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1.
Molecules ; 28(2):663, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200542

ABSTRACT

Ephedrae Herba (Ephedra), known as 'MaHuang';in China, is the dried straw stem that is associated with the lung and urinary bladder meridians. At present, more than 60 species of Ephedra plants have been identified, which contain more than 100 compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sugars, and organic phenolic acids. This herb has long been used to treat asthma, liver disease, skin disease, and other diseases, and has shown unique efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19 infection. Because alkaloids are the main components causing toxicity, the safety of Ephedra must be considered. However, the nonalkaloid components of Ephedra can be effectively used to replace ephedrine extracts to treat some diseases, and reasonable use can ensure the safety of Ephedra. We reviewed the phytochemistry, pharmacology, clinical application, and alkaloid toxicity of Ephedra, and describe prospects for its future development to facilitate the development of Ephedra.

2.
Cell Reports ; : 111903, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158574

ABSTRACT

Summary Variants of SARS CoV-2 have caused successive global waves of infection. These variants, with multiple mutations in the spike protein are thought to facilitate escape from natural and vaccine-induced immunity and often increase in the affinity for ACE2. The latest variant to cause concern is BA.2.75, identified in India where it is now the dominant strain, with evidence of wider dissemination. BA.2.75 is derived from BA.2 and contains four additional mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD). Here we perform an antigenic and biophysical characterization of BA.2.75, revealing an interesting balance between humoral evasion and ACE2 receptor affinity. ACE2 affinity for BA.2.75 is increased 9-fold compared to BA.2;there is also evidence of escape of BA.2.75 from immune serum, particularly that induced by Delta infection which may explain the rapid spread in India, where BA.2.75 is now the dominant variant. ACE2 affinity appears to be prioritised over greater escape.

3.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147420

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic had a major impact on people's mental health. As the SAS-Cov-2 evolves to become less virulent, the number of asymptomatic patients increases. It remains unclear if the mild symptoms are associated with mild perceived stress and mental illness, and the interventions to improve the mental health of the patients are rarely reported. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the level of depression, anxiety and perceived stress of 1,305 COVID-19 patients who received treatment in the Fangcang shelter hospitals in Shanghai, China. Network analysis was used to explore the relationship among depression, anxiety and perceived stress. Results The prevalence of depression, anxiety and perceived stress in the patients with Omicron infection were 9.03, 4.60, and 17.03%, respectively, lower than the prevalence reported during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. “Restlessness (A5),” “Uncontrollable worry (A2),” “Trouble relaxing (A4)” and “Fatigue (D4)” had the highest expected influence values. “Irritability (A6)” and “Uncontrollable (S1)” were bridge symptoms in the network. Comparative analysis of the network identified differences in the network structures between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Conclusion This study investigated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and perceived stress and the correlation among them in Omicron-infected patients in Fangcang shelter hospital, in Shanghai, China. The core symptoms identified in the study provide insight into targeted clinical prevention and intervention of mental health in non-severe Omicron-infected patients.

4.
The Innovation ; : 100359, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2132677

ABSTRACT

The BBIBP-CorV severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inactivated vaccine has been authorized for emergency use and widely distributed. We used single-cell transcriptome sequencing to characterize the dynamics of immune responses to the BBIBP-CorV inactivated vaccine. In addition to the expected induction of humoral immunity, we found that the inactivated vaccine induced multiple, comprehensive immune responses, including significantly increased proportions of CD16+ monocytes and activation of monocyte antigen presentation pathways;T-cell activation pathway upregulation in CD8+ T cells, along with increased activation of CD4+ T cells;significant enhancement of cell–cell communications between innate and adaptive immunity;and the induction of regulatory CD4+ T cells and co-inhibitory interactions to maintain immune homeostasis after vaccination. Additionally, comparative analysis revealed higher neutralizing antibody levels, distinct expansion of naïve T cells, a shared increased proportion of regulatory CD4+ T cells, and upregulated expression of functional genes in booster dose recipients with a longer interval after the second vaccination. Our research will support a comprehensive understanding of the systemic immune responses elicited by the BBIBP-CorV inactivated vaccine, which will facilitate the formulation of better vaccination strategies and the design of new vaccines.

5.
International Review of Economics & Finance ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2131208

ABSTRACT

The new energy industry is crucial for solving the problem of pollution, and its development requires support from the stock market. This paper proposes a Chinese investor sentiment index based on the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep learning method and investigates the effect of investor sentiment on new energy stock returns as well as value at risks (VaR) behavior before and during COVID-19. It also compares these effects on traditional energy companies to identify differences between the new energy and traditional companies. The empirical results show that investor sentiment has significant effects on stock returns and VaR of both new and traditional energy companies but the effects are stronger in the new energy industry. The effects of investor sentiment have increased during COVID-19, and investors pay more attention on risks than returns during COVID-19. These results provide guidance for small and medium-sized investors in China to optimize their investment strategies and avoid heavy losses associated with extreme risks.

6.
Journal of Hainan Medical University ; 26(20):1527-1530, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2145373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 belongs to the plague category of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It has been confirmed in many ancient books and modern clinical studies that the acupuncture and moxibustion can cure the plague. Containing COVID-19, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine Jointly issued the Diagnosis and Treatment of Corona Virus Disease-19(7th edition). It mentions the treatment program of acupuncture and moxibustion participating in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Liu Baoyan's team analyzed the ideas of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for COVID-19. However, the clinical advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion still need to be further clarified. In the treatment of many clinical symptoms of COVID-19, acupuncture therapy has a good clinical effect, so the purpose of our discussion on the advantages is to improve the clinical accuracy and efficacy of COVID-19.

8.
Virol J ; 19(1): 197, 2022 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139346

ABSTRACT

Currently, the majority of the global population has been vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine, and characterization studies of antibodies in vivo from Omicron breakthrough infection and naive infection populations are urgently needed to provide pivotal clues about accurate diagnosis, treatment, and next-generation vaccine design against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We showed that after infection with Omicron-BA.2, the antibody levels of specific IgM against the Wuhan strain and specific IgG against Omicron were not significantly elevated within 27 days of onset. Interestingly, in this study, the levels of humoral immunity against Omicron-specific IgM were significantly increased after breakthrough infection, suggesting that the detection of Omicron-specific IgM antibodies can be used as a test criterion of Omicron breakthrough infection. In addition, we observed that serums from unvaccinated individuals and the majority of vaccinated infections possessed only low or no neutralizing activity against Omicron at the onset of Omicron breakthrough infections, and at the later stage of Omicron-BA.2 breakthrough infection, levels of neutralization antibody against the Wuhan and Omicron strains were elevated in infected individuals. The findings of this study provide important clues for the diagnosis of Omicron breakthrough infections, antibody characterization studies and vaccine design against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin M
9.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(23):15739, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123672

ABSTRACT

Given the prolonged nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and its long-term psychological impacts, this study aimed to explore how empathy leads to post-traumatic growth (PTG) among Chinese community workers. Guided by the revised PTG model, this study identified the relation between empathy and PTG using a multiple mediation model that included self-disclosure and social support as hypothesized mediators. This study utilized data from 414 Chinese adults aged 20 years or older who completed an online survey during the pandemic. Self-disclosure and social support were measured as mediating variables. The study variables were positively correlated with PTG. Empathy was positively correlated with self-disclosure and social support. After controlling for demographic covariates, the results indicated that self-disclosure and social support mediated the link between empathy and PTG in both parallel and sequential fashion. Empathy, self-disclosure, and social support played important roles in the growth of Chinese community workers. The present findings have been useful in increasing our understanding, policy programs, and interventions by governments or regional bodies to ameliorate community workers' PTG.

10.
Biomaterials ; 292: 121907, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120390

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic represents a brutal reminder of the continual threat of mucosal infectious diseases. Mucosal immunity may provide robust protection at the predominant sites of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it remains unclear whether respiratory mucosal administration of DNA vaccines could confer protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 challenge due to insurmountable barriers posed by the airway. Here, we applied self-assembled peptide-poloxamine nanoparticles with mucus-penetrating properties for pulmonary inoculation of a COVID-19 DNA vaccine (pSpike/PP-sNp). The pSpike/PP-sNp not only displays superior gene transfection and favorable biocompatibility in the mouse airway, but also promotes a tripartite immunity consisting of systemic, cellular, and mucosal immune responses that are characterized by mucosal IgA secretion, high levels of neutralizing antibodies, and resident memory phenotype T-cell responses in the lungs of mice. Most importantly, immunization with pSpike/PP-sNp completely eliminates SARS-CoV-2 infection in both upper and lower respiratory tracts and enables 100% survival rate of mice following lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Our findings indicate PP-sNp is a promising platform in mediating DNA vaccines to elicit all-around mucosal immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(21):14382, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2099797

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, fresh live broadcasting has been widely present in consumers' daily lives but has been scarcely examined in academic research. The major purpose of the current study is to examine how fresh live broadcast features (visibility, interactivity, and authenticity) impact consumers' willingness to buy through consumers' perceived value and perceived trust based on the stimulus–organism-response theory. A total of 307 Chinese webcast users participated in this study. The data were collected through an online questionnaire survey and analyzed by SPSS and Amos software. The findings discovered that the fresh live broadcast features positively impact consumers' perceived utility value and trust, and the visibility and interactivity enhance the perceived hedonistic value of consumers. Moreover, perceived value and perceived trust mediate between fresh live broadcast features and consumers' willingness to buy. This study emphasizes the important role of fresh live features and provides insight for fresh sellers to increase consumer willingness to buy based on the perspective of consumers' perceived value and trust.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 993814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099250

ABSTRACT

Background: The relations between depression and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) have been extensively investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is a lack of understanding on how each component of IU may differentially affect depression symptoms and vice versa. The current study used a network approach to reveal the component-to-symptom interplay between IU and depression and identify intervention targets for depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A total of 624 college students participated in the current study. An IU-Depression network was estimated using items from the 12-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We examined the network structure, node centrality, and node bridge centrality to identify component-to-symptom pathways, central nodes, and bridge nodes within the IU-Depression network. Results: Several distinct pathways (e.g., "Frustration when facing uncertainty" and "Feelings of worthlessness") emerged between IU and Depression. "Fatigue" and "Frustration when facing uncertainty" were identified as the central nodes in the estimated network. "Frustration when facing uncertainty," "Psychomotor agitation/retardation," and "Depressed or sad mood" were identified as bridging nodes between the IU and Depression communities. Conclusion: By delineating specific pathways between IU and depression and highlighting the influential role of "Frustration when facing uncertainty" in maintaining the IU-Depression co-occurrence, current findings may inform targeted prevention and interventions for depression during the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2087446

ABSTRACT

The INAR(1) processes with coefficients α n = 1 − c / k n , where c>0 is a fixed constant and { k n } n ∈ N is a deterministic sequence growing to infinity at a slower rate than n, which are often referred to as nearly unstable INAR processes with moderate deviations from a unit root. We consider some basic properties of the processes and obtain the conditional least squares estimation of the coefficient α n , which converges to a normal distribution at speed n 1 / 2 k n . The simulation study provides numerical support for the theoretical results. The practical utility is illustrated in the data sets about liquor offences, claims of short-term disability and COVID-19, respectively. [ FROM AUTHOR]

15.
Global Surgical Education - Journal of the Association for Surgical Education ; 1(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058249

ABSTRACT

Background Communication skills are essential to providing patient-centered care. The need for standardized communication skills training is at the forefront of medical school and residency education. We aimed to design and implement a curriculum teaching virtual communications skills to medical students. The purpose of this report is to describe our experience and to offer guidance for training programs developing similar curricula in the future. Methods The curriculum was presented in weekly modules over 5 weeks using Zoom technology. We focused on proven strategies for interacting with patients and other providers, adapted to a virtual platform. Skill levels during role-play were assessed by the Simulated Participants and students observing the simulation using the 14-item, physician specific Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). The primary outcome of the CAT is the percentage of “excellent” for each item ranked both years. Participants provided feedback on what worked well or how the module could be improved in open-ended responses. Results Twenty-eight and 25 students registered for the course in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. Students’ post-session confidence in their ability to perform target skills was statistically higher than their pre-session scores in most sessions. Modules with the lowest pre-session confidence for both years were “Disclosing a Medical Error” and “Responding to Patient Bias.” The mean percentage of students receiving “excellent” scores on individual CAT items ranged from 5 to 73% over the course of both years. Verbal and written feedback in Year 1 provided direction for the curriculum developers to improve the course in Year 2. Conclusions Developing and implementing a new education curriculum is a complex process. We describe an intensive curriculum for medical students as we strive to allow students extra “clinical” time during COVID-related restriction. We believe continued focus on patient and family communication skills will enhance patient care. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s44186-022-00054-9.

17.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046995

ABSTRACT

Given pandemic risks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 variants and other SARS-like coronaviruses in the future, it is valuable to perform studies on conserved antigenic sites to design universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines. By using antibodies obtained from convalescent COVID-19 patients, we succeeded in functional comparison of conserved antigenic sites at multiple aspects with each other, and even with SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites, which promotes the cognition of process of humoral immune response to the conserved antigenic sites. The conserved antigenic sites between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV can effectively induce affinity maturation of cross-binding antibodies, finally resulting in broadly neutralizing antibodies against multiple variants of concern, which provides an important basis for universal vaccine design, however they are subdominant, putatively due to their lower accessibility relative to SARS-CoV-2 unique antigenic sites. Furthermore, we preliminarily design RBDs to improve the immunogenicity of these conserved antigenic sites. Our study focusing on conserved antigenic sites provides insights for promoting the development of universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines, thereby enhancing our pandemic preparedness.

18.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043869

ABSTRACT

The replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by its main protease (Mpro), which is a plausible therapeutic target for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although numerous in silico studies reported the potential inhibitory effects of natural products including cannabis and cannabinoids on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, their anti-Mpro activities are not well validated by biological experimental data. Herein, a library of minor cannabinoids belonging to several chemotypes including tetrahydrocannabinols, cannabidiols, cannabigerols, cannabichromenes, cannabinodiols, cannabicyclols, cannabinols, and cannabitriols was evaluated for their anti-Mpro activity using a biochemical assay. Additionally, the binding affinities and molecular interactions between the active cannabinoids and the Mpro protein were studied by a biophysical technique (surface plasmon resonance; SPR) and molecular docking, respectively. Cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabutol and cannabigerolic acid were the most active Mpro inhibitors (IC50 = 3.62 and 14.40 µM, respectively) and cannabigerolic acid had a binding affinity KD=2.16×10-4 M). A preliminary structure and activity relationship study revealed that the anti-Mpro effects of cannabinoids were influenced by the decarboxylation of cannabinoids and the length of cannabinoids' alkyl side chain. Findings from the biochemical, biophysical, and computational assays support the growing evidence of cannabinoids' inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzoates , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114863, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042097

ABSTRACT

Existing research proposed that moving from a disorder-level analysis to a symptom-level analysis may provide a more fine-grained understanding of psychopathology. This study aimed to explore the relations between two dimensions (i.e., cognitive reappraisal, CR; expressive suppression, ES) of emotion regulation and individual symptoms of depression and anxiety among medical staff during the late stage of COVID-19 pandemic. We examined depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation among 420 medical staff during the late stage of COVID-19 pandemic via network analysis. Two networks (i.e. emotion regulation-depression network and emotion regulation-anxiety network) were constructed in the present study. Bridge centrality index was calculated for each variable within the two networks. Among the present sample, the prevalences of depression and anxiety are 39.5% and 26.0%. CR and ES showed distinct connections to symptoms of depression and anxiety. Results of bridge centrality showed that in both networks, CR had a negative bridge expected influence value while ES had a positive bridge expected influence value. The results revealed the specific role of CR and ES in relation to depression and anxiety at a symptom level. Implications for clinical preventions and interventions are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Humans , Depression/psychology , Pandemics , Emotions/physiology , Anxiety/psychology , Medical Staff
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 977361, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039747

ABSTRACT

Background: Policies dealing with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic vary across the globe, the different governmental responses then affect the public perception of COVID-19. Many unofficial Chinese media outlets frequently spread misinformation about COVID-19 and exaggerated reports of rare sequelae of Omicron for monetization and attention seeking, leading to panics in the Chinese public. In comparison the attitudes toward Omicron in other countries around the world, especially in North America and Western Europe have shifted to a more relaxed stance. Objective: This article primarily aims to investigate the association between Chinese people's attitudes toward the potential after-effects of Omicron and their anxiety status, as compared to these of people living in North America or Western Europe. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey via the Credamo and collected valid data from 500 Chinese (not living in Shanghai), another 500 Chinese (living in Shanghai) and 500 people living in North America or Western Europe in June 2022. Kendall's coefficient of rank correlation tau-sub-b was used to examine this association. Results: The results suggested that subjective attitudes of Chinese participants toward the sequelae of Omicron were positively and significantly associated with their anxiety status [i.e., the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scores] in Shanghai (China) (Tb = 0.44, p < 0.01) and other parts of China outside Shanghai (Tb = 0.37, p < 0.01). However, no such significant correlation was found in North America & Western Europe (Tb = -0.01, p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings showed that Chinese participants who were more worried about the after-effects of Omicron had higher levels of anxiety. Although it is true that Long COVID-19 should be a concern, exaggerated media reporting can impact negatively on an individual's mental wellbeing. Only through the dissemination of robust scientific studies, the misinformation and the fears that follow it can be put to rest.

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