymptomatic carriers from June 2020 to May 2021 in China, and reported the epidemiological characteristics, the possible routes of viral transmission and infection, and different control strategies. These results show the importance of regular screening for high-risk populations and differential management strategies for epidemic control, which provide an objective basis for suppressing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These experiences can be used as a reference to minimize the subsequent spread of virus mutants in various places.

2.
European Journal of Operational Research ; 300(2):590-601, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1926419

ABSTRACT

Newsvendor problems (NVP) form a classical and important family of stochastic optimisation problems. In this paper, we consider a data-driven method proposed recently by Ban and Rudin. We first examine it from a statistical viewpoint, and establish a connection with quantile regression. We then extend the approach to nonlinear NVP. Finally, we give extensive experimental results, on both simulated and real data. The results indicate that the approach performs as well as conventional ones when applied to linear NVP, but performs better when applied to nonlinear NVP. There is also evidence that the approach is more robust with respect to model misspecification. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

3.
Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 139(SUPPL 1):95S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925458

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Social media claims of COVID-19 vaccination causing infertility has contributed to vaccine hesitancy among reproductive-aged women. YouTube is the most extensively used video sharing platform, delivering information to 2.3 billion users. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the accuracy, content, and viewership of YouTube videos on COVID-19 vaccines and fertility. METHODS: YouTube videos identified using the search term 'COVID vaccine fertility' were classified independently by three professionals. Five-point ordinal scales were used to grade reliability and quality. Information regarding source of upload, video content in six pre-defined domains, reasons for vaccine hesitancy in eight pre-defined domains, and various video-viewer interaction metrics were collected. RESULTS: Of the 112 videos with cumulative duration of 17.2 hours and viewership of approximately 3.5 million, 16 (14.41%) were from government/professional societies, 41 (36.94%) were from hospitals, 36 (32.43 %) were from News/Commercial organizations, and 18 (16.22%) were from individual users. Videos from government/professional societies were rated more likely to be useful and had the highest quality scores. However, individual accounts had the highest viewership at a median of 286.5 views per day compared to 28.8 views per day for government videos (P<.05). Among videos from government/professional societies, 62.50% reported on pregnancy related complications. In contrast, among individual videos, 66.67% reported on COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials. Among all videos, the most reported reason for vaccine hesitancy were claims of antibodies disrupting placentation. CONCLUSION: Social media websites such as YouTube may provide an accessible platform for disseminating information to reproductive-aged women contemplating COVID-19 vaccination.

4.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; 38(5):494-499, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1912211

ABSTRACT

[Background] The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019. To combat the disease, a series of strict measures were adopted across the country, which led of improved air quality. This provides an opportunity to discuss the impact of human activities on air quality. [Objective] This study investigates the air quality changes in Shijiazhuang, and analyzes the impacts of epidemic prevention and control measures on air quality, so as to provide reference and ideas for further improving air quality and prevention and control measures. [Methods] The air quality data were collected online from https://www.zq12369.com/ and https://aqicn.org/city/shijiazhuang/cn/. Comparisons in air quality index (AQI) and the concentrations of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, and O3) were made between the period from December 2019 to June 2020 (reference) and the same period from 2016 to 2019 by t-test and chi-square test. [Results] The daily average AQI dropped by 25.38% in Shijiazhuang during the COVID-19 prevention and control compared with the some period from 2016 to 2019 (t=6.28, P < 0.05). The proportions of pollution days during the COVID-19 outbreak in Shijiazhuang were PM2.5 (44.56%), O3 (31.09%), PM10 (23.83%), and NO2 (2.59%) successively, the pollution days of PM10 decreased significantly (χ2=3.86, P < 0.05) compared with 2016-2019, but during traffic lockdown the numbers of pollution days of PM2.5 and in the mid stage of prevention the number of pollution days of O3 increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control period, the concentrations of the six air pollutants decreased to varying degrees (P < 0.05), especially SO2 dropped by 55.36%. [Conclusion] The measures taken for COVID-19 control and prevention have reduced the pollution sources and emissions, which resulted in better general air quality of Shijiazhuang City, but have aggravated the pollution of O3 and other pollutants. It is necessary to further explore the causes for the aggravation of O3 pollution in order to formulate reasonable air quality control strategies. © 2021, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention. All rights reserved.

5.
Lecture Notes in Educational Technology ; : 439-460, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899075

ABSTRACT

Tertiary education in Hong Kong has dramatically changed after the outbreak of COVID-19. Teaching pedagogy and delivery method have been transformed into “Contactless Learning and Teaching” and online learning. However, the focus has been on online learning while seldom analyzing the effect of “Contactless Learning and Teaching” among previous research. This research addressed this gap by studying 156 university students in Hong Kong. ATLAS, a mobile app integrated with iBeacon technology was developed to deliver learning materials in “Contactless Learning and Teaching”. The findings indicated that students who spent more time on “Contactless Learning and Teaching” have better academic performance. The active participation in “Contactless Learning and Teaching” and better academic results could also be explained by the Technology Acceptance Model in this study. The current study proves that iBeacon displays the potential of delivering learning and teaching materials amid the pandemic using the “Contactless Learning and Teaching” approach. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

6.
8th International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, ITAP 2022, held as part of the 24th International Conference, HCI International 2022 ; 13331 LNCS:320-332, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1898999

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the choice of health care for the elderly population after Covid-19. Based on previous studies, the study innovatively adds the influence of the improvement of digital medical technology and the degree of aging-friendly of different hospitals on the choice of medical institutions for the elderly. The study used a combination of literature research, questionnaires, interviews and factor analysis to identify the main factors influencing the choice of healthcare for the elderly. The results of the study showed that the three most important factors influencing older people's choice of medical seeking behavior were their willingness of treatment, community evaluation and the aging-friendly improvements. The data from this study will be used to analysis the pain points of the elderly in seeking medical treatment and to make recommendations to improve their medical experience. It is hoped that this study will provide some ideas for the development of a model of healthcare access for older people, and better guide them in their healthcare seeking behavior. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies ; 17:678-685, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886438

ABSTRACT

Windows are the communication medium between indoor and outdoor, but their influence and the corresponding landscape outside the window are often ignored due to the outdoor frequent activities of people. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a better choice to show the window performance, especially for the anxiety level alleviation of people isolated at home. A national survey was conducted on the anxiety of self-separation people and the window influence. The results showed that the average anxiety level was 1.54, between a little anxious and anxious, due to the COVID-19. The best satisfaction with the landscape outside the window was waterscape (2.98), followed by green plants (2.33) and buildings (0.83). During the COVID-19, the average number of overlook times increased by 1.49 times/day, which is higher 0.42 ties/day than the normal condition. The landscape types had the certain influence on the overlook frequency, the window opening times and even the anxiety level. The average anxiety levels are 1.36 and 1.68 with natural landscapes and human landscapes, respectively. Optimizing the landscapes outside the window plays an important role in alleviating the anxiety of residents and improving their mental health.

8.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 53(11):3557-3563, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884661

ABSTRACT

Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines, including Huzhang (Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix), Lianqiao (Forsythiae Fructus), Baijiangcao (Herba Patriniae), Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix), etc. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules has exactly effects such as dispelling wind and clearing heat, removing toxin and relieving sore-throat, which had been used in treatment of respiratory infectious diseases with symptom like fever, intolerating wind in clinic for a long time. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are the recommended drugs for the "Influenza Diagnosis and Treatment Plan" (2020 version)issued by National Health Commission and "Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia in COVID-19"(version 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Pharmacological mechanism and clinical application of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules weresummarized in this paper, in order to summarize characteristic and the post-marketing research path of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules, and provide ideas for more post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine products.

9.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):266-267, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880059

ABSTRACT

Background: There are limited data on how COVID-19 disease severity and vaccination throughout different trimesters in pregnancy impact maternal neutralizing antibody responses and transplacental transfer to the neonate at birth. Further characterization of the antibody response of in utero SARS-CoV-2 may inform vaccination schedules in pregnancy in order to optimize maternal and neonatal protection. Methods: The COVID-19 Outcomes in Mother-Infant Pairs (COMP) study is a longitudinal cohort of mother-infant dyads diagnosed with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 at any point during pregnancy. Maternal and cord sera from delivery, as well as infant sera collected at 24 hours of life, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgA, IgG, and IgM targeting receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Neutralizing antibody (NAb) activity against the original L strain was evaluated in a subset of unvaccinated mother-infant dyads with evidence of IgG transfer or history of severe/critical COVID-19 in pregnancy. Results: Among 115 pregnant women, the NIH COVID-19 severity of illness categories were: 12% asymptomatic, 70% mild/moderate, 11% severe/critical disease, and 7% vaccinated prior to delivery following recovery. Fifty percent of the cohort was diagnosed in the 3rd trimester, and the median diagnosis date to delivery was 61.5 days (IQR 27.75-122.25). The majority (74%) of the cohort produced all three anti-SARS-CoV-2 isotypes, although 5% had no detectable antibody class. Transplacental transfer ratios increased with increasing duration between onset of infection and delivery (Figure 1, r2=0.17). Infant IgG levels (ng/mL) were the highest among neonates born to vaccinated mothers (Figure 1), and maternal IgG levels increased with disease severity, although vaccination elicited a comparable maternal antibody response to severe/critical disease (Figure 1). Among 50 maternal specimens, 80% demonstrated in vitro neutralization activity, and 52% of 33 neonatal specimens had NAb. Conclusion: While transplacental transfer of IgG was high with natural infection and correlates with increasing duration between onset of infection and delivery, only half of analyzed neonatal specimens demonstrated in vitro neutralization activity. Further research is needed to characterize the functionality and kinetics of both maternal and neonatal antibody responses elicited by in utero SARS-CoV-2 natural infection compared with COVID-19 vaccination.

10.
8th International Conference on Applied System Innovation, ICASI 2022 ; : 144-146, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1878957

ABSTRACT

The extremely high transmission rate of the COVID-19 has made the supply of medical resources in countries around the world in short supply. The implementation of quarantine in order to avoid group infections has a serious impact on the economy, transportation, education and other aspects. Epidemic prevention will be a routine task that needs to be carried out for a long time and cannot be neglected. In view of the fact that wearing masks is currently an effective method of epidemic prevention, and the current face detection models are not effective for masked faces, and pedestrians who have not worn masks in the correct way. It may spread the epidemic. This research will establish a face data set with three kinds of annotations, and combine a variety of deep learning convolutional neural network architectures and methods to design a face detection model that can quickly train and detect wearing a mask, not wearing a mask, and wearing a mask incorrectly faces. In the hope of contributing to the epidemic prevention, we use an adaptive algorithm to adjust the image size to reduce unnecessary operations, and modify the CIOU_LOSS error function to speed up the operation. Experiments have confirmed that our algorithm saves 70% of the time compared to YOLO v5m with the same accuracy. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
Frontiers in Political Science ; 4, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875427

ABSTRACT

Open science provides a bright light for global engineering and technology cooperation and promoting global sustainable development. The International Knowledge Centre for Engineering Sciences and Technology (IKCEST), a category II center under the auspices of UNESCO based in Beijing, aims at providing knowledge-based services at a global scale for policy-makers and engineering science and technology professionals in the world, with particular reference to the developing countries. IKCEST has established a platform with data resources and knowledge services at the core, which includes one general platform and several sub-platforms in its prioritized areas such as the disaster risk reduction (DRR), the intelligent city (ICITY), the engineering education (ENGEDU) and the silk road sciences and technology (SRST). Since the platform was put into operation, it has launched 38 knowledge applications (APPs), serving 3.26 million users from 220 countries and regions worldwide, and offered training for more than 18,000 persons from developing countries. In face of the pandemic, IKCEST set up a COVID-19 column which received positive feedback from users across the globe, the introductory video of which was publicized on the UNESCO official website. As a knowledge hub supporting global sustainable development goals (SDGs) and an open platform for global engineering initiatives, IKCEST will spare no efforts to make greater contributions to providing more tailored and valuable knowledge-based services for global users. Copyright © 2022 Chen, Liu, Ma, Zhang and Fang.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(11):125-131, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863361

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of Fuzheng Huayu tablets(FHT)for treating pulmonary inflammation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). Method:A total of 70(4 cases were lost to follow-up, and 66 cases were finally completed)COVID-19 patients were recruited from February 1 to April 15 in 2020. They were assigned to a control group(35 patients)and a FHT group(31 patients). The patients in the control group received routine treatment alone and those in the FHT group received FHT in addition to routine treatment. The primary outcome was the ratio of patients showing improvement in chest computed tomographic manifestations after 14 days. The secondary outcome measures included remission rate or progression rate of critical illness,clinical remission rate of respiratory symptoms,routine blood examination, C-reactive protein(CPR)level,procalcitonin(PCT)level,and blood oxygen saturation(SPO2 ). The safety was assessed based on liver and kidney functions and adverse events. Result: After the 14-day treatment,the ratio of patients showing improvement in the FHT group(100%)was higher than that in the control group (77.1%)(χ2 =8.063,P<0.01). The ratio of disease stages after treatment showed no significant difference between two groups. In the FHT group,the symptoms including cough,dyspnea,and fatigue were alleviated after treatment(P<0.01). In the control group,the symptoms including fever,cough,and dyspnea were alleviated(P<0.01),while the fatigue was not relieved after treatment. No significant difference was observed in the clinical symptoms between the two groups after treatment. After treatment,the FHT group showed decreased white blood cell(WBC)count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio(NLR)(P<0.01),elevated platelet(PLT)level(P<0.05),lowered CRP level(P<0.05),and no significant difference in lymphocyte (LYM),hemoglobin(Hb),SPO2 or PCT level. The control group showed decreased NLR(P<0.05)and WBC count(P<0.01),elevated PCT level(P<0.05),and no significant change in LYM,Hb,PLT,SPO2 or CRP level after treatment. Furthermore,the FHT group had higher PLT level than the control group(P<0.05)after treatment,and other indicators had no significant differences between the two groups. The liver and kidney functions had no significant difference between the two groups after treatment. Conclusion: FHT can safely promote the absorption of acute pulmonary inflammation in COVID-19 patients. © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

13.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337473

ABSTRACT

DNA methylation commonly occurs at cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) that can serve as biomarkers for many diseases. We analyzed whole genome sequencing data to identify DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) in 4,126 Framingham Heart Study participants. Our mQTL mapping identified 94,362,817 cis-mQTLvariant-CpG pairs (for 210,156 unique autosomal CpGs) at P<1e-7 and 33,572,145 trans-mQTL variant-CpG pairs (for 213,606 unique autosomal CpGs) at P<1e-14. Using cismQTL variants for 1,258 CpGs associated with seven cardiovascular disease risk factors, we found 104 unique CpGs that colocalized with at least one cardiovascular disease trait. For example, cg11554650 (PPP1R18) colocalized with type 2 diabetes, driven by a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2516396). We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis and demonstrated 58 putatively causal relations of CVD risk factor-associated CpGs to one or more risk factors (e.g., cg05337441 [APOB] with LDL;MR P=1.2e-99, and 17 causal associations with coronary artery disease (e.g. cg08129017 [SREBF1] with coronary artery disease;MR P=5e-13). We also showed that three CpGs, e.g., cg14893161 (PM20D1), are putatively causally associated with COVID-19 severity. To assist in future analyses of the role of DNA methylation in disease pathogenesis, we have created a browsable and downloadable resource of mQTLs through the NCBI Molecular QTL Browser.

14.
Shipin Kexue/Food Science ; 43(5):346-355, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847651

ABSTRACT

As an important immuneoactive component in eggs, yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) shows great competitiveness in research and production due to its good stability, high safety, low cost, easy availability, strong immune activity, and no drug resistance. This article highlights the significant advantages of IgY as a good antibiotic substitute in the prevention and treatment of viral and bacterial diseases. Also, IgY has great potential in the regulation of nutrient metabolism balance, intestinal microflora and immune homeostasis by affecting key rate-limiting enzymes, and relevant receptors and inflammatory factors specifically. Proper diet and targeted delivery of foodborne IgY may be a new perspective on inflammation regulation, disease control, nutritional balance or homeostasis, and oral microencapsulated IgY is expected to be a new approach against increasing public health emergencies (such as COVID-19 pandemic). © 2022, China Food Publishing Company. All right reserved.

15.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Big Data and Algorithms, EEBDA 2022 ; : 667-670, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831760

ABSTRACT

Several problems were found in the attempt and practice of bilingual teaching in Food safety, mainly including inconsistent foreign language quality of students, messy textbooks and teaching content, inadequate bilingual ability of teachers and lack of supervision of English auxiliary teachers, lack of online network construction, and single teaching methods and other issues. Through summing up experience, it is found that a series of methods, such as combining social hot spots and conducting scientific research hot spots introduction teaching, rationally using English textbooks and correspondingly constructing teaching content, can solve the above problems and promote English teaching of Food safety. During pandemic (COVID-19/Corona Virus Disease 2019) period, we boldly carried out bilingual and online teaching attempts, this time also carried out a summary, hoping to provide some guidance for the teaching reform of Food safety © 2022 IEEE.

16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(4): 591-597, 2022 Apr 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810382

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is yet another reminder that the threat of infectious disease has never really gone away. As the cornerstone of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, effective surveillance and early warning are of great significance in understanding the outbreak and epidemic of specific infectious diseases and putting forward effective prevention and control measures. Therefore, we must continue strengthening the construction of infectious disease surveillance and early warning system. We reviewed the surveillance and early warning practices of infectious diseases in major countries and regions, then discussed the development direction in the field of surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases to provide the reference for strengthening the construction and capacity of infectious disease surveillance and early warning system in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
17.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333869

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Little is known about COVID vaccine breakthrough infections and their risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 breakthrough infections among vaccinated individuals and to reassess the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination against severe outcomes using real-world data. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a series of observational retrospective analyses using the electronic health records (EHRs) of Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian (CUIMC/NYP) up to September 21, 2021. New York adult residence with PCR test records were included in this analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Poisson regression was used to assess the association between breakthrough infection rate in vaccinated individuals and multiple risk factors - including vaccine brand, demographics, and underlying conditions - while adjusting for calendar month, prior number of visits and observational days. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between vaccine administration and infection rate by comparing a vaccinated cohort to a historically matched cohort in the pre-vaccinated period. Infection incident rate was also compared between vaccinated individuals and longitudinally matched unvaccinated individuals. Cox regression was used to estimate the association of the vaccine and COVID-19 associated severe outcomes by comparing breakthrough cohort and two matched unvaccinated infection cohorts. RESULTS: Individuals vaccinated with Pfizer/BNT162b2 (IRR against Moderna/mRNA-1273 [95% CI]: 1.66 [1.17 - 2.35]);were male (1.47 [1.11 - 1.94%]);and had compromised immune systems (1.48 [1.09 - 2.00]) were at the highest risk for breakthrough infections. Vaccinated individuals had a significant lower infection rate among all subgroups. An increased incidence rate was found in both vaccines over the time. Among individuals infected with COVID-19, vaccination significantly reduced the risk of death (adj. HR: 0.20 [0.08 - 0.49]). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: While we found both mRNA vaccines were effective, Moderna/mRNA-1273 had a lower incidence rate of breakthrough infections. Both vaccines had increased incidence rates over the time. Immunocompromised individuals were among the highest risk groups experiencing breakthrough infections. Given the rapidly changing nature of the SARS-CoV-2, continued monitoring and a generalizable analysis pipeline are warranted to inform quick updates on vaccine effectiveness in real time. KEY POINTS: Question: What risk factors contribute to COVID-19 breakthrough infections among mRNA vaccinated individuals? How do clinical outcomes differ between vaccinated but still SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and non-vaccinated, infected individuals?Findings: This retrospective study uses CUIMC/NYP EHR data up to September 21, 2021. Individuals who were vaccinated with Pfizer/BNT162b2, male, and had compromised immune systems had significantly higher incidence rate ratios of breakthrough infections. Comparing demographically matched pre-vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, vaccinated individuals had a lower incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among all subgroups. Meaning: Leveraging real-world EHR data provides insight on who may optimally benefit from a booster COVID-19 vaccination.

18.
AGU Adv. ; 3(2):13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1795839

ABSTRACT

Travel restrictions in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an unprecedented decrease of 73% in global flight mileage in April-May 2020 compared to 2019. Here we examine the CALIPSO satellite observations and find a significant increase in ice crystal number concentrations (Ni) in cirrus clouds in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, which we attribute to an increase in homogeneous freezing when soot from aircraft emissions is reduced. A relatively small positive global average radiative effect of 21 mW m(-2) is estimated if a decrease in aircraft traffic continues, with an average of up to 64 mW m(-2) over the area where aviation is most active. We infer from this analysis that the worldwide adoption of biofuel blending in aircraft fuels that lead to smaller soot emissions could lead to a significant change in the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds but a rather small positive radiative effect.

19.
Journal of Third Military Medical University ; 43(20):2241-2249, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789737

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the clinical characteristics of liver and kidney injuries and investigate its effect on the severity and mortality in the COVID-19 patients.Methods A total of 3 548 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 hut without liver and kidney diseases admitted in the Huoshenshan Hospital, Jinyintan Hospital and Taikang Tongji Hospital from February 4, 2020 to April 16, 2020 were recruited in this study.Their clinical data were extracted from medical database, including general information, clinical features, laboratory results and outcomes such as death were collected and analyzed.SPSS statistics 23.0 was used to perform the statistical description and analysis.Results Among the 3 548 patients with COYID-19, 875 (24.7%) cases were severe illness and above and 91 (2.6%) died during hospitalization.The proportions of the patients with higher alanine amiotransferase ( ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase ( AST) and creatinine (Cr) were 14.6% (513/3 548) , 3.4% ( 1 19/3 548) and 2.8% ( 101/3 548), respectively.Compared with the patients with normal ALT, AST and Cr, the patients with elevated ALT did not have a significantly increased risk of severe illness or death ( /-∗>().05) , and the risk of severe illness and death was significantly increased in those with elevated AST and Cr ( P<0.05).The risk of severe disease was 2.32 times (95%CI: 1.73-3.10) and 1 1.40 times ( 95% CI: 2.36-54.98 ) for those with single or both liver and kidney injuries, and the risk of death was 5.21 times (95% CI: 3.10-8.75 ) and 13.53 times (95% CI: 2.76-66.32) for those with normal liver and kidney function, respectively.Logistic regression analysis indicated that after independent factors related to severe illness and death screened out as correction factors, the risk of severe illness and death was 1.612 times (95% CI: 1.17-2.22) and 2.907 times (95% CI: 1.61-5.24) of patients with liver or kidney injuries when compared with those with normal function, respectively.Conclusion The COYID-19 patients with liver and renal injuries have a significantly increased tendency to become severity and mortality, and should undergo early intervention. © 2021 Editorial Office of Journal of Third Military Medical University. All rights reserved.

20.
Frontiers in Physics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1785394

ABSTRACT

Given the worldwide pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its continuing threat brought by the emergence of virus variants, there are great demands for accurate surveillance and monitoring of outbreaks. A valuable metric for assessing the current risk posed by an outbreak is the time-varying reproduction number ((Formula presented.)). Several methods have been proposed to estimate (Formula presented.) using different types of data. We developed a new tool that integrated two commonly used approaches into a unified and user-friendly platform for the estimation of time-varying reproduction numbers. This tool allows users to perform simulations and yield real-time tracking of local epidemic of COVID-19 with an R package. Copyright © 2022 Liu, Xu, Bai, Xu, Lau, Cowling and Du.

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